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1.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 437-448, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196812

RESUMO

Since allergic diseases are of great public health relevance, effective primary prevention strategies are urgently needed. This chapter gives an overview of existing primary prevention programs on environmental exposures and dietary strategies based on epidemiological studies which have defined risk- and protective factors for the development of allergic diseases.The allergy protective effect mediated by growing up on a traditional farm environment is well studied. But the exact underlying mechanisms have still not been fully clarified and have not yet led to concrete prevention strategies. The beneficial effect of avoiding cigarette smoke exposure, indoor moisture and molds in pregnancy and childhood on the development of asthma is well documented. Whereas the avoidance of house dust mite exposure is not recommended to prevent eczema or allergy. Dietary supplementation with vitamins, pre- and probiotics in pregnant woman and their offspring is not harmful but evidence for the prevention of allergic diseases is still lacking. Fish oil consumption was shown to be asthma protective. The early introduction of peanuts and egg protein to prevent peanut and egg allergy in children with atopic dermatitis is promising. Further studies are needed to increase the overall evidence in allergy prevention. Most studies lack methodological standards such as randomization and blinding. More evidence is in demand on the potential beneficial impact of multifaceted interventional studies. The future of allergy prevention strategies might be based on individual risk assessment. Therefore, research in the immunological and molecular basis of allergic diseases needs to be promoted.


Assuntos
Asma , Dermatite Atópica , Eczema , Hipersensibilidade , Criança , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/prevenção & controle , Lactente , Gravidez
2.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 128(1): 39-45, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of diet in early childhood on later allergic diseases is currently a highly debated research topic. We and others have suggested that an increased diet diversity in the first year of life has a protective effect on the development of allergic diseases. OBJECTIVE: This follow-up study aimed to investigate associations between diet in the second year of life and later allergic diseases. METHODS: A total of 1014 children from rural areas in 5 European countries (the Protection against Allergy: Study in Rural Environments or PASTURE birth cohort) were included. Information on feeding practices in their second year of life and allergic diseases were collected up to age 6 years. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed with different models considering reverse causality, such as excluding children with a positive sensitization to egg and those with a positive sensitization to cow's milk at the age of 1 year. RESULTS: An increased food diversity score during the second year of life was negatively associated with the development of asthma. Consumption of dairy products and eggs in the second year of life found an inverse association with reported allergic outcomes. Consumption of butter was strongly associated with protection against asthma and food sensitization. Egg was inversely associated with atopic dermatitis (odds ratio [OR], 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-0.77). Yogurt and cow's milk were inversely associated with food allergy (OR for yogurt, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01-0.55; OR for cow's milk, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11-0.89). CONCLUSION: Increased food diversity in the second year of life is inversely associated with the development of asthma, and consumption of dairy products might have a protective effect on allergic diseases.

3.
World Allergy Organ J ; 14(11): 100586, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868451

RESUMO

Objective: The early window of opportunity describes the timeframe after birth in which essential interactions of the immune system and the newly developing microbiota take place. The infant's immune system has to be reactive to invading pathogens and at the same time tolerant to dietary antigens. If the mechanisms of defense and tolerance induction are disturbed, the risk of infections or allergies is increased. Method: This is a narrative review of the recently published information on the topic of neonatal intestinal development and mechanisms of oral tolerance and summarizes the discussions and conclusions from the 8th Human Milk Workshop. Results: The early postnatal period sets the stage for life-long host-microbiome interaction. In this early phase, specific developmental mechanisms ensure physiologic interaction with the developing microbiota. Innate and adaptive immune cells interact in a concerted way to induce and uphold oral tolerance. Factors in human milk can support this induction of tolerance and simultaneously protect against infection and allergy development. Conclusion: Understanding the developmental mechanisms in this early phase of immune system development is the first step to develop strategies of pathology prevention. As human milk protects the infant from infections, and aids to develop a tolerogenic immune response, further knowledge on the protective factors in human milk and their effect on the immune system is required.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In murine models microbial exposures induce protection from experimental allergic asthma through innate immunity. Our aim was to assess the association of early life innate immunity with the development of asthma in children at risk. METHODS: In the PASTURE farm birth cohort innate, Th2, Th1 and Th17 cytokine expression at age 1 year was measured after stimulation of PBMCs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in N=445 children. Children at risk of asthma were defined based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the 17q21 asthma gene locus. Specifically, we used the SNP rs7216389 in the GSDMB gene. Wheeze in the 1st year of life was assessed by weekly diaries and asthma by questionnaire at age 6 years. RESULTS: Not all cytokines were detectable in all children after LPS-stimulation. When classifying detectability of cytokines by latent class analysis, carrying the 17q21 risk allele rs7216389 was associated with risk of wheeze only in the class with the lowest level of LPS-induced activation, odds ratio (OR)=1.89, 95%-CI 1.13-3.16, p=0.015. In contrast, in children with high cytokine activation after LPS-stimulation no association of the 17q21 risk allele with wheeze (OR=0.63, 95%-CI 0.29-1.40, p=0.258, p=0.034 for interaction) or school age asthma was observed. In these children consumption of unprocessed cow's milk was associated with higher cytokine activation (OR=3.37, 95%-CI 1.56-7.30, p=0.002), which was in part mediated by the gut microbiome. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that within the 17q21 genotype asthma risk can be mitigated by activated immune responses after innate stimulation, which is partly mediated by a gut-immune axis.

5.
World Allergy Organ J ; 14(11): 100591, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820047

RESUMO

Objective: Among non-communicable diseases, the prevalence of allergic diseases has increased significantly in the new millennium. The increase of allergic diseases is linked to the changing environment of infants. Methods: This narrative review summarizes the discussions and conclusions from the 8th Human Milk Workshop. Information from the fields of pediatrics, epidemiology, biology, microbiology, and immunology are summarized to establish a framework describing potential avenues for the prevention of allergic diseases in the future. Results: Several environmental circumstances are linked to the development of allergic diseases. While cesarean section is increasing the risk of allergies, early childhood exposure to a farm environment has a protective effect. From their analysis, nutritive and non-nutritive factors influencing the allergy risk in later life have been identified. The effect of breastfeeding on food allergy development is non-univocal. Human milk components including immunoglobulins, cytokines, and prebiotics have been indicated as important for allergy prevention. Conclusion: Many factors linked to the western lifestyle have been associated with the development of allergic diseases. This suggests several theories that may serve as a basis for new protective interventions. While it is indubitable that mother's milk protects from infectious diseases, its role in the prevention of allergic diseases is to be elucidated.

6.
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol ; 17(1): 93, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is currently a dramatic increase in the number of COVID-19 cases worldwide, and further drastic restrictions in our daily life will be necessary to contain this pandemic. The implications of restrictive measures like social-distancing and mouth-nose protection on patients with chronic respiratory diseases have hardly been investigated. METHODS: Our survey, was conducted within the All Age Asthma Cohort (ALLIANCE), a multicenter longitudinal observational study. We assessed the effects of COVID-19 imposed social isolation and use of facial masks, on asthma course and mental health in patients with asthma and wheezing. RESULTS: We observed a high rate of problems associated with using facemasks and a significant reduction in the use of routine medical care. In addition to unsettling impacts, such as an increase in depression symptoms in adults, an astonishing and pleasing effect was striking: preschool children experienced an improvement in disease condition during the lockdown. This improvement can be attributed to a significant reduction in exposure to viral infections. CONCLUSION: Long-term observation of this side effect may help improve our understanding of the influence of viral infections on asthma in early childhood.

7.
Allergy ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phenotypes of asthma and allergic diseases are mainly studied separately for children and adults. To explore the role of adolescence and young adulthood, we investigated symptom trajectories at the transition from childhood into adulthood. METHODS: Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted in a population initially recruited for the German arm of Phase II of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood and followed-up three times until their early 30s (N=2267). Indicators included in LCA were 12-month prevalences of symptoms of wheeze, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema. Latent classes were further characterised regarding important traits such as skin prick tests. Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations with environmental determinants such as smoking and occupational exposures. RESULTS: Six latent classes were identified: an asymptomatic one as well as three with single and two with co-occurring symptoms. All trajectories essentially established between baseline assessment at around 10 years and the first follow-up at around 17 years. Probabilities for symptoms increased from childhood to adolescence, especially for wheeze-related latent classes, while they remained constant in adulthood. Wheeze-related latent classes were also positively associated with exposures during adolescence (e.g. active smoking). CONCLUSION: Distinct trajectories of asthma and allergy symptoms establish from childhood through adolescence and stabilize during early adulthood. This pattern was most notable in wheeze-related latent classes which also showed the strongest positive associations with environmental exposures in adolescence/young adulthood. Therefore, not only childhood but also adolescence is relevant for disease development and offers considerable potential for prevention and health promotion.

9.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(10): 2387-2398, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415577

RESUMO

The prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases has rapidly increased in "Westernized" countries over recent decades. This rapid increase suggests the involvement of environmental factors, behavioral changes or lifestyle, rather than genetic drift. It has become increasingly clear that the microbiome plays a key role in educating the host immune system and, thus, regulation of disease susceptibility. This review will focus on recent advances uncovering immunological and microbial mechanisms that protect against allergies, in particular, within the context of a farming environment. A whole body of epidemiological data disclosed the nature of the protective exposures in a farm. Current evidence points toward an important role of the host microbiome in setting an immunological equilibrium that determines progression toward, or protection against allergic diseases. Conclusive mechanistic insights on how microbial exposures prevent from developing allergic diseases in humans are still lacking but findings from experimental models reveal plausible immunological mechanisms. Gathering further knowledge on these mechanisms and confirming their relevance in humans is of great importance to develop preventive strategies for children at risk of developing allergies.

10.
J Asthma Allergy ; 14: 897-905, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285516

RESUMO

Rationale: Small airway dysfunction (SAD) is a frequent feature of asthma that has been linked to disease severity and poor symptom control. However, little is known about the role of SAD in nocturnal asthma. Objective: To study the association between the severity of SAD and frequency of nocturnal symptoms compared to conventional lung function testing. Methods: We assessed the frequency of self-reported nocturnal symptoms through the asthma control test. We studied the impact of nocturnal asthma using the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20). We assessed the lung function using spirometry, body plethysmography, impulse oscillometry, single and multiple inert gas washout and measured markers of T2-inflammation (blood and sputum eosinophils; fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNo)). We stratified the patients according to the presence and frequency of nocturnal asthma. Results: A total of 166 asthma patients were enrolled in the analysis. Eighty-seven patients (52%) reported to have nocturnal symptoms at least once in the last four weeks. The odds ratio of nocturnal asthma correlated with the severity of all non-spirometric measures of SAD, yet neither with airflow obstruction (FEV1 and FEV/FVC) nor with large airway resistance (R20). Patients with frequent nocturnal asthma (n = 29) had a numerical increase of T2 markers and more severe SAD, as indicated by all non-spirometric measures of SAD (all p-values < 0.05), worse overall asthma control, increased fatigue and reduced quality of life (all p-values < 0.01) compared to patients with infrequent nocturnal asthma (n = 58) or patients without nocturnal asthma (n = 79). We identified 63 patients without airflow obstruction, nearly 43% of them (n = 27) had nocturnal asthma. In this subgroup, only markers of air trapping and ventilation heterogeneity were significantly elevated and correlated with the frequency of nocturnal symptoms: LCI (Spearman's coefficient = -0.42, p < 0.001), RV% (-0.32, p = 0.02). Conclusion: SAD is closely associated to asthma with nocturnal symptoms. Spirometry might underestimate the broad spectrum of distal lung function impairments in this population of patients.

11.
Eur Respir J ; 58(6)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome substantiating the urgent requirement for endotype-specific biomarkers. Dysbalance of fibrosis and fibrolysis in asthmatic lung tissue leads to reduced levels of the inflammation-protective collagen 4 (COL4A3). OBJECTIVE: To delineate the degradation of COL4A3 in allergic airway inflammation and evaluate the resultant product as a biomarker for anti-IgE therapy response. METHODS: The serological COL4A3 degradation marker C4Ma3 (Nordic Bioscience, Denmark) and serum cytokines were measured in the ALLIANCE cohort (paediatric cases/controls: n=134/n=35; adult cases/controls: n=149/n=31). Exacerbation of allergic airway disease in mice was induced by sensitising to ovalbumin (OVA), challenge with OVA aerosol and instillation of poly(cytidylic-inosinic). Fulacimstat (chymase inhibitor; Bayer) was used to determine the role of mast cell chymase in COL4A3 degradation. Patients with cystic fibrosis (n=14) and cystic fibrosis with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA; n=9) as well as patients with severe allergic uncontrolled asthma (n=19) were tested for COL4A3 degradation. Omalizumab (anti-IgE) treatment was assessed using the Asthma Control Test. RESULTS: Serum levels of C4Ma3 were increased in asthma in adults and children alike and linked to a more severe, exacerbating allergic asthma phenotype. In an experimental asthma mouse model, C4Ma3 was dependent on mast cell chymase. Serum C4Ma3 was significantly elevated in cystic fibrosis plus ABPA and at baseline predicted the success of the anti-IgE therapy in allergic, uncontrolled asthmatics (diagnostic OR 31.5). CONCLUSION: C4Ma3 levels depend on lung mast cell chymase and are increased in a severe, exacerbating allergic asthma phenotype. C4Ma3 may serve as a novel biomarker to predict anti-IgE therapy response.

12.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 51(10): 1331-1345, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current in vitro allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) detection assays measure IgE against allergen extracts or molecules in a single- or multiplex approach. Direct comparisons of the performance of such assays among young children with common presentations of allergic diseases regardless of sensitization status are largely missing. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was a comparison of the analytical and diagnostic performance for common clinical questions of three commonly used technologies which rely upon different laboratory methodologies among children of the All Age Asthma (ALLIANCE) cohort (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02496468). METHODS: Sera from 106 paediatric study participants (mean age 4 years) were assessed for the presence of sIgE by means of the ImmunoCAP™ sx1 and fx5 mixes, the ImmunoCAP ISAC™ 112 microarray and a Euroline™ panel. RESULTS: Total and negative concordance was high (>82%->89%), while positive concordance varied considerably (0%-100%) but was also >50% for the most common sensitizations analysed (house dust mite and birch). All three test systems showed good sensitivity and specificity (AUC consistently > 0.7). However, no significant differences with regard to identifying sIgE sensitizations associated with symptoms in children with suspected pollen- or dust-triggered wheeze or presenting with symptoms of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or food allergy were detected. Extending the number of allergens did not change the similar performance of the three assay systems. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Among young children, the three sIgE assays showed good analytical and diagnostic concordance. Our results caution that the identification of larger numbers of sensitizations by more comprehensive multiplex approaches may not improve the clinical utility of sIgE testing in this age group.

13.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 167, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracellular DNA (e-DNA) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are linked to asthmatics airway inflammation. However, data demonstrating the characterization of airway inflammation associated with excessive e-DNA production and its impact on asthma outcomes are limited. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the airway inflammation associated with excessive e-DNA production and its association with asthma control, severe exacerbations and pulmonary function, particularly, air trapping and small airway dysfunction. METHODS: We measured e-DNA concentrations in induced sputum from 134 asthma patients and 28 healthy controls. We studied the correlation of e-DNA concentrations with sputum neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages and the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Lung function was evaluated using spirometry, body plethysmography, impulse oscillometry and inert gas multiple breath washout. We stratified patients with asthma into low-DNA and high-DNA to compare lung function impairments and asthma outcomes. RESULTS: Patients with severe asthma had higher e-DNA concentration (54.2 ± 42.4 ng/µl) than patients with mild-moderate asthma (41.0 ± 44.1 ng/µl) or healthy controls (26.1 ± 16.5 ng/µl), (all p values < 0.05). E-DNA concentrations correlated directly with sputum neutrophils (R = 0.49, p < 0.0001) and negatively with sputum macrophages (R = - 0.36, p < 0.0001), but neither with sputum eosinophils (R = 0.10, p = 0.26), nor with FeNO (R = - 0.10, p = 0.22). We found that 29% of asthma patients (n = 39) had high e-DNA concentrations above the upper 95th percentile value in healthy controls (55.6 ng /µl). High-DNA was associated with broad lung function impairments including: airflow obstruction of the large (FEV1) and small airways (FEF50%, FEF25-75), increased air trapping (RV, RV/TLC), increased small airway resistance (R5-20, sReff), decreased lung elasticity (X5Hz) and increased ventilation heterogeneity (LCI), (all P values < 0.05). We also found that high e-DNA was associated with nearly three-fold greater risk of severe exacerbations (OR 2·93 [95% CI 1.2-7.5]; p = 0·012), worse asthma control test (p = 0.03), worse asthma control questionnaire scores (p = 0.01) and higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids (p = 0.026). CONCLUSION: Increased production of extracellular DNA in the airway characterizes a subset of neutrophilic asthma patients who have broad lung function impairments, poor symptom control and increased risk of severe exacerbations.

14.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous genes have been associated with the three most common allergic diseases (asthma, allergic rhinitis or eczema) but these genes explain only a part of the heritability. In the vast majority of genetic studies, complex phenotypes such as co-morbidity of two of these diseases, have not been considered. This may partly explain missing heritability. OBJECTIVE: To identify genetic variants specifically associated with the co-morbidity of asthma-plus-eczema. METHODS: We first conducted a meta-analysis of four GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Study) of the combined asthma-plus-eczema phenotype (total of 8807 European-ancestry subjects of whom 1208 subjects had both asthma and eczema). To assess whether the association with SNP(s) was specific to the co-morbidity, we also conducted a meta-analysis of homogeneity test of association according to disease status ("asthma-plus-eczema" vs. the presence of only one disease "asthma only or eczema only"). We then used a joint test by combining the two test statistics from the co-morbidity-SNP association and the phenotypic heterogeneity of SNP effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: Seven SNPs were detected for specific association to the asthma-plus-eczema co-morbidity, two with significant and five with suggestive evidence using the joint test after correction for multiple testing. The two significant SNPs are located in the OCA2 gene (Oculocutaneous Albinism II), a new locus never detected for significant evidence of association with any allergic disease. This gene is a promising candidate gene, because of its link to skin and lung diseases, and to epithelial barrier and immune mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Our study underlines the importance of studying sub-phenotypes as co-morbidities to detect new susceptibility genes.

15.
J Asthma ; : 1-10, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998939

RESUMO

Introduction: Asthma is among the most common chronic conditions in children. The aim of this publication is to describe prevalence rates and factors associated with asthmatic or wheezing preschoolers and to evaluate medical care and treatment with regard to urban-rural differences.Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were collected through a questionnaire, which was distributed to parents within the Health Monitoring Units in Bavaria (HMU), Germany. Data from 4767 children were available (2016/17). Those children were classified into four diagnostic groups: Unremitting Wheeze, International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) Asthma, Physician-diagnosed Asthma, and healthy control group. Urban-rural differences were tested by Pearson's chi-squared test or by Fisher's exact test. Independent variables were factors associated with health outcomes, for example, residency or migrant status. To examine associations between independent and outcome variables multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed.Results: Prevalence rates were 6.3% for 'Unremitting Wheeze', 5.2% for 'ISAAC Asthma', and 1.2% for 'Physician-diagnosed Asthma'. Factors associated with health outcomes were the occurrence of asthma in first-degree relatives, male sex, and migrant status. Generally, higher rates of doctor's visits, positive allergy tests, and corticosteroids intake in the diagnostic groups in rural compared to urban areas were observed. Rates of performed allergy tests were 55.6% for 'ISAAC Asthma' and 74.6% for 'Physician-diagnosed Asthma'.Conclusions: Prevalence rates of the diagnostic groups decreased compared to the HMU 2014/15. According to previous studies, factors associated with asthmatic or wheezing health outcomes could be confirmed. Children in rural areas generally received more medical care.Key pointsChildren's prevalence rates of asthma or wheezing disorders decreased in the past 2 years within Bavaria.This study is consistent with risk factors for asthma from the literature: asthma in the family, male gender, and migrant status.Children in rural areas receive more medical care than children in urban areas.There should me more allergy tests among children with medical diagnosis in Bavaria as low rates indicate gaps in care.

16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 651709, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986744

RESUMO

A higher diversity of food items introduced in the first year of life has been inversely related to subsequent development of asthma. In the current analysis, we applied latent class analysis (LCA) to systematically assess feeding patterns and to relate them to asthma risk at school age. PASTURE (N=1133) and LUKAS2 (N=228) are prospective birth cohort studies designed to evaluate protective and risk factors for atopic diseases, including dietary patterns. Feeding practices were reported by parents in monthly diaries between the 4th and 12th month of life. For 17 common food items parents indicated frequency of feeding during the last 4 weeks in 4 categories. The resulting 153 ordinal variables were entered in a LCA. The intestinal microbiome was assessed at the age of 12 months by 16S rRNA sequencing. Data on feeding practice with at least one reported time point was available in 1042 of the 1133 recruited children. Best LCA model fit was achieved by the 4-class solution. One class showed an elevated risk of asthma at age 6 as compared to the other classes (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 8.47, 95% CI 2.52-28.56, p = 0.001) and was characterized by daily meat consumption and rare consumption of milk and yoghurt. A refined LCA restricted to meat, milk, and yoghurt confirmed the asthma risk effect of a particular class in PASTURE and independently in LUKAS2, which we thus termed unbalanced meat consumption (UMC). The effect of UMC was particularly strong for non-atopic asthma and asthma irrespectively of early bronchitis (aOR: 17.0, 95% CI 5.2-56.1, p < 0.001). UMC fostered growth of iron scavenging bacteria such as Acinetobacter (aOR: 1.28, 95% CI 1.00-1.63, p = 0.048), which was also related to asthma (aOR: 1.55, 95% CI 1.18-2.03, p = 0.001). When reconstructing bacterial metabolic pathways from 16S rRNA sequencing data, biosynthesis of siderophore group nonribosomal peptides emerged as top hit (aOR: 1.58, 95% CI 1.13-2.19, p = 0.007). By a data-driven approach we found a pattern of overly meat consumption at the expense of other protein sources to confer risk of asthma. Microbiome analysis of fecal samples pointed towards overgrowth of iron-dependent bacteria and bacterial iron metabolism as a potential explanation.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/imunologia , Carne/efeitos adversos , Animais , Asma/imunologia , Asma/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Registros de Dieta , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(9): 3359-3368.e1, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of small airway dysfunction (SAD) and its complex relation with asthma control and physical activity (PA). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interrelations among SAD, risk factors for asthma severity, symptom control, and PA. METHODS: We assessed SAD by impulse oscillometry and other sophisticated lung function measures including inert gas washout in adults with asthma (mild to moderate, n = 140; severe, n = 128) and 69 healthy controls from the All Age Asthma Cohort. We evaluated SAD prevalence and its interrelation with risk factors for asthma severity (older age, obesity, and smoking), type 2 inflammation (sputum and blood eosinophils, fractional exhaled nitric oxide), systemic inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), asthma control (AC), and PA (accelerometer for 1 week). We applied a clinical model based on structural equation modeling that integrated causal pathways among these clinical variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of SAD ranged from 75% to 90% in patients with severe asthma and from 53% to 64% in mild to moderate asthma. Severe SAD was associated with poor AC and low PA. Structural equation modeling indicated that age, obesity, obesity-related systemic inflammation, T2 inflammation, and smoking are independent predictors of SAD. Small airway dysfunction was the main determinant factor of AC, which in turn affected PA. Obesity affected AC directly and through its contribution to SAD and low PA. In addition, PA had bidirectional associations with obesity, SAD, and AC. Structural equation modeling also indicated interrelations among distal airflow limitation, air trapping, and ventilation heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Small airway dysfunction is a highly prevalent key feature of asthma that interrelates a spectrum of distal lung function abnormalities with risk factors for asthma severity, asthma control, and physical activity.


Assuntos
Asma , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pulmão , Óxido Nítrico , Oscilometria , Testes de Função Respiratória
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 591717, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748056

RESUMO

Introduction: Asthma and allergies are complex diseases affected by genetic and environmental factors, such as occupational and psychosocial factors, as well as interactions between them. Although childhood is a critical phase in the development of asthma and allergies, few cohort studies on occupational outcomes followed up participants from childhood onwards. We present design, methods, and initial data analysis for the third follow-up of SOLAR (Study on Occupational Allergy Risks), a prospective and population-based German asthma and allergy cohort. Methods: The SOLAR cohort was initially recruited in 1995-1996 for Phase II of the German branch of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC II) and followed up three times since, in 2002-2003, 2007-2009, and 2017-2018. During the third follow-up (SOLAR III), participants were between 29 and 34 years old. Since SOLAR focuses on occupational exposures, follow-ups were conducted at important points in time of the development of participants' career. To evaluate the potential of selection bias, responders and non-responders were compared based on variables from earlier study phases. In responders, frequency and pattern of missing values were examined and compared within the subsets of paper and online versions of the used questionnaires. Results: In total, 1,359 participants completed the questionnaire of the third follow-up (47.3% of eligible participants). Initially, the cohort started with 6,399 participants from the ISAAC II questionnaire study. A selection process led to a study population that is more female, higher educated, smokes less and has a higher proportion of certain asthma and allergy symptoms (also in their parents) than the initial cohort. Pattern and frequency of missing values were different for paper and online questionnaires. Discussion: The third follow-up of the SOLAR cohort offers the opportunity to analyze the course of asthma and allergies and their associations to environmental, occupational and psychosocial risk factors over more than 20 years from childhood to adulthood. Selection processes within the cohort might lead to bias that needs to be considered in future analyses.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Hipersensibilidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Asthma Allergy ; 14: 229-240, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737816

RESUMO

Rationale: Asthma, obesity and physical activity (PA) are interrelated. However, longitudinal data with objective PA measures and direct assessment of body composition are still lacking. Objective: To study the impact of symptom control on PA and body composition. Methods: In a longitudinal cohort study of the German Center for Lung Research, we assessed the body composition of 233 asthma patients and 84 healthy controls using bioelectrical impedance analysis. PA (ie average daily steps and time of at least moderate activity, steps/min) was measured by accelerometry for one week. Asthma control was assessed by ACT score, ACQ-5 score and history of severe exacerbations. After two years of follow-up, we studied changes in physical activity and body composition in relation to asthma control. Results: Patients with uncontrolled asthma had increased fat mass and decreased muscle mass compared to patients with controlled asthma or healthy controls. Both fat mass and muscle mass correlated better with asthma control than the body mass index (BMI). In multivariate regressions adjusted for age and sex, asthma control and physical activity were independent predictors of body composition (R2 = 0.61, p < 0.001). Persistent uncontrolled asthma patients (n=64) had lower physical activity at both baseline (6614 steps/118 min) and follow-up (6195/115). Despite having stable BMI, they also had significant muscle loss (-1.2%, -0.88 kg, p<0.01) and fat accumulation (+1%, +1.1 kg, p<0.01). By contrast, temporarily uncontrolled or controlled asthma patients had higher physical activity at baseline (8670/156) and follow -up (9058/153) with almost unchanged body composition. Conclusion: Persistent uncontrolled asthma is associated with sustained physical inactivity and adverse changes in body composition that might be overlooked by relying solely on BMI. Physical activity is an independent predictor of body composition and reliable long-term marker of symptom control.

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