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2.
World J Surg ; 44(12): 4052-4059, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Four and a half million people die globally every year due to traumatic injuries. One major cause of preventable death is bleeding. Blood for transfusion is often unavailable in resource-limited settings, where a majority of trauma deaths occur. Intraoperative autotransfusion (IAT) has been proposed as a safe and feasible lifesaving alternative to allogeneic blood transfusion. However, there is limited knowledge regarding its use among doctors working for international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of IAT among INGO-affiliated medical doctors with clinical experience in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews via telephone or Skype with 12 purposefully sampled surgeons and anaesthesiologists. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: We identified three main themes relating to IAT and bottlenecks preventing the scale-up of its use: variation in techniques and systems, contextual factors, and individual medical doctor factors. The participants gave detailed reports of missed opportunities for usage of IAT in resource-limited settings. Bottlenecks included the lack of simple and cost-effective products, limited availability of protocols in the field, and insufficient knowledge and experience of IAT. CONCLUSIONS: The participants found that simple IAT is under-utilised in resource-limited settings. Missed opportunities to use IAT were mainly associated with armed conflict settings and obstetrical emergencies. In order to meet the need for IAT in resource-limited settings, we suggest further consideration of the identified bottlenecks.

3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(4)2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332036

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Resilient health systems have the capacity to continue providing health services to meet the community's diverse health needs following floods. This capacity is related to how the community manages its own health needs and the community and health system's joined capacities for resilience. Yet little is known about how community participation influences health systems resilience. The purpose of this study was to understand how community management of pregnancy and childbirth care during floods is contributing to the system's capacity to absorb, adapt or transform as viewed through a framework on health systems resilience. METHODS: Eight focus group discussions and 17 semi-structured interviews were conducted with community members and leaders who experienced pregnancy or childbirth during recent flooding in rural Cambodia. The data were analysed by thematic analysis and discussed in relation to the resilience framework. RESULTS: The theme 'Responsible for the status quo' reflected the community's responsibility to find ways to manage pregnancy and childbirth care, when neither the expectations of the health system nor the available benefits changed during floods. The theme was informed by notions on: i) developmental changes, the unpredictable nature of floods and limited support for managing care, ii) how information promoted by the public health system led to a limited decision-making space for pregnancy and childbirth care, iii) a desire for security during floods that outweighed mistrust in the public health system and iv) the limits to the coping strategies that the community prepared in case of flooding. CONCLUSIONS: The community mainly employed absorptive strategies to manage their care during floods, relieving the burden on the health system, yet restricted support and decision-making may risk their capacity. Further involvement in decision-making for care could help improve the health system's resilience by creating room for the community to adapt and transform when experiencing floods.

4.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 35(2): 174-183, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079551

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An earthquake is a hazard that may cause urgent needs requiring international assistance. To ensure rapid funding for such needs-based humanitarian assistance, swift decisions are needed. However, data to guide needs-based funding decisions are often missing in the acute phase, causing delays. Instead, it may be feasible to use data building on existing indexes that capture hazard and vulnerability information to serve as a rapid tool to prioritize funding according to the scale of needs: needs-based funding. However, to date, it is not known to what extent the indicators in the indexes can predict the scale of disaster needs. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for the scale of disaster needs after earthquakes. METHODOLOGY: The predictive performance of vulnerability indicators and outcome indicators of four commonly used disaster risk and severity indexes were assessed, both individually and in different combinations, using linear regression. The number of people who reportedly died or who were affected was used as an outcome variable for the scale of needs, using data from the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) provided by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters at the Université Catholique de Louvain (CRED; Brussels, Belgium) from 2007 through 2016. Root mean square error (RMSE) was used as the performance measure. RESULTS: The assessed indicators did not predict the scale of needs. This attempt to create a multivariable model that included the indicators with the lowest RMSE did not result in any substantially improved performance. CONCLUSION: None of the indicators, nor any combination of the indicators, used in the four assessed indexes were able to predict the scale of needs in the assessed earthquakes with any precision.

5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(3): e423-e429, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In armed conflict, injuries among civilians are usually complex and commonly affect the extremities. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is an alternative to standard treatment of acute conflict-related extremity wounds. We aimed to compare the safety and effectiveness of NPWT with that of standard treatment. METHODS: In this pragmatic, randomised, controlled superiority trial done at two civilian hospitals in Jordan and Iraq, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older, presenting with a conflict-related extremity wound within 72 h after injury. Participants were assigned (1:1) to receive either NPWT or standard treatment. We used a predefined, computer-generated randomisation list with three block sizes. Participants and their treating physicians were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was wound closure by day 5. The coprimary endpoint was net clinical benefit, defined as a composite of wound closure by day 5 and freedom from any bleeding, wound infection, sepsis, or amputation of the index limb. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02444598, and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Between June 9, 2015, and Oct 24, 2018, 174 patients were randomly assigned to either the NPWT group (n=88) or the standard treatment group (n=86). Five patients in the NPWT group and four in the standard treatment group were excluded from the intention-to-treat analysis. By day 5, 41 (49%) of 83 participants in the NPWT group and 49 (60%) of 82 participants in the standard treatment group had closed wounds, with an absolute difference of 10 percentage points (95% CI -5 to 25, p=0·212; risk ratio [RR] 0·83, 95% CI 0·62 to 1·09). Net clinical benefit was seen in 33 (41%) of 81 participants in the NPWT group and 34 (44%) of 78 participants in the standard treatment group, with an absolute difference of 3 percentage points (95% CI -12 to 18, p=0·750; RR 0·93, 95% CI 0·65 to 1·35). There was one in-hospital death in the standard treatment group and none in the NPWT group. The proportion of participants with sepsis, bleeding leading to blood transfusion, and limb amputation did not differ between groups. INTERPRETATION: NPWT did not yield superior clinical outcomes compared with standard treatment for acute conflict-related extremity wounds. The results of this study not only question the use of NPWT, but also question the tendency for new and costly treatments to be introduced into resource-limited conflict settings without supporting evidence for their effectiveness. This study shows that high-quality, randomised trials in challenging settings are possible, and our findings support the call for further research that will generate context-specific evidence. FUNDING: The Stockholm County Council, the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, and Médecins Sans Frontières.


Assuntos
Extremidades/lesões , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Iraque , Jordânia , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 9(1): 6-16, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health systems are based on 6 functions that need to work together at all times to effectively deliver safe and quality health services. These functions are vulnerable to shocks and changes; if a health system is unable to withstand the pressure from a shock, it may cease to function or collapse. The concept of resilience has been introduced with the goal of strengthening health systems to avoid disruption or collapse. The concept is new within health systems research, and no common description exists to describe its meaning. The aim of this study is to summarize and characterize the existing descriptions of health system resilience to improve understanding of the concept. Methods and Analysis: A scoping review was undertaken to identify the descriptions and characteristics of health system resilience. Four databases and gray literature were searched using the keywords "health system" and "resilience" for published documents that included descriptions, frameworks or characteristics of health system resilience. Additional documents were identified from reference lists. Four expert consultations were conducted to gain a broader perspective. Descriptions were analysed by studying the frequency of key terms and were characterized by using the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework. The scoping review identified eleven sources with descriptions and 24 sources that presented characteristics of health system resilience. Frequently used terms that were identified in the literature were shock, adapt, maintain, absorb and respond. Change and learning were also identified when combining the findings from the descriptions, characteristics and expert consultations. Leadership and governance were recognized as the most important building block for creating health system resilience. DISCUSSION: No single description of health system resilience was used consistently. A variation was observed on how resilience is described and to what depth it was explained in the existing literature. The descriptions of health system resilience primarily focus on major shocks. Adjustments to long-term changes and the element of learning should be considered for a better understating of health system resilience.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde/normas , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Liderança , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 35(2): 212-219, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989915

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Current research of moral distress is mainly derived from challenges within high-resource health care settings, and there is lack of clarity among the different definitions. Disaster responders are prone to a range of moral challenges during the work, which may give rise to moral distress. Further, organizations have considered increased drop-out rates and sick leaves among disaster responders as consequences of moral distress. Therefore, initiatives have been taken to address and understand the impacts of moral distress and its consequences for responders. Since there is unclarity among the different definitions, a first step is to understand the concept of moral distress and its interlinkages within the literature related to disaster responders. HYPOTHESIS/PROBLEM: To examine how disaster responders are affected by moral challenges, systematic knowledge is needed about the concepts related to moral distress. This paper aims to elucidate how the concept of moral distress in disaster response is defined and explained in the literature. METHODS: The paper opted to systematically map the existing literature through the methods of a scoping review. The searches derived documents which were screened regarding specific inclusion criteria. The included 16 documents were analyzed and collated according to their definitions of moral distress or according to their descriptions of moral distress. RESULTS: The paper provides clarity among the different concepts and definitions of moral distress within disaster response. Several concepts exist that describe the outcomes of morally challenging situations, centering on situations when individuals are prevented from acting in accordance with their moral values. Their specific differences suggest that to achieve greater clarity in future work, moral stress and moral distress should be distinguished. CONCLUSION: Based on the findings, a conceptual model of the development of moral distress was developed, which displays a manifestation of moral distress with the interplay between the responder and the context. The overview of the different concepts in this model can facilitate future research and be used to illuminate how the concepts are interrelated.

8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(4): e001361, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406584

RESUMO

Introduction: Routine health service provision decreased during the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Sierra Leone, while caesarean section (CS) rates at public hospitals did not. It is unknown what made staff provide CS despite the risks of contracting EVD. This study explores Sierra Leonean health worker perspectives of why they continued to provide CS. Methods: This qualitative study documents the experiences of 15 CS providers who worked during the EVD outbreak. We interviewed surgical and non-surgical CS providers who worked at public hospitals that either increased or decreased CS volumes during the outbreak. Hospitals in all four administrative areas of Sierra Leone were included. Semistructured interviews averaged 97 min and healthcare experience 21 years. Transcripts were analysed by modified framework analysis in the NVivo V.11.4.1 software. Results: We identified two themes that may explain why providers performed CS despite EVD risks: (1) clinical adaptability and (2) overcoming the moral dilemmas. CS providers reported being overworked and exposed to infection hazards. However, they developed clinical workarounds to the lack of surgical materials, protective equipment and standard operating procedures until the broader international response introduced formal personal protective equipment and infection prevention and control practices. CS providers reported that dutifulness and sense of responsibility for one's community increased during EVD, which helped them justify taking the risk of being infected. Although most surgical activities were reduced to minimise staff exposure to EVD, staff at public hospitals tended to prioritise performing CS surgery for women with acute obstetric complications. Conclusion: This study found that CS surgery during EVD in Sierra Leone may be explained by remarkable decisions by individual CS providers at public hospitals. They adapted practically to material limitations exacerbated by the outbreak and overcame the moral dilemmas of performing CS despite the risk of being infected with EVD.

9.
World J Surg ; 43(11): 2681-2688, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past decades, surgical management of limb injuries in high-resource settings has improved. The possibility of limb salvage has increased. It is not known whether similar changes have transpired in resource-scarce conflict settings. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using routinely collected patient data from the International Committee of the Red Cross hospitals in Pakistan was conducted. Consecutive data from 2009 to 2012 (535 patients) and randomly selected data from 1992 to 1995 (463 patients) were used. Only patients with weapon-related limb injuries were included. Differences in surgical procedures were assessed with logistic regression to adjust for confounding factors. RESULTS: Less injuries were related to mines in 2009-2012 than in 1992-1995 (3.7% vs. 20.3%, p < 0.0001), but injuries from bombs, shells and fragments were more frequent (38.5% vs. 19.4%, p < 0.0001) as were injuries with only a small degree of tissue damage (42.0% vs. 31.1%, p = 0.0004). In the logistic regression, the time period did not affect the risk of amputation, debridement, length of hospital stay or in-hospital mortality. The use of external fixation (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.33-0.96, p = 0.04), split skin grafts (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.21-0.45, p < 0.0001) and blood transfusion (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.28-0.66, p = 0.0001) was less frequent in 2009-2012. CONCLUSION: In this resource-scarce conflict setting, the risk of amputation appears unchanged over time, while the use of external fixation and split skin grafts was less common in 2009-2012 than in 1992-1995. These results contrast with the improved limb salvage results seen in high-resource settings. It likely reflects the challenges of providing advanced limb-preserving techniques in a resource-scarce setting.


Assuntos
Amputação , Extremidades/lesões , Salvamento de Membro , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Armas , Adulto Jovem
10.
World J Surg ; 43(9): 2123-2130, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065777

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is paucity of literature describing type of injury and care for females in conflicts. This study aimed to describe the injury pattern and outcome in terms of surgery and mortality for female patients presenting to Médecins Sans Frontières Trauma Centre in Kunduz, Afghanistan, and compare them with males. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively analysed patient data from 17,916 patients treated at the emergency department in Kunduz between January and September 2015, before its destruction by aerial bombing in October the same year. Routinely collected data on patient characteristics, injury patterns, triage category, time to arrival and outcome were retrieved and analysed. Comparative analyses were conducted using logistic regression. RESULTS: Females constituted 23.6% of patients. Burns and back injuries were more common among females (1.4% and 3.3%) than among males (0.6% and 2.0%). In contrast, open wounds and thoracic injuries were more common among males (10.1% and 0.6%) than among females (5.2% and 0.2%). Females were less likely to undergo surgery (OR 0.60, CI 0.528-0.688), and this remained significant after adjustment for age, nature of injury, triage category, multiple injuries and delay to arrival (OR 0.80, CI 0.690-0.926). Females also had lower unadjusted odds of mortality (OR 0.49, CI 0.277-0.874), but this was not significant in the adjusted analysis (OR 0.81, CI 0.446-1.453). CONCLUSION: Our main findings suggest that females seeking care at Kunduz Trauma Centre arrived later, had different injury patterns and were less likely to undergo surgery as compared to males.


Assuntos
Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Conflitos Armados , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Missões Médicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Traumatismos Torácicos/epidemiologia , Triagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
11.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(3): 260-264, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057142

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: International Emergency Medical Teams' (I-EMTs) response to disasters has been characterized by a late arrival, an over-focus on trauma care, and a lack of coordination and accountability mechanisms. Analysis of I-EMT performance in past and upcoming disasters is deemed necessary to improve future response. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the characteristics, timing, and activities of I-EMTs deployed to the 2015 Nepal earthquake, and to assess their registration and adherence to the World Health Organization Emergency Medical Teams' (WHO-EMT; Geneva, Switzerland) minimum standards compared to past disasters. METHODS: An online literature search was performed and key web sites related to I-EMT deployments were purposively examined. The methodology used is reported following the STARLITE principles. All articles and documents in English containing information about characteristics, timing, and activities of I-EMTs during Nepal 2015 were included in the study. Data were retrieved from selected sources to compile the results following a systematic approach. The findings were validated by the Nepalese focal point for the coordination of I-EMTs after the earthquake. RESULTS: Overall, 137 I-EMTs deployed from 36 countries. They were classified as Type I (65%), Type II (15%), Type III (1%), and specialized cells (19%). Although national teams remained the first responders, two regional I-EMTs arrived within the first 24 hours post-earthquake. According to daily reporting, the activities performed by I-EMTs included 28,372 out-patient consultations (comprising 6,073 trauma cases); 1,499 in-patient admissions; and 440 major surgeries. The activities reported by I-EMTs during their deployment were significantly lower than the capacities they offered at arrival. Over 80% of I-EMTs registered through WHO or national registration mechanisms, but daily reporting of activities by I-EMTs was low. The adherence of I-EMTs to WHO-EMT standards could not be assessed due to lack of data. CONCLUSION: The I-EMT response to the Nepal earthquake was quicker than in previous disasters, and registration and follow-up of I-EMTs was better. Still, there is need to improve I-EMT coordination, reporting, and quality assurance while strengthening national EMT capacity.Amat Camacho N, Karki K, Subedi S, von Schreeb J. International Emergency Medical Teams in the aftermath of the 2015 Nepal earthquake. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(3):260-264.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Terremotos , Socorristas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação Internacional , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desastres Naturais , Nepal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(3): 330-334, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025618

RESUMO

It has become clear that disaster relief needs to transition from good intentions or a charity-based approach to a professional, outcome-oriented response. The practice of medicine in disaster and conflict is a profession practiced in environments where lack of resources, chaos, and unpredictability are the norm rather than the exception. With this consideration in mind, the World Health Organization (WHO; Geneva, Switzerland) and its partners set out to improve the disaster response systems. The resulting Emergency Medical Team (EMT) classification system requires that teams planning on engaging in disaster response follow common standards for the delivery of care in resource-constraint environments. In order to clarify these standards, the WHO EMT Secretariat collaborated with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC; Geneva, Switzerland) and leading experts from other stakeholder non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to produce a guide to the management of limb injuries in disaster and conflict.The resulting text is a free and open-access resource to provide guidance for national and international EMTs caring for patients in disasters and conflicts. The content is a result of expert consensus, literature review, and an iterative process designed to encourage debate and resolution of existing open questions within the field of disaster and conflict medical response.The end result of this process is a text providing guidance to providers seeking to deliver safe, effective care within the EMT framework that is now part of the EMT training and verification system and is being distributed to ICRC teams deploying to the field.This work seeks to encourage professionalization of the field of disaster and conflict response, and to contribute to the existing EMT framework, in order to provide for better care for future victims of disaster and conflict.Jensen G, Bar-On E, Wiedler JT, Hautz SC, Veen H, Kay AR, Norton I, Gosselin RA, von Schreeb J. Improving management of limb injuries in disasters and conflicts. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(3):330-334.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Braço/terapia , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Socorristas/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos da Perna/terapia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Amputação/métodos , Traumatismos do Braço/diagnóstico , Conflito de Interesses , Desastres , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Cooperação Internacional , Traumatismos da Perna/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Organização Mundial da Saúde
13.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(1): 82-88, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479244

RESUMO

Human stampedes are a major cause of mortality in mass gatherings, but they have received limited scientific attention. While the number of publications has increased, there is no recent review of new study results. This study compiles and reviews available literature on stampedes, their prevention, preparedness, and response.A search for peer-reviewed and grey literature in PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA), Google Scholar (Google Inc.; Mountain View, California USA), Web of Science (Thomson Reuters; New York, New York USA), the World Health Organization Library Database (WHOLIS; World Health Organization; Geneva, Switzerland), and ReliefWeb (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs; Geneva, Switzerland) was conducted, and papers were selected according to pre-defined eligibility criteria. Included items were read and results were compiled and summarized. A total of 64 publications were included, of which, 34 were published between 2013-2016. The most studied events were Germany's Love Parade stampede in 2010 (Duisburg, Germany; n = 6) and the United Kingdom (UK) Hillsborough Stadium stampede in 1989 (Sheffield, England; n = 4). Conflicting definitions of human stampedes were found. The common belief that they result from an irrational and panicking crowd has progressively been replaced by studies suggesting that successive systemic failures are main underlying causes. There is a lack of systematic reporting, making news reports often the only source available. Prevention measures are mainly related to crowd management and venue design, but their effectiveness has not been studied. Drills are recommended in the preparedness phase to improve coordination and communication. Delay in decisions, poor triage, or loss of medical records are common problems in the response, which may worsen the outcome.Stampedes are complex phenomenon that remain incompletely understood, hampering formulation of evidence-based strategies for their prevention and management. Documentation comes mostly from high-profile events and findings are difficult to extrapolate to other settings. More research from different disciplines is warranted to address these gaps in order to prevent and mitigate future events. A start would be to decide on a common definition of stampedes. Moitinho de AlmeidaM, von SchreebJ. Human stampedes: an updated review of current literature. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(1):82-88.


Assuntos
Aglomeração , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Planejamento em Desastres , Humanos
14.
World J Surg ; 43(2): 368-373, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357467

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Most epidemiological studies from conflicts are restricted to either combatants or civilians. It is largely unknown how the epidemiology differs between the two groups. In 2016, an Iraqi-led coalition began retaking Mosul from the terrorist group Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. One key institution that received trauma patients from Mosul was Emergency Management Center (EMC) in Erbil, 90 km away. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology, morbidity, and mortality of civilians and combatants admitted during the ongoing conflict. METHOD: This retrospective cohort study utilized routinely collected data on patients with conflict-related injuries who were admitted to EMC between October 16, 2016, and July 10, 2017. Data processing and analysis was carried out using JMP 13. Categorical variables were compared using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The analysis included 1725 patients, out of which 46% were civilian. Ordnance accounted for most injuries (68%), followed by firearms (18%) and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) (14%). The proportion of IED-related injuries among combatants were almost three times that of civilians. The proportions of abdominal injuries, need for surgery, laparotomies, and amputations were significantly higher among civilians than among combatants. The mortality rate was 0.5%. DISCUSSION: The fact that civilians had greater surgical needs than combatants may be explained by several factors including a lack of ballistic protection. The extremely low mortality rate indicates significant gaps in prehospital care and transport. Our results may provide useful information to guide medical preparedness and response during future conflicts. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV ID: NCT03358758.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Abdominais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Traumatismos por Explosões/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síria/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
World J Surg ; 43(2): 658, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456481

RESUMO

In the original article, Johan von Schreeb's last name was spelled incorrectly. It is correct as reflected here.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501022

RESUMO

Background: Floods affect over 85 million people every year and are one of the deadliest types of natural disasters. The health effects of floods are partly due to a loss of access to health care. This loss can be limited with proper flood preparedness. Flood preparedness is especially needed at the primary health care (PHC) level. Flood preparedness assessments can be used to identify vulnerable facilities and help target efforts. The existing research on PHC flood preparedness is limited. We aimed to assess the flood preparedness of PHC facilities in a flood-prone province in central Vietnam. Methods: Based on flood experience, the PHC facilities in the province were grouped as "severe" (n = 23) or "non-severe" (n = 129). Assessments were conducted during monsoon season at five facilities from each group, using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Data were checked against official records when possible. Results: Nine of the ten facilities had a flood plan and four received regular flood preparedness training. Six facilities reported insufficient preparedness support. Half of the facilities had additional funding available for flood preparedness, or in case of a flood. Flood preparedness training had been received by 21/28 (75%) of the staff at the facilities with severe flood experience, versus 15/25 (52%) of the staff at the non-severe experience facilities. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the assessed PHC facilities were not sufficiently prepared for the expected floods during monsoon season. PHC flood preparedness assessments could be used to identify vulnerable facilities and populations in flood-prone areas. More research is needed to further develop and test the validity and reliability of the questionnaire.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Inundações , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/provisão & distribução , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã
17.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 7(11): e12334, 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In armed conflict, injuries commonly affect the extremities and contamination with foreign material often increases the risk of infection. The use of negative-pressure wound therapy has been described in the treatment of acute conflict-related wounds, but reports are retrospective and with limited follow-up. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness and safety of negative-pressure wound therapy use in the treatment of patients with conflict-related extremity wounds. METHODS: This is a multisite, superiority, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. We are considering for inclusion patients 18 years of age and older who are presenting with a conflict-related extremity wound within 72 hours after injury. Patients are block randomly assigned to either negative-pressure wound therapy or standard treatment in a 1:1 ratio. The primary end point is wound closure by day 5. Secondary end points include length of stay, wound infection, sepsis, wound complications, death, and health-related quality of life. We will explore economic outcomes, including direct health care costs and cost effectiveness, in a substudy. Data are collected at baseline and at each dressing change, and participants are followed for up to 3 months. We will base the primary statistical analysis on intention-to-treat. RESULTS: The trial is ongoing. Patient enrollment started in June 2015. We expect to publish findings from the trial by the end of 2019. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, there has been no randomized trial of negative-pressure wound therapy in this context. We expect that our findings will increase the knowledge to establish best-treatment strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02444598; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02444598 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/72hjI2XNX). INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/12334.

18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 846, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an attempt to assess the effects of the Ebola viral disease (EVD) on hospital functions in Sierra Leone, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in provisions of surgery and non-Ebola admissions during the first year of the EVD outbreak. METHODS: All hospitals in Sierra Leone known to perform inpatient surgery were assessed for non-Ebola admissions, volume of surgery, caesarean deliveries and inguinal hernia repairs between January 2014 and May 2015, which was a total of 72 weeks. Accumulated weekly data were gathered from readily available hospital records at bi-weekly visits during the peak of the outbreak from September 2014 to May 2015. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare weekly median admissions during the first year of the EVD outbreak, with the 20 weeks before the outbreak, and weekly median volume of surgeries performed during the first year of the EVD outbreak with identical weeks of 2012. The manuscript is prepared according to the STROBE checklist for cross-sectional studies. RESULTS: Of the 42 hospitals identified, 40 had available data for 94% (2719/2880) of the weeks. There was a 51% decrease in weekly median non-Ebola admissions and 41% fewer weekly median surgeries performed compared with the 20 weeks before the outbreak (admission) and 2012 (volume of surgery). Governmental hospitals experienced a smaller reduction in non-Ebola admissions (45% versus 60%) and surgeries (31% versus 53%) compared to private non-profit hospitals. Governmental hospitals realized an increased volume of cesarean deliveries by 45% during the EVD outbreak, thereby absorbing the 43% reduction observed in the private non-profit hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Both non-Ebola admissions and surgeries were severely reduced during the EVD outbreak. In addition to responding to the EVD outbreak, governmental hospitals were able to maintain certain core health systems functions. Volume of surgery is a promising indicator of hospital functions that should be further explored.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Lista de Checagem , Estudos Transversais , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais Privados/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
BMJ Glob Health ; 3(5): e000909, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294459

RESUMO

Unlike other disasters, injury rates after earthquakes are still on the rise at a global scale. With an estimated one million people injured by earthquakes in the last decade, the burden of injury is considerable. Importantly, the surgical procedures carried out by healthcare facilities are capable to avert part of this burden. Yet both burdens remain unquantified using understandable metrics. We explored in this analysis a method to calculate them using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), an internationally accepted measure expressing years of healthy life lost due to a health condition. We used data from a large standardised hospital database of earthquake-related injuries with complete information on International Classification of Diseases for injury and surgical procedures, sex and age information. DALYs and averted DALYs were calculated by injury types and per patient using disability weights available in the literature and expert opinion. We also suggested how DALYs might be further converted into an economic measure using approaches in the published literature. We estimated 10 397 DALYs as the earthquake surgical-injury burden produced in 1861 hospitalised patients treated in a single hospital (on average, 5.6 DALYs per patient). Our study also assessed that 4379 DALYs, or 2.4 DALYs per patient, were averted by surgery (42%). In economic terms, DALY losses amounted to US$36.1 million, from which US$15.2 million were averted by surgery in our case study. We urge to systematically estimate these impacts through improvements in the routine reporting of injury diagnoses and surgical procedures by health systems, potentially improving prevention policies and resource allocation to healthcare facilities.

20.
Curr Trauma Rep ; 4(2): 103-108, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29888166

RESUMO

Purpose of review: Natural disasters have injured more than 2 million people in the last 10 years and led to significant international medical relief deployment. Knowledge of expected injury patterns following these disasters is an important part of planning for type and size of outside surgical assistance. This review aims to summarize what is known about injury patterns following natural sudden-onset disasters (SODs). Recent findings: Several systematic reviews have concluded that data on injury patterns and surgical needs following natural SODs is scarce. Studies on earthquakes indicate that earthquakes generate large numbers of injured, out of which limb injuries are most common. Tsunamis, floods, storms, and wildfires do not generate a significant burden of injuries in relation to numbers affected. Summary: Earthquake may require surgical assistance, especially for limb injuries; therefore, mainly orthopedic and plastic surgeries are priority specialist areas. Major injuries seem to be few in other natural disasters. However, more detailed data is needed on specific injury patterns to determine if additional surgical assistance is needed and to what extent it is needed to cater for normal surgical conditions if existing health care has seized to function.

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