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1.
J Fam Psychol ; 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679215

RESUMO

Parental involvement is a key ingredient in school policy and various parental involvement programs aim at raising children's school success. Adding to existing meta-analyses summarizing the findings on the effectiveness of parental involvement programs, we included academic and nonacademic outcomes, and analyzed the correspondence between changes in parents' involvement and changes in children's outcomes. We synthesized findings regarding the effectiveness of parental involvement interventions for children's academic and nonacademic outcomes from preschool to third grade. A total of 307 effect sizes were obtained from 39 studies included in the meta-analysis. Using a random-effect approach, the average effect suggested that parental involvement interventions had a positive and moderate effect on children's overall performance, as well as on academic and nonacademic outcomes when considered separately. School-based and home-based interventions were not significantly associated with the overall effect. Further characteristics of the intervention were analyzed as moderators. The effects of the intervention on parental involvement itself were significantly associated with the effect size differences on children's outcomes. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-10, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937591

RESUMO

Empirical knowledge on what specific aspects of mental health are associated with spirituality is limited, and explanations for the mechanisms underlying this association is scarce. Furthermore, there is limited research on this association among individuals from non-Christian religious backgrounds and non-Western countries. The current study examined relations between spirituality and aspects of mental health in 1,544 adolescents from diverse religious backgrounds in two Eastern countries, India and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Additionally, we examined mediating and moderating factors. Adolescents (58% female) ages 11-15 years completed a questionnaire on aspects of their mental health, spirituality, and self-control abilities. Results showed that spirituality had a significant positive association with life satisfaction and a significant negative association with internalizing problems, but a non-significant relation with externalizing problems, controlling for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Self-control completely mediated the association between spirituality and life satisfaction, and this mediational relation was only present for adolescents from the UAE. Results support prior research suggesting positive associations between spirituality and adaptive mental health outcomes and extend these findings to adolescents from diverse religious backgrounds in non-Western countries. These findings have important clinical and policy implications for supporting the role of spirituality in an adolescent's life.

4.
Child Dev ; 92(5): e798-e816, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486110

RESUMO

This study of 52 predominantly lower income Jordanian and Syrian families with young children (31 girls; Mage  = 53.37 months, SD = 3.53) in Jordan began in 2019, before the pandemic. Families were followed to explore stress physiology, family functioning, and mental health over the first 9 months of the pandemic. Mothers reported less adaptive coping and more negative changes to family life in June 2020 when their children had poorer behavioral self-regulation and more behavior problems, and when families had lower income, in 2019. More negative changes to family life predicted greater hair cortisol concentrations in children in June 2020, and more negative changes and less adaptive coping predicted worse child and mother psychosocial adjustment in December 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Mães , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Infant Behav Dev ; 64: 101600, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153780

RESUMO

The present study analyzes similarities and differences in cultural beliefs about mother-child play and their manifestation in maternal and children's play practices in three different educated urban middle-class cultures. Based on the general assumption that mother-child play is an important context for child learning and development in educated urban middle-class communities that should result in cross-cultural similarities in mother-child play, the current study also hypothesized culture-specific accentuations, namely a stronger emphasis on preacademic vs. non-academic play activities and on adult-centered vs. child-centered modes of interaction in Chennai, India, (n = 28) than in Münster, Germany, (n = 35) and New York City (NYC), USA, (n = 36). Maternal goals and strategies were assessed in semi-structured interviews and mothers from Chennai emphasized play goals and preacademic goals to similar degrees, whereas mothers from Münster and NYC accentuated play goals. In line with their emphasis on preacademic goals and strategies, Chennai mothers showed significantly more preacademic activities during play with their 2-year-olds, especially explicit teaching. Furthermore, Chennai mothers' stronger emphasis on play directives and children's higher levels of responsive play complemented the pattern of more adult-centered beliefs and practices. In contrast, mothers from Münster and NYC were more likely to emphasize child-centeredness, with significantly more goals revolving around child immersion in play activities and autonomy-supporting play practices, including autonomous exploration, toddlers' leadership and control, and maternal responsiveness. Unexpectedly, toddlers from NYC engaged the most in preacademic activities, especially responding to maternal quizzing.


Assuntos
Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Índia
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13169, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162979

RESUMO

Social emotions are key to everyday social life and therefore shaped by cultural values in their expression. Prior research has focused on facial expressions of emotions. What is less clear, however, is the extent to which cultural values shape other modalities of emotional expression. In the present study, we applied a novel paradigm using depth sensor imaging technology to capture changes in participants' body posture in real time. We aimed to (1) identify the nuances in the postural expression that are thought to characterize social emotions and (2) assess how individual differences in cultural values impact the postural expression of emotions. Participants in two separate studies were 132 undergraduate college students whose upper-body postural expansion was recorded after they recalled emotion episodes. Positive emotions elevated participants' upper-body posture whereas negative emotions resulted in lowered upper-body posture. The effects on changes in upper-body posture were moderated by participants' self-ratings of the vertical and horizontal dimensions of individualism and collectivism. The findings provide initial evidence of the nuances in the way cultural values influence the postural expression of emotions.


Assuntos
Características Culturais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Emoções Manifestas , Cinésica , Valores Sociais , Sistemas Computacionais , Feminino , Marcha , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Postura , Vergonha , Adulto Jovem
7.
Child Dev ; 92(1): 388-407, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772365

RESUMO

This study investigated bidirectional links between the quality of teacher-child relationships and children's interest and pre-academic skills in literacy and math. Furthermore, differences in the patterns of bidirectionality between boys and girls were explored. Participants were 461 Finnish kindergarteners (6-year-olds) and their teachers (n = 48). Teachers reported their closeness and conflict with each child twice throughout the kindergarten year. Children rated their interest in literacy and math, and were tested on their pre-academic skills. Cross-lagged path models indicated that teacher-perceived conflict predicted lower interest and pre-academic skills in both literacy and math. Results were similar for boys and girls. Implications for reducing conflictual patterns of relationships, together with promoting other factors, are discussed.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Relações Interpessoais , Alfabetização/psicologia , Matemática/educação , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Alfabetização/tendências , Masculino , Matemática/tendências , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências
8.
Am J Community Psychol ; 63(3-4): 286-297, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653277

RESUMO

Teachers' stress is a dynamic combination of the individual teacher's characteristics and characteristics of the classroom and school environment. To date, there are limited studies on teachers' stress in the context of lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), where working conditions as well as general political and economic circumstances might pose a considerable threat for teachers' well-being. This study explores whether certain combinations of individual and environmental experiences of teachers in LMICs may result in stress, assessed as patterns of diurnal cortisol rhythm. Participants were kindergarten teachers in Kosovo and Ukraine, two LMICs in Europe. Latent Profile Analysis identified three subgroups of teachers that significantly differed on teachers' education and experience. Preliminary results of Latent Growth Modeling suggested differences between profiles in baseline waking cortisol and patterns of diurnal decline. Teachers in the profile that was characterized by the longest experience working in the field but the lowest level of education showed blunted cortisol in the morning and a flatter slope; a pattern that could indicate a maladaptive cortisol response. Future directions for studying stress processes among teachers in LMICs and implications for policy and practice on how to support teacher well-being in low-resource contexts are discussed.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Adulto , Países Desenvolvidos , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
9.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1665, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29018387

RESUMO

Attention shifting refers to one core component of executive functions, a set of higher-order cognitive processes that predict different aspects of academic achievement. To date, few studies have investigated the role of attention shifting in orthographic competencies during middle childhood and early adolescence. In the present study, 69 first-grade, 121 third-grade, and 85 eighth-grade students' attention shifting was tested with a computer version of the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS; Zelazo, 2006). General spelling skills and specific writing and spelling strategies were assessed with the Hamburger Writing Test (May, 2002). Results suggested associations between attention shifting and various orthographic competencies that differ across age groups and by sex. Across all age groups, better attention shifting was associated with less errors in applying alphabetical strategies. In third graders, better attention shifting was furthermore related to better general spelling skills and less errors in using orthographical strategies. In this age group, associations did not differ by sex. Among first graders, attention shifting was negatively related to general spelling skills, but only for boys. In contrast, attention shifting was positively related to general spelling skills in eighth graders, but only for girls. Finally, better attention shifting was associated with less case-related errors in eighth graders, independent of students' sex. In sum, the data provide insight into both variability and consistency in the pattern of relations between attention shifting and various orthographic competencies among elementary and middle school students.

10.
Psych J ; 6(3): 205-218, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28884968

RESUMO

The development of self-regulation is influenced by various child-level and family-level characteristics. Previous research focusing on the preschool period reported a female advantage in self-regulation and negative effects of various adverse features of the family environment on self-regulation. The present study aimed to investigate growth in self-regulation (i.e., executive functioning and behavioral self-regulation) over 1 school year during early elementary school and to explore the influences of child sex, the level of home chaos, and family educational resources on self-regulation. Participants were 263 German children (51% girls; mean age 8.59 years, SD = 0.56 years). Data were collected during the fall and spring of the school year. A computer-based standardized test battery was used to assess executive functioning. Caregiver ratings assessed children's behavioral self-regulation and information on the family's home environment (chaotic home environment and educational resources). Results suggest growth in elementary school children's executive functioning over the course of the school year. However, there were no significant changes in children's behavioral self-regulation between the beginning and the end of Grade 3. Sex differences in inhibitory control/cognitive flexibility and behavioral self-regulation were found, suggesting an advantage for girls. Educational resources in the family but not chaotic family environment were significantly related to self-regulation at both time-points. Children from families with more educational resources scored higher on self-regulation measures compared to their counterparts from less advantaged families. We did not find evidence for child-level or family-level characteristics predicting self-regulation growth over time. Findings add to the evidence of a gender gap in self-regulation skills, but suggest that it might not further widen towards the end of elementary school age. Adequate self-regulation skills should be fostered in both girls and boys. Results also add to the importance of supporting self-regulation development in children from disadvantaged family backgrounds early in life.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Relações Familiares , Autocontrole , Cuidadores , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Família , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia da Criança , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes
11.
Psych J ; 6(1): 29-42, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28371551

RESUMO

The development of self-regulation is influenced by various child-level and family-level characteristics. Previous research focusing on the preschool period has reported a female advantage in self-regulation and negative effects of various adverse features of the family environment on self-regulation. The present study aimed to investigate growth in self-regulation (i.e., executive functioning and behavioral self-regulation) over 1 school year during early elementary school and to explore the influences of child sex, the level of home chaos, and family educational resources on self-regulation. Participants were 263 German children (51% boys; mean age 8.59 years, SD = 0.56 years). Data were collected during the fall and spring of the school year. A computer-based standardized test battery was used to assess executive functioning. Caregiver ratings assessed children's behavioral self-regulation and information on the family's home environment (chaotic home environment and educational resources). Results suggest growth in elementary school children's executive functioning over the course of the school year. However, there were no significant changes in children's behavioral self-regulation between the beginning and the end of Grade 3. Sex differences in executive functioning and behavioral self-regulation were found, suggesting an advantage for boys. Educational resources in the family but not chaotic family environment were significantly related to self-regulation at both time-points. Children from families with more educational resources scored higher on self-regulation measures compared to their counterparts from less advantaged families. We did not find evidence for child-level or family-level characteristics predicting self-regulation growth over time. Findings suggest that the male disadvantage in self-regulation documented in previous studies might be specific to characteristics of the sample and the context in which the data were collected. Adequate self-regulation skills should be fostered in both girls and boys. Results also add to the importance of supporting self-regulation development in children from disadvantaged family backgrounds early in life.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Família/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Psych J ; 6(1): 16-28, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28371553

RESUMO

Executive function (EF), including cognitive flexibility, attention shifting, and inhibitory control, has been linked to a range of outcomes across the lifespan, such as school readiness and academic functioning, job performance, health, and social-emotional well-being. Yet, research investigating links between parent EF and child EF is still limited. This is partly due to challenges in measuring the same EF abilities in parents and their children. The current study investigated the applicability of a computer-based battery of various EF tasks for use with both mothers and children. The battery included the following EF tasks: Dimensional Change Card Sort, Hearts and Flowers, and Fish Flanker. Participants were 80 Indian mothers and their 4-year-old daughters. EF was measured with regard to accuracy scores, response time, and inverse efficiency (IE) scores of the most complex blocks of each task. Scoring patterns indicated that children's task performance appeared to be determined by their ability to recognize the cue indicating which task to perform at any given trial and to inhibit an incorrect response. In contrast, mothers' performance appeared to be determined by response time, that is, their ability to be quick in giving the correct response. However, for both children and mothers, IE scores best captured individual differences in EF performance between participants. Furthermore, confirmatory factor analyses found that, for both children and mothers, all EF measures loaded on a latent factor, suggesting that the measures shared common variance in EF. There appeared to be no significant association between mothers' and children's EF scores, controlling for several background variables. Directions for further research include examining the applicability of the EF task battery to reliably describe developmental trajectories of EF abilities over time, and further examining variability in the parent-child EF association across the lifespan.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Mães , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Índia
13.
Br J Educ Psychol ; 85(4): 533-50, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26255789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Educational processes and outcomes are influenced by a multitude of factors, including individual and contextual characteristics. Recently, studies have demonstrated that student and context characteristics may produce unique and cumulative effects on educational outcomes. AIMS: The study aimed to investigate (1) the relative contribution of student, classroom, and school characteristics to reading fluency and orthographic spelling, (2) the relative contribution of specific predictors to reading fluency and orthographic spelling within the sets of student, classroom, and school characteristics, and (3) whether the contribution of student, classroom, and school characteristics differs for reading fluency and orthographic spelling. SAMPLE: Participants were 789 German third-grade students from 56 classrooms in 34 schools. METHOD: Students completed an intelligence test and a questionnaire assessing self-control. Reading fluency and orthographic spelling performance were assessed using standardized achievement tests. Multilevel structural equation modelling was used to control for the hierarchical structure of educational data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Variances in students' reading and spelling skills were in large part explained by student characteristics (>90%). Classroom and school characteristics yielded little variance. Student-level intelligence and self-control were significantly related to reading fluency. For orthographic spelling, student-level intelligence and self-control, class-average intelligence, and, at the school level, the socio-economic status of the school's neighbourhood were significant predictors. Future research needs to investigate relevant classroom and school factors that may directly and indirectly relate to academic outcomes.


Assuntos
Leitura , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Redação , Logro , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26032031

RESUMO

The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional , Relações Mãe-Filho , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Autocontrole , Socialização , Lista de Checagem , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Front Psychol ; 4: 992, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24427150

RESUMO

Mastery of cognitive emotion regulation strategies is an important developmental task. This paper focuses on two strategies that occur from preschool age onwards (Stegge and Meerum Terwogt, 2007): reappraisal and response suppression. Parental socialization of these strategies was investigated in a sample of N = 219 parents and their children. Informed by the tripartite model of family impact on children's emotion regulation, direct relations of emotion socialization components (modeling and reactions to the child's negative emotions) and indirect relations of parental emotion-related beliefs (such as parental emotion regulation self-efficacy) were examined. Data on emotion socialization components and parental beliefs on emotion regulation were collected via self-report. Data on children's emotion regulation strategies were collected via parent report. Findings showed direct effects of parental modeling and parenting practices on children's emotion regulation strategies, with distinct socialization paths for reappraisal and response suppression. An indirect effect of parental emotion regulation self-efficacy on children's reappraisal was found. These associations were not moderated by parent sex. Findings highlight the importance of both socialization components and parental emotion-related beliefs for the socialization of cognitive emotion regulation strategies and suggest a domain-specific approach to the socialization of emotion regulation strategies.

16.
Front Psychol ; 4: 133, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23543810

RESUMO

Starting from research on relations between attachment and the development of self-regulation, the present study aimed to investigate research questions on relations among inhibitory control, internalization of rules of conduct (i.e., behavior regulation, concern occasioned by others transgressions, confession, reparation after wrongdoing), and attachment security. Attachment security and internalization of rules of conduct of German kindergarten children (N = 82) were assessed by maternal reports. Children's inhibitory control was measured with the Stop-task. Regression analyses revealed that inhibitory control was positively related to attachment security and to internalization of rules of conduct. Mediational analysis using a bootstrapping approach indicated an indirect effect of attachment security on internalization processes via inhibitory control. Implications for further research on the development of inhibitory control and internalization of rules of conduct are discussed.

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