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1.
Ambio ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776967

RESUMO

Temporal aspects of ecosystem services have gained surprisingly little attention given that ecosystem service flows are not static but change over time. We present the first systematic review to describe and establish how studies have assessed temporal patterns in supply and demand of ecosystem services. 295 studies, 2% of all studies engaging with the ecosystem service concept, considered changes in ecosystem services over time. Changes were mainly characterised as monotonic and linear (81%), rather than non-linear or through system shocks. Further, a lack of focus of changing ecosystem service demand (rather than supply) hampers our understanding of the temporal patterns of ecosystem services provision and use. Future studies on changes in ecosystem services over time should (1) more explicitly study temporal patterns, (2) analyse trade-offs and synergies between services over time, and (3) integrate changes in supply and demand and involve and empower stakeholders in temporal ecosystem services research.

2.
Ambio ; 48(6): 605-618, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218270

RESUMO

We provide a conceptual review of the available knowledge on the role of human cognition biases for sustainability and sustainable behavior. Human cognition biases are defined as any deviation in decision making from the standard framework of rational choice. We distinguish between biases in individual decision making and biases in group decision making, and highlight the relevance of each for sustainable behavior. We find that while both categories may contribute to unsustainable behavior, human cognition biases in group settings might be central to understanding many of the current sustainability issues. Moreover, we argue that the effects of group-related biases may outweigh those on the individual level in driving unsustainable behavior, and that biases that have been discussed under various labels in the literature can be interpreted as manifestations of human cognition biases in group settings.


Assuntos
Cognição , Tomada de Decisões , Viés , Humanos
3.
Sustain Sci ; 13(5): 1389-1397, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220917

RESUMO

Calls for humanity to 'reconnect to nature' have grown increasingly louder from both scholars and civil society. Yet, there is relatively little coherence about what reconnecting to nature means, why it should happen and how it can be achieved. We present a conceptual framework to organise existing literature and direct future research on human-nature connections. Five types of connections to nature are identified: material, experiential, cognitive, emotional, and philosophical. These various types have been presented as causes, consequences, or treatments of social and environmental problems. From this conceptual base, we discuss how reconnecting people with nature can function as a treatment for the global environmental crisis. Adopting a social-ecological systems perspective, we draw upon the emerging concept of 'leverage points'-places in complex systems to intervene to generate change-and explore examples of how actions to reconnect people with nature can help transform society towards sustainability.

4.
Ambio ; 47(8): 924-934, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478181

RESUMO

One of the traditional livelihood practices of indigenous Tagbanuas in Palawan, Philippines is wild honey hunting and gathering from the giant honey bee (Apis dorsata F.). In order to analyze the linkages of the social and ecological systems involved in this indigenous practice, we conducted spatial, quantitative, and qualitative analyses on field data gathered through mapping of global positioning system coordinates, community surveys, and key informant interviews. We found that only 24% of the 251 local community members surveyed could correctly identify the giant honey bee. Inferential statistics showed that a lower level of formal education strongly correlates with correct identification of the giant honey bee. Spatial analysis revealed that mean NDVI of sampled nesting tree areas has dropped from 0.61 in the year 1988 to 0.41 in 2015. However, those who correctly identified the giant honey bee lived in areas with high vegetation cover. Decreasing vegetation cover limits the presence of wild honey bees and this may also be limiting direct experience of the community with wild honey bees. However, with causality yet to be established, we recommend conducting further studies to concretely model feedbacks between ecological changes and local knowledge.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Mel/economia , Conhecimento , Animais , Cultura , Características da Família , Aprendizagem , Modelos Logísticos , Filipinas , Análise Espacial , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Environ Pollut ; 233: 92-98, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059630

RESUMO

Global change affects the functioning of forest ecosystems and the services they provide, but little is known about the interactive effects of co-occurring global change drivers on important functions such as tree growth and vitality. In the present study we quantified the interactive (i.e. synergistic or antagonistic) effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and climatic variables (temperature, precipitation) on tree growth (in terms of tree-ring width, TRW), taking forest ecosystems with European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) as an example. We hypothesised that (i) N deposition and climatic variables can evoke non-additive responses of the radial increment of beech trees, and (ii) N loads have the potential to strengthen the trees' sensitivity to climate change. In young stands, we found a synergistic positive effect of N deposition and annual mean temperature on TRW, possibly linked to the alleviation of an N shortage in young stands. In mature stands, however, high N deposition significantly increased the trees' sensitivity to increasing annual mean temperatures (antagonistic effect on TRW), possibly due to increased fine root dieback, decreasing mycorrhizal colonization or shifts in biomass allocation patterns (aboveground vs. belowground). Accordingly, N deposition and climatic variables caused both synergistic and antagonistic effects on the radial increment of beech trees, depending on tree age and stand characteristics. Hence, the nature of interactions could mediate the long-term effects of global change drivers (including N deposition) on forest carbon sequestration. In conclusion, our findings illustrate that interaction processes between climatic variables and N deposition are complex and have the potential to impair growth and performance of European beech. This in turn emphasises the importance of multiple-factor studies to foster an integrated understanding and models aiming at improved projections of tree growth responses to co-occurring drivers of global change.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Mudança Climática , Fagus/fisiologia , Florestas , Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fagus/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas , Temperatura , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Ambio ; 46(1): 30-39, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27344324

RESUMO

Despite substantial focus on sustainability issues in both science and politics, humanity remains on largely unsustainable development trajectories. Partly, this is due to the failure of sustainability science to engage with the root causes of unsustainability. Drawing on ideas by Donella Meadows, we argue that many sustainability interventions target highly tangible, but essentially weak, leverage points (i.e. using interventions that are easy, but have limited potential for transformational change). Thus, there is an urgent need to focus on less obvious but potentially far more powerful areas of intervention. We propose a research agenda inspired by systems thinking that focuses on transformational 'sustainability interventions', centred on three realms of leverage: reconnecting people to nature, restructuring institutions and rethinking how knowledge is created and used in pursuit of sustainability. The notion of leverage points has the potential to act as a boundary object for genuinely transformational sustainability science.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecologia/métodos , Ecossistema , Modelos Teóricos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resolução de Problemas , Meio Social
7.
Ambio ; 46(4): 456-467, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27878448

RESUMO

In order to understand the role of wild bees in both social and ecological systems, we conducted a quantitative and qualitative review of publications dealing with wild bees and the benefits they provide in social contexts. We classified publications according to several attributes such as services and benefits derived from wild bees, types of bee-human interactions, recipients of direct benefits, social contexts where wild bees are found, and sources of changes to the bee-human system. We found that most of the services and benefits from wild bees are related to food, medicine, and pollination. We also found that wild bees directly provide benefits to communities to a greater extent than individuals. In the social contexts where they are found, wild bees occupy a central role. Several drivers of change affect bee-human systems, ranging from environmental to political drivers. These are the areas where we recommend making interventions for conserving the bee-human system.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Polinização , Agricultura , Animais , Ecologia/economia
8.
AoB Plants ; 82016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27742647

RESUMO

Introduced plants often face new environmental conditions in their non-native ranges. To become invasive, they need to overcome several biotic and abiotic filters that may trigger adaptive changes in life-history traits, like post-germination processes. Such early life cycle traits may play a crucial role in the colonization and establishment success of invasive plants. As a previous study revealed that seeds of non-native populations of the woody Siberian elm, Ulmus pumila, germinated faster than those of native populations, we expected growth performance of seedlings to mirror this finding. Here, we conducted a common garden greenhouse experiment using different temperature and watering treatments to compare the biomass production of U. pumila seedlings derived from 7 native and 13 populations from two non-native ranges. Our results showed that under all treatments, non-native populations were characterized by higher biomass production and enhanced resource allocation to aboveground biomass compared to the native populations. The observed enhanced growth performance of non-native populations might be one of the contributing factors for the invasion success of U. pumila due to competitive advantages during the colonization of new sites.

9.
Ambio ; 45(2): 185-95, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26458391

RESUMO

Wood-pastures are associated with high cultural and biodiversity values in Europe. However, due to their relatively low productivity, large areas of wood-pastures have been lost over the last century. In some areas, incentive schemes have been developed to revive wood-pastures. We investigated the effects of one such scheme in western Estonia. We compared the structure of grazed wood-pastures (old and restored) to those of abandoned wood-pastures and ungrazed forest stands to explore the effects of management, and conducted interviews with 24 farmers to investigate their motivations to carry out the management. We found a positive influence of active management on the semi-open structure of wood-pastures. Financial support was vital for management, but personal values related to tradition also played an important role. The interviewees differed widely in their range of motivations, suggesting that other strategies in addition to financial incentives would further improve the management of wood-pastures in the region.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Florestas , Pradaria , Estônia
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 100(1): 352-358, 2015 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26330016

RESUMO

Marine protected areas (MPAs) face many challenges in their aim to effectively conserve marine ecosystems. In this study we analyze the extent of pollution exposure on the global fleet of MPAs. This includes indicators for current and future pollution and the implications for regionally clustered groups of MPAs with similar biophysical characteristics. To cluster MPAs into characteristic signature groups, their bathymetry, baseline biodiversity, distance from shore, mean sea surface temperature and mean sea surface salinity were used. We assess the extent at which each signature group is facing exposure from multiple pollution types. MPA groups experience similar pollution exposure on a regional level. We highlight how the challenges that MPAs face can be addressed through governance at the appropriate scale and design considerations for integrated terrestrial and marine management approaches within regional level networks. Furthermore, we present diagnostic social-ecological indicators for addressing the challenges facing unsuccessful MPAs with practical applications.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Biologia Marinha/métodos , Poluição da Água , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Oceanos e Mares
13.
Biol Conserv ; 169(100): 311-318, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24695588

RESUMO

Wild Bactrian camels (Camela ferus) are listed as Critically Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and only persist in some of the most remote locations in northern China and southern Mongolia. Although the species has been recognized as an umbrella species for the fragile central Asian desert ecosystem and has been high on the conservation agenda, little is known about the species' habitat requirements, with most information coming from anecdotal sightings and descriptive studies. We compiled the only available telemetry data from wild camels worldwide. Seven wild camels, which were followed for 11-378 monitoring days, covered a total range of 28,410 km2, with individual annual ranges being >12,000 km2 for three animals followed over a year. Camels reacted strongly to capture events, moving up to 64 km from the capture site within a day, whereas normal average daily straight line distances were 3.0-6.4 km/day. Camels showed a preference for intermediate productivity values (NDVI, habitat type) and landscape parameters (distance to water, elevation) and an avoidance of steep slopes. Our telemetry results suggest that wild camels still range throughout the entire Great Gobi A Strictly Protected Area (SPA), are highly mobile, and very sensitive to human disturbance. Their habitat preference may be a trade-off between dietary and safety requirements. Small sample size did not allow the development of a full habitat model testing all variables simultaneously and we urgently call for more data from additional wild camels as a foundation for evidence driven conservation actions.

15.
F1000Res ; 3: 109, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25352979

RESUMO

Research on biological invasions has increased rapidly over the past 30 years, generating numerous explanations of how species become invasive. While the mechanisms of invasive species establishment are well studied, the mechanisms driving abundance patterns (i.e. patterns of population density and population size) remain poorly understood. It is assumed that invasive species typically have higher abundances in their new environments than in their native ranges, and patterns of invasive species abundance differ between invaded regions. To explain differences in invasive species abundance, we propose the Human Release Hypothesis. In parallel to the established Enemy Release Hypothesis, this hypothesis states that the differences in abundance of invasive species are found between regions because population expansion is reduced in some regions through continuous land management and associated cutting of the invasive species. The Human Release Hypothesis does not negate other important drivers of species invasions, but rather should be considered as a potentially important complementary mechanism. We illustrate the hypothesis via a case study on an invasive rose species, and hypothesize which locations globally may be most likely to support high abundances of invasive species. We propose that more extensive empirical work on the Human Release Hypothesis could be useful to test its general applicability.

16.
PLoS One ; 8(7): e70038, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23894582

RESUMO

Detailed understanding of a species' natural history and environmental needs across spatial scales is a primary requisite for effective conservation planning, particularly for species with complex life cycles in which different life stages occupy different niches and respond to the environment at different scales. However, niche models applied to conservation often neglect early life stages and are mostly performed at broad spatial scales. Using the endangered heath tiger beetle (Cicindela sylvatica) as a model species, we relate presence/absence and abundance data of locally dispersing adults and sedentary larvae to abiotic and biotic variables measured in a multiscale approach within the geographic extent relevant to active conservation management. At the scale of hundreds of meters, fine-grained abiotic conditions (i.e., vegetation structure) are fundamental determinants of the occurrence of both life stages, whereas the effect of biotic factors is mostly contained in the abiotic signature. The combination of dense heath vegetation and bare ground areas is thus the first requirement for the species' preservation, provided that accessibility to the suitable habitat is ensured. At a smaller scale (centimetres), the influence of abiotic factors on larval occurrence becomes negligible, suggesting the existence of important additional variables acting within larval proximity. Sustained significant correlations between neighbouring larvae in the models provide an indication of the potential impact of neighbourhood crowding on the larval niche within a few centimetres. Since the species spends the majority of its life cycle in the larval stage, it is essential to consider the hierarchical abiotic and biotic processes affecting the larvae when designing practical conservation guidelines for the species. This underlines the necessity for a more critical evaluation of the consequences of disregarding niche variation between life stages when estimating niches and addressing effective conservation measures for species with complex life cycles.


Assuntos
Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meio Ambiente , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Larva , Modelos Teóricos , Dinâmica Populacional
17.
PLoS One ; 8(6): e65236, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23840322

RESUMO

Land use change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Forest species face the dual threats of deforestation and intensification of forest management. In regions where forests are under threat, rural landscapes that retain structural components of mature forests potentially provide valuable additional habitat for some forest species. Here, we illustrate the habitat value of traditional wood pastures for a woodpecker assemblage of six species in southern Transylvania, Romania. Wood pastures are created by long-term stable silvo-pastoral management practices, and are composed of open grassland with scattered large, old trees. Because of their demanding habitat requirements, woodpeckers share habitat with many other bird species, and have been considered as possible indicator species for bird species diversity. We first compared woodpecker assemblages between forests and wood pastures. Second, we grouped features of wood pastures into three spatial contexts and addressed how these features related to the occurrence of three woodpecker species that are formally protected. Woodpecker species composition, but not the number of species, differed between forests and wood pastures, with the green woodpecker occurring more commonly in wood pastures, and the lesser spotted woodpecker more commonly in forests. Within wood pastures, the intermediate context (especially surrounding forest cover) best explained the presence of the grey-headed and middle spotted woodpecker. By contrast, variables describing local vegetation structure and characteristics of the surrounding landscape did not affect woodpecker occurrence in wood pastures. In contrast to many other parts of Europe, in which several species of woodpeckers have declined, the traditional rural landscape of Transylvania continues to provide habitat for several woodpecker species, both in forests and wood pastures. Given the apparent habitat value of wood pastures for woodpeckers we recommend wood pastures be explicitly considered in relevant policies of the European Union, namely the Habitats Directive and the EU Common Agricultural Policy.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Aves , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Florestas , Agricultura/métodos , Agricultura/normas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Aves/classificação , Demografia , Pradaria , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Romênia
18.
PLoS One ; 8(5): e63649, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23704928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii) to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo). Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking) and Bufo bufo in fishponds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Anfíbios/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Tanques , Animais , Europa Oriental , Geografia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
19.
Ecol Appl ; 22(2): 393-9, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22611842

RESUMO

The non-equilibrium concept of rangeland dynamics predicts that the potential for grazing-induced degradation is low in rangelands with relatively variable precipitation. To date, evidence in support of the non-equilibrium concept has been inconsistent. Using a standardized protocol, including a newly developed global map of rainfall variability, we reviewed the incidence of degradation in relation to rainfall variability across 58 published studies. We distinguished between (1) zonal degradation (i.e., degradation independent of water and key resources), (2) degradation in the presence of key resources, and (3) degradation in the presence of water. For studies not affected by proximity to permanent water or key resources, we found strong support for the non-equilibrium concept for rangelands. Zonal degradation was absent at CV (coefficient of variation) values above 33%, which has been proposed as a critical threshold. Grazing degradation was almost entirely restricted to areas with relatively stable annual precipitation as expressed by a low CV, or to rangelands with key resources or water points nearby. To better understand rangeland dynamics, we recommend that future studies use globally comparable measures of degradation and rainfall variability. Our work underlines that rangelands with relatively stable rainfall patterns, and those with access to water or key resources, are potentially vulnerable to degradation. Grazing management in such areas should incorporate strategic rest periods. Such rest periods effectively mimic natural fluctuations in herbivore populations, which are a defining characteristic of non-degraded rangelands occurring under highly variable precipitation regimes.


Assuntos
Clima , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Agricultura , Animais , Modelos Biológicos
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