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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 259, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670785

RESUMO

In recent years much effort has been made to increase the Sn content in GeSn alloys in order to increase direct bandgap charge carrier recombination and, therefore, to reach room temperature lasing. While being successful for the former, the increase of Sn content is detrimental, leading to increased defect concentrations and a lower thermal budget regarding processing. In this work we demonstrate strong photoluminescence enhancement in low Sn content Ge0.94Sn0.06 layers by implementing tensile strain. Fitting of the calculated photoluminescence spectra to reproduce our experimental results indicates a strain of ~1.45%, induced via an SiNx stressor layer, which is strong enough to transform the investigated layer into a direct bandgap semiconductor. Moreover, theoretical calculations, using the 8-band k·p model, show the advantages of using low Sn content tensile strained GeSn layers in respect to gain and lasing temperature. We show that low Sn content GeSn alloys have a strong potential to enable efficient room temperature lasers on electronic-photonic integrated circuits.

2.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15557, 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348982

RESUMO

Since the first demonstration of lasing in direct bandgap GeSn semiconductors, the research efforts for the realization of electrically pumped group IV lasers monolithically integrated on Si have significantly intensified. This led to epitaxial studies of GeSn/SiGeSn hetero- and nanostructures, where charge carrier confinement strongly improves the radiative emission properties. Based on recent experimental literature data, in this report we discuss the advantages of GeSn/SiGeSn multi quantum well and quantum dot structures, aiming to propose a roadmap for group IV epitaxy. Calculations based on 8-band k∙p and effective mass method have been performed to determine band discontinuities, the energy difference between Γ- and L-valley conduction band edges, and optical properties such as material gain and optical cross section. The effects of these parameters are systematically analyzed for an experimentally achievable range of Sn (10 to 20 at.%) and Si (1 to 10 at.%) contents, as well as strain values (-1 to 1%). We show that charge carriers can be efficiently confined in the active region of optical devices for experimentally acceptable Sn contents in both multi quantum well and quantum dot configurations.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 5(6): 1700955, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938172

RESUMO

Growth and characterization of advanced group IV semiconductor materials with CMOS-compatible applications are demonstrated, both in photonics. The investigated GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructures combine direct bandgap GeSn active layers with indirect gap ternary SiGeSn claddings, a design proven its worth already decades ago in the III-V material system. Different types of double heterostructures and multi-quantum wells (MQWs) are epitaxially grown with varying well thicknesses and barriers. The retaining high material quality of those complex structures is probed by advanced characterization methods, such as atom probe tomography and dark-field electron holography to extract composition parameters and strain, used further for band structure calculations. Special emphasis is put on the impact of carrier confinement and quantization effects, evaluated by photoluminescence and validated by theoretical calculations. As shown, particularly MQW heterostructures promise the highest potential for efficient next generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible group IV lasers.

4.
Nano Lett ; 18(3): 1707-1713, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425440

RESUMO

There are a number of theoretical proposals based on strain engineering of graphene and other two-dimensional materials, however purely mechanical control of strain fields in these systems has remained a major challenge. The two approaches mostly used so far either couple the electrical and mechanical properties of the system simultaneously or introduce some unwanted disturbances due to the substrate. Here, we report on silicon micromachined comb-drive actuators to controllably and reproducibly induce strain in a suspended graphene sheet in an entirely mechanical way. We use spatially resolved confocal Raman spectroscopy to quantify the induced strain, and we show that different strain fields can be obtained by engineering the clamping geometry, including tunable strain gradients of up to 1.4%/µm. Our approach also allows for multiple axis straining and is equally applicable to other two-dimensional materials, opening the door to investigating their mechanical and electromechanical properties. Our measurements also clearly identify defects at the edges of a graphene sheet as being weak spots responsible for its mechanical failure.

5.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15704, 2017 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604672

RESUMO

Three-dimensional topological insulators host surface states with linear dispersion, which manifest as a Dirac cone. Nanoscale transport measurements provide direct access to the transport properties of the Dirac cone in real space and allow the detailed investigation of charge carrier scattering. Here we use scanning tunnelling potentiometry to analyse the resistance of different kinds of defects at the surface of a (Bi0.53Sb0.47)2Te3 topological insulator thin film. We find the largest localized voltage drop to be located at domain boundaries in the topological insulator film, with a resistivity about four times higher than that of a step edge. Furthermore, we resolve resistivity dipoles located around nanoscale voids in the sample surface. The influence of such defects on the resistance of the topological surface state is analysed by means of a resistor network model. The effect resulting from the voids is found to be small compared with the other defects.

6.
Small ; 13(16)2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28160408

RESUMO

SiGeSn ternaries are grown on Ge-buffered Si wafers incorporating Si or Sn contents of up to 15 at%. The ternaries exhibit layer thicknesses up to 600 nm, while maintaining a high crystalline quality. Tuning of stoichiometry and strain, as shown by means of absorption measurements, allows bandgap engineering in the short-wave infrared range of up to about 2.6 µm. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence experiments indicate ternaries near the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition, proving their potential for ternary-based light emitters in the aforementioned optical range. The ternaries' layer relaxation is also monitored to explore their use as strain-relaxed buffers, since they are of interest not only for light emitting diodes investigated in this paper but also for many other optoelectronic and electronic applications. In particular, the authors have epitaxially grown a GeSn/SiGeSn multiquantum well heterostructure, which employs SiGeSn as barrier material to efficiently confine carriers in GeSn wells. Strong room temperature light emission from fabricated light emitting diodes proves the high potential of this heterostructure approach.

7.
Opt Express ; 23(18): 23526-50, 2015 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26368451

RESUMO

We report on the design of Silicon Mach-Zehnder carrier depletion modulators relying on epitaxially grown vertical junction diodes. Unprecedented spatial control over doping profiles resulting from combining local ion implantation with epitaxial overgrowth enables highly linear phase shifters with high modulation efficiency and comparatively low insertion losses. A high average phase shifter efficiency of VπL = 0.74 V⋅cm is reached between 0 V and 2 V reverse bias, while maintaining optical losses at 4.2 dB/mm and the intrinsic RC cutoff frequency at 48 GHz (both at 1 V reverse bias). The fabrication process, the sensitivity to fabrication tolerances, the phase shifter performance and examples of lumped element and travelling wave modulators are modeled in detail. Device linearity is shown to be sufficient to support complex modulation formats such as 16-QAM.

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