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1.
Intern Med ; 2024 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39019603

RESUMO

Objective Abstaining from alcohol improves the outcome of alcohol-related cirrhosis. This study evaluated the effect of alcohol abstinence on the outcomes of patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis recruited from a core hospital in Boso Peninsula, Japan. Methods This single-center retrospective study recruited 116 patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis who were admitted to our department between April 2014 and October 2022. Taking the day of discharge as day 0, the patients were divided into two groups based on their subsequent behavior (abstinence/non-abstinence from alcohol). The study analysis included 98 patients after excluding 13 who died during hospitalization and 5 for whom follow-up at our hospital ended after discharge. We evaluated differences in the patient survival between the abstaining and drinking groups. Results The abstaining and drinking groups comprised 57 and 41 patients, respectively. We excluded from the analysis 10 and 6 patients with viable hepatocellular carcinoma in the abstaining and drinking groups, respectively. The findings revealed that the survival rate plateaued in the abstaining group from the third year onward, whereas the survival rate in the drinking group gradually decreased with time. Conclusion Our findings suggest that at least two years of alcohol abstinence is required to sustain the survival of patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis. The data collected by our hospital retrospectively demonstrated the importance of abstinence on a timescale of years of sustained abstinence.

2.
Wellcome Open Res ; 9: 4, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39015614

RESUMO

Background: The proposed research aims to test the effects and mechanisms of a six-month yoga-based intervention as an add-on to standard treatment in opioid use disorder (OUD) by conducting a randomized controlled study with the following primary outcome variables: 1) clinical: abstinence (opioid negative urine test), and reductions in pain and craving, and 2) mechanisms: reward circuit activation in response to opioid visual cue craving paradigm, activation in response to a cognitive control task, and resting state functional connectivity through fMRI, and plasma beta-endorphin levels. Secondary outcome variables are perceived stress, anxiety, sleep quality, cognitive performance, pain threshold, buprenorphine dosage and side effects, withdrawal symptoms, socio-occupational functioning, vedic personality traits, heart rate variability, serum cortisol, and brain GABA levels through magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods: In this single-blinded, randomized, controlled, parallel-group superiority trial with 1:1 allocation ratio, 164 patients with OUD availing the outpatient/ inpatient clinical services at a tertiary mental healthcare hospital in India will be enrolled after giving informed consent. Consecutive consenting patients will be randomly allotted to one of the two groups - yoga arm (standard treatment + yoga-based intervention), or waitlist group (standard treatment alone). Allocation concealment will be followed, the clinicians, outcome assessors and data analysts will remain blind to subject-group allocation. A validated and standardized yoga program for OUD will be used as an intervention. Participants in the yoga arm will receive 10 supervised in-person sessions of yoga in the initial two weeks followed by tele-yoga sessions thrice a week for the next 22 weeks. The wait-list control group will continue the standard treatment alone for 24 weeks. Assessments will be done at baseline, two weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. Data from all randomized subjects will be analysed using intent-to-treat analysis and mixed model multivariate analysis. Dissemination: Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication, conference presentations, and social media. Trial registration number: The trial has been registered under Clinical Trials Registry-India with registration number CTRI/2023/03/050737.

3.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(7)2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38981852

RESUMO

Previously, we found that dCA1 A1-like polarization of astrocytes contributes a lot to the spatial memory deficit in methamphetamine abstinence mice. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear, resulting in a lack of promising therapeutic targets. Here, we found that methamphetamine abstinence mice exhibited an increased M1-like microglia and A1-like astrocytes, together with elevated levels of interleukin 1α and tumor necrosis factor α in dCA1. In vitro, the M1-like BV2 microglia cell medium, containing high levels of Interleukin 1α and tumor necrosis factor α, elevated A1-like polarization of astrocytes, which weakened their capacity for glutamate clearance. Locally suppressing dCA1 M1-like microglia activation with minocycline administration attenuated A1-like polarization of astrocytes, ameliorated dCA1 neurotoxicity, and, most importantly, rescued spatial memory in methamphetamine abstinence mice. The effective time window of minocycline treatment on spatial memory is the methamphetamine exposure period, rather than the long-term methamphetamine abstinence.


Assuntos
Astrócitos , Transtornos da Memória , Metanfetamina , Microglia , Minociclina , Memória Espacial , Animais , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/patologia , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Minociclina/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/metabolismo , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/patologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/toxicidade
4.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2024 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38997575

RESUMO

This study investigated the relationship between sexuality education in U.S. public schools and women's pornography use. Utilizing quantitative methods, we examined a sample of women attending U.S. public schools who reported regular pornography use. Results revealed that, regardless of the type of sexuality education received, women exhibited similar rates of pornography use, with 60% reporting its use. A substantial portion (69%) of the women began using pornography during childhood or adolescence. Women who received abstinence only sexuality education reported higher frequencies of pornography use compared to their comprehensive sexuality education counterparts. About 79% of women using pornography perceived it as a source of sexuality learning, especially regarding sexual pleasure. However, they expressed reluctance in using pornography for sexual education and did not consider it a preferred method for learning about sexuality. The findings suggest the need for comprehensive sexuality education that addresses essential topics, such as sexual pleasure and sexual script development, to cater to women's diverse learning needs, ideally taught by parents or primary caregivers, but may be necessary for public education in the absence of parental instruction. Policymakers and educators should bridge these gaps to develop more effective sexuality education curricula. This study contributes valuable insights, highlighting the importance of an inclusive approach to sexuality education in U.S. public schools. Future research should explore the implications of different sexuality education approaches on women's sexual development and well-being, emphasizing comprehensive education to foster healthy sexual behaviors among women.

5.
Front Psychiatry ; 15: 1420508, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38993382

RESUMO

Background: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a major public health concern due to its various physical, psychological, and social consequences. Despite regulatory differences, abstinence remains the primary treatment objective. Addressing the multifaceted nature of alcohol use disorder requires a comprehensive approach. Methods: 150 AUD patients (66%male) with a mean age of 54.10 ± 11.3 years were recruited for the study. Depression, impulsivity, alexithymia, and hopelessness were assessed to determine if there were significant differences in these dimensions between abstinent (N=72) and active drinkers (N=78). Results: The study found significant differences in the psychological dimensions scores, active drinkers exhibited higher levels of depression, impulsivity, alexithymia, and hopelessness compared to abstinent patients. Conclusion: Treatment outcomes for patients with AUD vary between regulatory agencies, but abstinence remains the safest and most preferred objective in managing AUD. Prioritizing abstinence-oriented interventions is crucial for achieving long term recovery and minimizing relapse risk. These results emphasize the intricate relationship between AUD and mental health issues, highlighting the need for comprehensive interventions addressing both alcohol consumption and associated psychological distress. Promoting abstinence (or at least reducing alcohol consumption) not only preserves mental health but also prevents life-threatening consequences such as suicide.

6.
J Psychiatr Res ; 177: 1-10, 2024 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38964089

RESUMO

The variation in improvement among individuals with addiction after abstinence is a critical issue. Here, we aimed to identify robust multimodal markers associated with high response to 8-month abstinence in the individuals with heroin use disorder (HUD) and explore whether the identified markers could be generalized to the individuals with methamphetamine use disorder (MUD). According to the median of craving changes, 53 individuals with HUD with 8-month abstinence were divided into two groups: higher craving reduction and lower craving reduction. At baseline, clinical variables, cortical thickness and subcortical volume, fractional anisotropy (FA) of fibers and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) were extracted. Different strategies (single metric, multimodal neuroimaging fusion and multimodal neuroimaging-clinical data fusion) were used to identify reliable features for discriminating the individuals with HUD with higher craving reduction from those with lower reduction. The generalization ability of the identified features was validated in the 21 individuals with MUD. Multimodal neuroimaging-clinical fusion features with best performance was achieved an 87.1 ± 3.89% average accuracy in individuals with HUD, with a moderate accuracy of 66.7% when generalizing to individuals with MUD. The multimodal neuroimaging features, primarily converging in frontal regions (e.g., the left superior frontal (LSF) thickness, FA of the LSF-occipital tract, and RSFC of left middle frontal-right superior temporal lobe), collectively contributed to prediction alongside dosage and attention impulsiveness. In this study, we identified the validated multimodal frontal neuroimaging markers associated with higher response to long-term abstinence and revealed insights for the neural mechanisms of addiction abstinence, contributing to clinical strategies and treatment for addiction.

7.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 130, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970058

RESUMO

New types of nicotine and tobacco products like electronic cigarettes (ECs), heated tobacco products or nicotine pouches have been discussed as less harmful alternatives to combustible cigarettes and other toxic forms of tobacco products. Their harm reduction potential lay in the efficient transition away from smoking to those new products. Numerous studies addressing the cessation efficacy of ECs have been published with contradictory outcomes. Yet, a comprehensive Cochrane review concluded with high certainty on the cessation efficacy of ECs. This prompted us to perform a review to identify weaknesses in common study designs and to summarize best practices for the study design on the potential of new nicotine products as cessation aids. 120 articles retrieved from Medline were found to be eligible. Most of the studies in the field were interventional trials while observational studies played a minor role in the evaluation of smoking cessation. Efficacy was predominantly assessed for ECs in 77% of the reports while heated tobacco (17%) and non-combustible products (11%) were less frequently investigated up to now. Measures to determine the efficacy were questionnaire-based assessments as well as use documentation/prevalence and abstinence rates. Studies varied largely in their duration and sample size with medians of 3 months and 156.5 participants, respectively.With the help of this review, we identified several weaknesses in the common study designs. One major limitation in longitudinal trials was the lack of compliance measures suited to verify the use status over longer time periods, relying solely on self-reports. Moreover, the motivation of the participants to quit was rarely defined and a profound familiarization period was not taken into account for the majority of the studies. To what extent such weaknesses influence the outcome of the studies was beyond the scope of this review. We encourage researchers to consider the recommendations which resulted from this review in order to determine the abuse liability and cessation efficacy of the products in a more robust manner. Finally, we like to call attention to the missing data for low- and middle-income countries which would require quitting strategies most urgently to combat the tobacco smoking epidemic.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Redução do Dano , Nicotina , Projetos de Pesquisa , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Produtos do Tabaco , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Front Pharmacol ; 15: 1405446, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38887549

RESUMO

Alcohol misuse is the third leading preventable cause of death in the world. The World Health Organization currently estimates that 1 in 20 deaths are directly alcohol related. One of the ways in which consuming excessive levels of alcohol can both directly and indirectly affect human mortality and morbidity, is through chronic inflammation. Recently, studies have suggested a link between increased alcohol use and the incidence of neuroinflammatory-related diseases. However, the mechanism in which alcohol potentially influences neuroinflammatory processes is still being uncovered. We implemented an unbiased proteomics exploration of alcohol-induced changes in the striatum, with a specific emphasis on proteins related to inflammation. The striatum is a brain region that is critically involved with the progression of alcohol use disorder. Using mass spectrometry following voluntary alcohol self-administration in mice, we show that distinct protein abundances and signaling pathways in different subregions of the striatum are disrupted by chronic exposure to alcohol compared to water drinking control mice. Further, in mice that were allowed to experience abstinence from alcohol compared to mice that were non-abstinent, the overall proteome and signaling pathways showed additional differences, suggesting that the responses evoked by chronic alcohol exposure are dependent on alcohol use history. To our surprise we did not find that chronic alcohol drinking or abstinence altered protein abundance or pathways associated with inflammation, but rather affected proteins and pathways associated with neurodegeneration and metabolic, cellular organization, protein translation, and molecular transport processes. These outcomes suggest that in this drinking model, alcohol-induced neuroinflammation in the striatum is not a primary outcome controlling altered neurobehavioral function, but these changes are rather mediated by altered striatal neuronal structure and cellular health.

9.
J Adolesc ; 2024 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38922710

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The United States has the highest teen pregnancy rate and sexually transmitted infection rates among developed countries. One common approach that has been implemented to reduce these rates is abstinence-only-until-marriage programs that advocate for delaying sexual intercourse until marriage. These programs focus on changing adolescents' beliefs toward abstinence until marriage; however, it is unclear whether adolescents' beliefs about abstinence predict their sexual behavior, including sexual risk behavior (SRB). An alternative approach may be encouraging youth to delay their sexual debut until they reach the age of maturity, but not necessarily until marriage. METHODS: To address this question, we compare the longitudinal association between abstinence beliefs (i.e., abstaining completely until marriage) and beliefs about delayed sexual debut with subsequent SRB 24 months later. The harmonized data set included 4620 (58.2% female, Mage = 13.0, SDage = 0.93) participants from three randomized controlled trials attending 44 schools in the southern United States. Negative binomial regressions were employed to examine the association of abstinence until marriage beliefs and beliefs regarding delaying sex with SRB. RESULTS: We identified that beliefs supporting delaying sex until an age of maturity were associated with lower odds of engaging in SRB, such as having multiple sex partners and frequency of condomless sex, for both sexes. However, stronger abstinence beliefs had no significant associations with all SRB outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest prevention programming that focuses on encouraging youth to delay sex until an appropriate age of maturity may be more effective at preventing SRB and consequent negative sexual health outcomes.

10.
Addiction ; 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A 12-week placebo-controlled, sequential parallel Accelerated Development of Additive Pharmacotherapy Treatment for Methamphetamine Use Disorder (ADAPT-2) trial evaluated the effects of extended-release injectable naltrexone plus extended-release oral bupropion (NTX + BUPN) on methamphetamine (MA) use over two stages. This study reports on the previously unpublished stage 2 MA use in participants randomized at stage 1 to receive NTX + BUPN through both stages compared with those assigned to placebo. DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of the US National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) ADAPT-2 network trial. SETTING: The parent ADAPT-2 trial was carried out across multiple NIDA Clinical Trials Network (CTN) sites in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: This analysis includes 403 people with MA use disorder who participated in the ADAPT-2 CTN trial. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: NTX + BUPN was compared with placebo over the course of the trial. MEASUREMENT: MA use was measured by urine drug screens conducted twice weekly for 12 weeks, then once in week 13 and once in week 16 post-treatment follow-up. FINDINGS: Participants on NTX + BUPN in stage 1 showed an additional 9.2% increase [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.09%-17.9%, P = 0.038] during stage 2 in their probability of testing negative for MA, with a total increase of 27.1% (95% CI, 13.2%-41.1%, P < 0.001) over the full 12 weeks of treatment. In contrast, participants on placebo in both stages increased in probability of testing MA-negative by a total of 11.4% (95% CI, 4.1%-18.6%, P = 0.002) over all 12 weeks. The 12-week increase among participants on NTX + BUPN was significantly greater-by 15.8% (95% CI, 4.5%-27.0%, P = 0.006)-than the increase among those on placebo. CONCLUSION: For people with methamphetamine (MA) use disorder receiving treatment with extended-release injectable naltrexone plus extended-release oral bupropion (NTX + BUPN), continued treatment with NTX + BUPN after 6 weeks is associated with additional reductions in MA use up to 12 weeks.

11.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(10): 1495-1502, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831539

RESUMO

Background: Although social determinants of health (SDoH) have increasingly been understood as clinically important factors in the onset, maintenance, and relapse of substance use behavior, little research has evaluated neighborhood vigilance in terms of smoking. Objectives: The present investigation sought to evaluate the role of neighborhood vigilance in terms of smoking abstinence expectancies (i.e., perceived consequences of refraining from smoking, including negative mood, somatic symptoms, harmful consequences, and positive consequences) and severity of problems when trying to quit among adults who smoke. Results: Participants included 93 treatment-seeking people who smoke (45.2 years of age and 29% identified as female). Results: indicated that greater levels of neighborhood vigilance were associated with negative mood and harmful consequences abstinence expectancies. No effect was evident for somatic symptom abstinence expectancies after Bonferroni correction. Conclusions: As expected, neighborhood vigilance was not predictive of positive abstinence expectancies, offering explanatory specificity. Neighborhood vigilance was also associated with more severe problems when trying to quit smoking. The current findings suggest neighborhood vigilance represents an important contextual factor involved in certain negative beliefs about abstinence and challenges in quitting.


Assuntos
Características de Residência , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Fumar/psicologia
12.
Acad Pediatr ; 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intrauterine opioid exposure (IOE) has increased over the last 2 decades and is associated with additional needs after birth. To date, no clinical guidelines address the primary care of children with IOE. We aimed to characterize clinician-reported screening and referral practices, barriers to effective primary care for children with IOE, and clinician- and practice-level characteristics associated with perceived barriers. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of pediatric residents, pediatricians, and advanced practitioners at 28 primary care clinics affiliated with 7 pediatric residency programs (April-June 2022). We assessed screening and other clinical practices related to IOE and perceived barriers to addressing parental opioid use disorder (OUD). We used descriptive statistics to analyze survey responses, assessed the distribution of reported barriers, and applied a 2-stage cluster analysis to assess response patterns. RESULTS: Of 1004 invited clinicians, 329 (32.8%) responses were returned, and 325 pediatric residents and pediatricians were included in the final analytic sample. Almost all (99.3%) reported parental substance use screening as important, but only 11.6% screened routinely. Half of the respondents routinely refer children with IOE to early intervention services and social work. Lack of standard screening for substance use was the most frequently selected barrier to addressing parental OUD. Participants reporting fewer barriers to addressing parental OUD identified having greater access to OUD treatment programs and home visiting programs. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians report variations in primary care screenings and referrals for children with IOE. Access to parental OUD treatment programs may mitigate perceived barriers to addressing parental OUD in the pediatric office.

14.
PCN Rep ; 3(1): e174, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38868485

RESUMO

Aim: To identify situational factors that can predict drug abstention in patients with drug use disorders undergoing residential drug use treatment. Methods: Patients with drug use disorders admitted to drug addiction rehabilitation centers (DARCs) in 2016 were involved in this study. Longitudinal panel data were used, with eight follow-up surveys over 6 years, approximately every 6 months. Of the 2752 samples from the eight follow-up surveys, 2293 were analyzed as the complete panel data set. The primary outcome was drug abstention for approximately 6 months. The influences of situational factors during this period on the primary outcome were also assessed using a generalized linear mixed model in which inter-individual differences were controlled as variable effects. Results: The use of residential DARCs positively influenced the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.79-6.21) when compared to no DARC usage. The cessation of drinking also positively affected the primary outcome (AOR 3.10, 95% CI 1.79-4.62), while employment status (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.12-4.41) and the cessation of drinking (AOR 4.92, 95% CI 2.77-8.72) positively impacted the primary outcomes of patients not using DARCs. Conclusion: The use of residential DARCs and the cessation of drinking positively affected drug abstention rates. Employment and the cessation of drinking for patients who were not using the DARCs also had a positive effect. This information will aid in the development of social recovery strategies for people with drug use disorders.

15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1373426, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828413

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of ejaculatory abstinence on sperm parameters. Methods: This analysis was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42023472124). We performed a search on PubMed using the following text terms: (("sperm parameters" OR "sperm analysis" [Mesh]) AND ("sperm DNA fragmentation" OR "DNA fragmentation" [Mesh]) AND ("sexual abstinence" [Mesh] OR "abstinence")) and an advanced search in Scopus using the terms ("sperm parameters" OR "sperm parameters" OR "DNA fragmentation") AND ("abstinence"). The sperm parameters that were investigated were sperm volume, total sperm motility, progressive sperm motility, sperm concentration, sperm morphology, and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF). A two-day cut-off as a "short" or "long" abstinence period has been defined. Results: Thirteen studies published between 2013 and 2022 were included in this meta-analysis. A total of 2,315 patients, ranging from 6 to 836 from each cohort, were enrolled in the study. We showed that longer abstinence time was associated with greater sperm concentration (mean difference [MD]: 8.19; p <0.01), sperm volume (MD: 0.96; p <0.01), and higher SDF (MD: 3.46; p <0.01), but lower progressive sperm motility (MD: -1.83; p <0.01). Otherwise, no statistically significant difference was observed in patients with longer vs. shorter abstinence times regarding total sperm motility (MD: -1.83; p = 0.06). Meta-regression analysis showed that days of abstinence were positively and linearly related to sperm concentration (slope: 3.74; p <0.01) and SDF (slope: 0.65; p = 0.044). Conclusions: According to our data, short ejaculatory abstinence is associated with better sperm quality. Indeed, a higher percentage of progressive sperm motility and lower levels of SDF have been reported in a short abstinence cohort. In contrast, the long abstinence group reported a higher sperm concentration. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, identifier CRD42023472124.


Assuntos
Ejaculação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Abstinência Sexual , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides , Masculino , Humanos , Ejaculação/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Análise do Sêmen , Fragmentação do DNA , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Addict Behav ; 157: 108077, 2024 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851142

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study assessed quit attempts among adults who use cigarettes either exclusively or with e-cigarettes in Mexico, where non-daily smoking predominates. METHODS: An open cohort of Mexican adults who smoke was surveyed every four months from November 2018 to March 2021. Participants followed to the next survey were analyzed (n = 2220 individuals, 4560 observations). Multinomial logistic models regressed smoking quit attempts reported at the followup survey (ref = no attempt; tried to quit; sustained attempt of ≥30 days) on e-cigarette use frequency (none = ref; 1-2 days/week; ≥3 days/week), adjusting for sociodemographics and smoking-related variables. Additional models subdivided e-cigarette users by intentions to quit smoking in the next six months (i.e., yes/no), use of nicotine (i.e., yes/no), and vaping device used (i.e., open/closed). RESULTS: At 4-month follow-up, 32.7 % had tried to quit, and 2.9 % had quit for 30 days or more. Compared to those who smoke exclusively, occasional, and frequent e-cigarette users were more likely to try to quit (Adjusted Relative Risk Ratio or ARRR = 1.26 and 1.66, respectively) but no more likely to sustain their quit attempt. Among those who intended to quit smoking, e-cigarette users were no more likely to either try or sustain quit attempts. Furthermore, use of e-cigarettes with nicotine (59.6 %) was unassociated with cessation except that those who frequently used e-cigarettes with nicotine were more likely to try to quit than those who smoke exclusively (ARRR = 1.88). Device type used was not differentially associated with outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Mexicans who smoke and use e-cigarettes appear more likely than those who smoke exclusively to try to quit but not to sustain abstinence.

17.
Addict Biol ; 29(6): e13405, 2024 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837586

RESUMO

AIMS: Abuse of methamphetamine has aroused concern worldwide. Stimulant use and sexual behaviours have been linked in behavioural and epidemiological studies. Although methamphetamine-related neurofunctional differences are reported in previous studies, only few studies have examined neurofunctional changes related to methamphetamine and sexual cues in methamphetamine dependence from short- to long-term abstinence. METHODS: Neurofunctional changes were measured using a cue-reactivity task involving methamphetamine, sexual, and neutral cues in 20 methamphetamine abusers who were evaluated after a short- (1 week to 3 months) and long-term (10-15 months) abstinence. RESULTS: Five brain regions mainly involved in the occipital lobe and the parietal lobe were found with the group-by-condition interaction. Region-of-interest analyses found higher sexual-cue-related activation than other two activations in all five brain regions in the long-term methamphetamine abstinence group while no group differences were found. Negative relationships between motor impulsivity and methamphetamine- or sexual-cue-related activations in the left middle occipital gyrus, the superior parietal gyrus and the right angular gyrus were found. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggested that methamphetamine abstinence may change the neural response of methamphetamine abusers to methamphetamine and sexual cues, and the neurofunction of the five brain regions reported in this study may partly recover with long-term methamphetamine abstinence. Given the use and relapse of methamphetamine for sexual purposes, the findings of this study may have particular clinical relevance.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas , Sinais (Psicologia) , Metanfetamina , Comportamento Sexual , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Adulto , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Lobo Parietal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Lobo Occipital/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento Impulsivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Health Promot Int ; 39(3)2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38899832

RESUMO

Studies that have examined young people's drinking behaviour, particularly how they abstain from alcohol or drink lightly and their motivations, have focused on Western contexts. Currently, studies on how and why young Africans abstain from alcohol or drink moderately are lacking. Therefore, there is a need to examine young people's drinking behaviours/practices on the continent to facilitate health promotion interventions. This study, which uses qualitative data elicited from 53 participants, explores how young Nigerian men and women who consume alcohol and drink heavily enact and negotiate abstinence and moderate drinking and the factors that motivate their choices. Some participants constructed situational abstinence, while others participated in temporary light drinking in their friendship networks, but these attracted some consequences. Peers pressured them, but some deployed the ability to offer 'valid' explanations and express self-determination and agency to ward off such pressures and negotiate situational abstinence or moderate drinking. Additionally, the fear of public embarrassment, negative publicity on social media due to intoxication and parental influences motivated some participants' occasional sobriety. Others relied on previous personal or friends' negative experiences of drunkenness or the consequences of heavy drinking represented in movies and books to construct occasional light drinking. The findings demonstrated how enacting and rejecting particular forms of masculinity and embodied gendered drinking practices, more generally, in some friendship groups, facilitated situational abstinence and moderation. Policymakers should partner with young people to design interventions that encourage abstinence or moderation and mitigate the current drinking practices in Nigeria, which will enhance health promotion.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Nigéria , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Abstinência de Álcool/psicologia , Motivação , Grupo Associado , Negociação , População da África Ocidental
19.
Nervenarzt ; 2024 Jun 26.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38926260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Germany 1.5-2.75 million children live in families affected by substance use disorders. Substance abuse can impact on family interactions in many ways. If a dependent parental drug use continues over a longer period of time, this can have pronounced psychological and social consequences for the (co)affected children. Nevertheless, family-focused treatment approaches are not yet widely used in the context of addiction treatment. AIM: This review article aims to provide an overview of the prevalence of parenthood among dependent drug users in Germany, the impact of dependent drug use on families and family-focused treatment approaches. METHODS AND RESULTS: Recording parenthood is particularly difficult in the case of dependent drug users as they often do not openly discuss it with their therapists because of the fear of consequences from youth welfare services. In order to change this, a structured recording of parenthood by the treatment providers is required. This is the prerequisite for being able to offer family-focused treatment to those affected. In Germany, three evidence-based therapy programs are available for this purpose: SHIFT, SHIFT Plus and MAMADAM. Additionally, a number of programs developed in the Anglo-American region can also be used. In contrast, the evidence for web-based programs is much weaker. DISCUSSION: In order to establish family-focused treatment approaches for drug-using parents across the board, long-term, secure funding is required. The necessary framework conditions must be created at a political level.

20.
Alcohol ; 120: 1-14, 2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38897258

RESUMO

A preclinical model of human adolescent binge drinking, adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) recreates the heavy binge withdrawal consummatory patterns of adolescents and has identified the loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons as a pathological hallmark of this model. Cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NbM) that innervate the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are particularly vulnerable to alcohol related neurodegeneration. Target derived neurotrophins (nerve growth factor [NGF] and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]) regulate cholinergic phenotype expression and survival. Evidence from other disease models implicates the role of immature neurotrophin, or proneurotrophins, activity at neurotrophic receptors in promoting cholinergic degeneration; however, it has yet to be explored in adolescent binge drinking. We sought to characterize the pro- and mature neurotrophin expression, alongside their cognate receptors and cholinergic markers in an AIE model. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats underwent 5 g/kg 20% EtOH or water gavage on two-day-on, two-day-off cycles from post-natal day 25-57. Rats were sacrificed 2 h, 24 h, or 3 weeks following the last gavage, and tissue were collected for protein measurement. Western blot analyses revealed that ethanol intoxication reduced the expression of BDNF and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (vAChT) in the PFC, while NGF was lower in the NbM of AIE treated animals. During acute alcohol withdrawal, proNGF in the PFC was increased while proBDNF decreased, and in the NbM proBDNF increased while NGF decreased. During AIE abstinence, the expression of neurotrophins, their receptors, and vAChT did not differ from controls in the PFC. In contrast, in the NbM the expression of both NGF and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were reduced long-term following AIE. Taken together these findings suggest that AIE alters the expression of proneurotrophins and neurotrophins during intoxication and withdrawal that favor prodegenerative mechanisms by increasing the expression of proNGF and proBDNF, while also reducing NGF and BDNF.

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