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1.
Int J Dev Disabil ; 70(4): 641-650, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38983493

RESUMO

Inappropriate sexual behaviors may be observed in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), especially during adolescence. There are several undesired consequences of exhibiting such behaviors in public spaces, such as schools. The competencies and attitudes of special education teachers, who are responsible for the education of individuals with ID, are of significant influence. This study was conducted to investigate the views of special education teachers working with adolescents with ID on inappropriate sexual behaviors exhibited in educational settings. Accordingly, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 special education teachers. The phenomenological research design, one of the qualitative research methods, and thematic analysis were used in this study. Five themes were identified after the analysis of the findings of the study, namely, common behaviors, teacher attitudes, teacher competencies, teacher interventions, and educational content. The findings were discussed on the basis of the relevant studies in the literature and a number of conclusions were reached. Accordingly, the inappropriate sexual behaviors that special education teachers encounter the most frequently are masturbation, undressing, and touching, and when these behaviors are exhibited aggressively, teachers have difficulty in intervening. Participants regard themselves to be incompetent in terms of sexual education and consider relevant educational content inadequate.

2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15849, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982172

RESUMO

Dietary antioxidants may have beneficial effects on bone health, but it remains uncertain in children and adolescents. This study investigates the association of composite dietary antioxidant index (CDAI) with bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents aged 8-19 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. The study assessed the relationship between CDAI and BMD in 2994 individuals aged 8-19 years (average age 13.48 ± 3.32 years) from the NHANES 2007-2010. Multivariate linear regression analyses were utilized to detect the association between CDAI and total spine, femur neck, and total femur BMD, adjusting for confounders including age, race/ethnicity, sex, poverty income ratio (PIR), body mass index (BMI), serum phosphorus and calcium. Stratified analyses and interaction tests were performed to examine the stability of the results. The weighted characteristics showed that subjects in the fourth CDAI quartile were more likely to be older, men, and Non-Hispanic White. They have higher values of serum total calcium and phosphorus. After adjusting all confounders, CDAI was positively associated with the total spine (ß = 0.0031 95% CI 0.0021-0.0040), total femur (ß = 0.0039 95% CI 0.0028-0.0049), and femur neck BMD (ß = 0.0031 95% CI 0.0021-0.0040) in children and adolescents. Furthermore, we found no interaction effects between different race/ethnicity, age, and sex groups. Our findings suggest that dietary intake of multiple antioxidants was positively associated with BMD in children and adolescents. These findings provide valuable evidence for improving bone health in the early stages of life. However, more prospective studies are required to validate our findings and their causal relationship.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Densidade Óssea , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , Dieta , Colo do Fêmur
3.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980647

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate whether differences exist between younger and older presenting adolescents at the Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria regarding psychological functioning and autistic traits. A total of 1487 consecutively assessed adolescents between 2000 and 2018 were divided in younger presenters (age ≤ 13.9 years) and older presenters (age ≥ 14 years). Of younger presenters, 227 (41.1%) were assigned male at birth and 325 (58.9%) assigned female at birth. In older presenters, 279 (29.8%) were assigned male at birth and 656 (70.2%) assigned female at birth. Behavioral and emotional problems were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR). For autism traits, the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was used. Compared to younger presenters, on both the CBCL and YSR older presenters had higher Total Problem (ß = 1.75, p = .005, CI 0.53-2.97, R2 = .04 and ß = 4.20, p < .001, CI 2.99-5.40, R2 = .07, respectively) and Internalizing Problem (ß = 4.43, p < .001, CI 3.13-5.74, R2 = .06 and ß = 6.69, p < .001, CI 5.31-8.07, R2 = .12, respectively) scores. Regarding autistic traits, a higher mean SRS total score was found in older presenting assigned males at birth (ß = 4.55, p = .036, CI 0.30-8.81, R2 = .34). In assigned females at birth, no statistically significant difference between older and younger presenters was found in mean SRS total score (ß = 1.19, p = .063, CI - 0.07 to 2.45, R2 = .39). Differences in mental health exist between younger and older presenting adolescents and call for an individualized approach in the clinical care of transgender adolescents.

4.
Neurobiol Dis ; : 106588, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38960101

RESUMO

Clinical and preclinical evidence has demonstrated an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders following prenatal cannabinoid exposure. However, given the phytochemical complexity of cannabis, there is a need to understand how specific components of cannabis may contribute to these neurodevelopmental risks later in life. To investigate this, a rat model of prenatal cannabinoid exposure was utilized to examine the impacts of specific cannabis constituents (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]; cannabidiol [CBD]) alone and in combination on future neuropsychiatric liability in male and female offspring. Prenatal THC and CBD exposure were associated with low birth weight. At adolescence, offspring displayed sex-specific behavioural changes in anxiety, temporal order and social cognition, and sensorimotor gating. These phenotypes were associated with sex and treatment-specific neuronal and gene transcriptional alterations in the prefrontal cortex, and ventral hippocampus, regions where the endocannabinoid system is implicated in affective and cognitive development. Electrophysiology and RT-qPCR analysis in these regions implicated dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system and balance of excitatory and inhibitory signalling in the developmental consequences of prenatal cannabinoids. These findings reveal critical insights into how specific cannabinoids can differentially impact the developing fetal brains of males and females to enhance subsequent neuropsychiatric risk.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1789, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Youth leisure-time physical activity participation benefits physical activity habits and health outcomes later in life. However, it is unknown if certain types of leisure-time physical activity contribute to these benefits in different ways; this knowledge could enhance public health efforts. This systematic review aimed to synthesise evidence of the longitudinal associations between childhood and adolescent leisure-time physical activity on adulthood physical activity behaviours and health outcomes. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted across five databases from inception to July 2022. English, peer-reviewed observational studies with a minimum of two timepoints of data collection were eligible for inclusion. We included studies that investigated the association between participation in leisure-time physical activity types in children and adolescents (i.e., 5-18 years), and physical activity, mental health, or cardiovascular outcomes in adulthood (i.e., ≥ 18 years). RESULTS: Fourteen studies were included in the review, totalling 34,388 observations across five countries. Running in adolescence was associated with increased adulthood physical activity in both sexes, while sports involvement was associated with an increase in physical activity in males only. Adolescent team sports participation was associated with reduced odds of early adulthood depression, with varying findings for anxiety disorders. There was preliminary evidence of minimum threshold requirements for participation in certain activities before associations with future physical activity or health outcome benefits were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings suggest that the lifelong behavioural and health benefits of adolescent participation in leisure-time physical activity appear to be related to the type of activity undertaken, with potential differences between sexes. With the rarity of longitudinal studies spanning from childhood into adulthood, these findings provide important insights for public health strategies to optimise lifelong health and physical activity participation. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42022347792.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Atividades de Lazer , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde
6.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2024 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39004895

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early adolescence is marked by elevated psychopathology, including disrupted eating attitudes and behaviors. Reward processing is an identified mechanism in portending eating pathology, that is, aberrant reward responsivity may contribute to disrupted reward-seeking behaviors (e.g., food consuming). This literature has focused on adults or mid-to-late adolescents, with little work done on early adolescence. We examined the linkages between reward feedback processing, indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs), and changes of emerging disordered eating in community-dwelling early adolescents. METHOD: At T1, 115 youths (66 girls, mean/SD age = 11.00/1.16 years) completed an EEG monetary reward Doors task. Youths completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Short at T1 and ~6 months (T2) and ~12 months (T3) after T1. In the ERP data, we isolated a reward positivity (RewP) and a late positive potential (LPP) via principal component analysis. We applied multilevel modeling to examine whether baseline ERPs interacted with Time in predicting disordered eating and whether these interactions varied by sex. RESULTS: We found a significant Time × LPP interaction in girls but not boys. Among girls, only those with a smaller LPP toward the losses (versus wins), which might reflect suboptimal evaluation and regulatory processes in undesired situations, showed increases in disordered eating from T1 to T3. DISCUSSION: We provided preliminary yet novel evidence concerning the prospective associations between reward processing and changes of disordered eating in early adolescents. Future studies along this line will be critical for understanding the early mechanisms of eating pathology, identifying youths at risk, and developing prevention strategies.

7.
Internet Interv ; 37: 100753, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39006905

RESUMO

Children and youth from lower subjective socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds are at a heightened risk of mental disorders. Online counseling is a valuable tool to reach those less likely to seek professional help, but its success across different SES backgrounds remains unclear. This study explores the association between subjective SES and online counseling outcomes. Children and youth (N = 2139) between 10 and 24 years-of-age received chat-based online counseling and reported on SES, negative feelings before and after the chat, and perceived helpfulness of the chat via an online assessment tool. The results of a latent change score model showed a significant association between SES and negative feelings before chatting, indicating that lower SES predicted more negative feelings (r = -0.26, p < .001). Further, SES was indirectly associated with the change in negative feelings from before to after counseling, mediated by the extent of negative feelings before the chat (ß = 0.07, 95%CFI = [0.05-0.10]). Current findings extend research on online counseling programs in the context of SES. Despite higher counseling needs among low SES individuals, they do not benefit proportionally from existing online services in this sample. Future research should investigate barriers to help-seeking and implement specialized counselor training programs.

8.
Dev Sci ; : e13544, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39007941

RESUMO

When adult men are made to feel gender-atypical, they often lash out with aggression, particularly when they are pressured (vs. autonomously motivated) to be gender-typical. Here, we examined the development of this phenomenon. Specifically, we provided a first experimental test of whether threatening adolescent boys' perceived gender typicality elicits aggression as a function of their pressured (vs. autonomous) motivation to be gender-typical. We also investigated whether this causal link emerges as a function of boys' chronological age versus pubertal development. Participants were a geographically diverse sample of 207 adolescent US boys (ages 10-14; 23.2% boys of color) and one of their parents. Boys played a "game" and received randomly-assigned feedback that their score was atypical versus typical of their gender. For boys in mid-to-late puberty (but not before), feedback that they are gender-atypical predicted an aggressive reaction, particularly among boys whose motivation to be gender-typical was pressured (vs. autonomous). Next, we explored which aspects of boys' social environments predicted their pressured motivation to be gender-typical. Boys' pressured motivation was positively correlated with their perceptions that their parents and peers would be "upset" if they deviated from gender norms, as well as with their parents' endorsement of so-called hegemonic beliefs about masculinity (i.e., that men should hold power over women). Parents with these beliefs resided in more conservative areas, had less formal education, and had lower incomes. Our results inform theorizing on gender identity development and lay the foundation for mitigating the harmful effects of gender typicality threat among adult men. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Similar to young adult men, adolescent boys in mid-to-late puberty (but not before) responded with aggression to perceived threats to their gender typicality. Aggression was heightened among boys whose motivation to be gender-typical was pressured (i.e., driven by social expectations) rather than autonomous. Which boys showed pressured motivation? Those whose parents endorsed hegemonic beliefs about masculinity (e.g., that men should have more power than people of other genders). Hegemonic beliefs about masculinity were strongest among parents who resided in more conservative US counties, had less formal education, and had lower incomes.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39008097

RESUMO

Over the last decade, there has been a sharp increase in young people seeking medical treatment for gender dysphoria/gender incongruence (GD/GI). The aims of this study were to calculate yearly population-adjusted numbers of children and adolescents referred to the Norwegian National Center for Gender Incongruence (NCGI) at Oslo University Hospital (OUS) from 2000 to 2022; to describe the demographic characteristics and prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses, self-harm and suicide attempts among the referred from 2000 to 2020; and to investigate time trends. The study used data from the Gender Incongruence Registry for Children and Adolescents (GIRCA) in Norway. All persons under 18 years (n = 1258) referred to the NCGI between 2000 and 2020 were included: 68.4% assigned female gender at birth (AFAB) and 31.6% assigned male gender at birth (AMAB). We found a sharp increase in referrals to the NCGI favouring AFAB over AMAB. Nearly two in three (64.5%) had one or more registered psychiatric diagnoses. Self-harm was registered among 35.5%, and 12.7% had attempted suicide. Registered psychiatric diagnoses were significantly (p ≤ 0.001) more prevalent among AFAB (67.8%) than AMAB (57.4%). The number of registered diagnoses per person decreased significantly over time, with an average reduction of 0.02 diagnoses per person per year. Although there was a downward time trend in registered diagnoses per person, the total mental health burden among children and adolescents with GI emphasizes the need for a holistic approach.

10.
Schizophr Res ; 270: 416-422, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38991417

RESUMO

Although many cross-sectional studies showed that psychotic experiences (PEs) and dissociation were closely related, the longitudinal association between them remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the longitudinal association of these two symptoms throughout adolescence, under the hypothesis that these two symptoms are bidirectionally associated. Data were obtained from a population-based cohort, the Tokyo Teen Cohort study (TTC; N = 3171). PEs and dissociation were assessed at 10, 12, 14, and 16 years of age. PEs were assessed using a total score from five-item self-report questionnaires derived from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-C). Dissociation was assessed using subscale scores of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) completed by primary caregivers. We examined the longitudinal relationship between PEs and dissociation using the random intercept cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM). The within-person component of the RI-CLPM revealed no significant cross-lagged effect of dissociation on PEs at any time point. On the other hand, there was a significant (p < 0.05) association between PEs at age 14 and dissociation at age 16 (ß = 0.106, 95 % CI 0.047-0.165). The between-person component revealed a significant time-invariant relationship between the two symptoms (ß = 0.324, 95 % CI 0.239-0.410). The longitudinal relationship between PEs and dissociation was limited at the within-person level, whereas the between-person correlation was significant. The only significant longitudinal pathway was from PEs to dissociation, suggesting that PEs may be a predictor of dissociation in mid-adolescence.

11.
Front Behav Neurosci ; 18: 1433431, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38993266

RESUMO

Investigations in Wistar Albino Glaxo from Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats that are susceptible to genetic absence epilepsy have demonstrated that environmental modifications affect absence seizures. Previously, we showed that neonatal tactile stimulations produce disease-modifying effect on genetically determined absence epilepsy and associated depression in Wag/Rij rats. The study presented here examined the effect of TS during late ontogenesis (adolescence and young adulthood) on epilepsy and depression outcomes in this genetically epileptic rat strain. On postnatal day (PND) 38, male WAG/Rij rats randomly were assigned to either the tactile stimulation (TS), handled or control group (unhandled) with 8 animals in each group. Following a 7-day adaptation period to their new surroundings, the animals were submitted to tactile stimulation from PND 45 to PND 90, five days per week, for 5 min daily. The tactile-stimulated rat was removed from its cage, placed on the experimenter's lap, and had its neck and back gently stroked by the researcher. The handled rats were taken to another cage and left alone for 5 min daily from PND 45 to PND 90. The control rats were left undisturbed in their home cage, except for regular cage cleaning. After PND 90, all rats were left undisturbed until behavioral testing and EEG recording. When the animals were 7 months old, they were subjected to the sucrose consumption test (SCT) and the forced swimming test (FST). Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings were made at 8 months of age in order to measure electroencephalographic seizure activity, thus, the spike-wave discharges (SWDs). Tactile-stimulated rats showed increased sucrose consumption and number of approaches to the sucrose solution in the SCT when compared with the handled and control rats. In the FST, rats in TS group showed lower immobility time and greater immobility latency, active swimming time and diving frequency than the handled and control rats. The duration and the number of seizures were not different amongst the groups. The data obtained suggest that TS in young rats is able to prevent depression in WAG/Rij rats.

12.
Cureus ; 16(5): e61297, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38947625

RESUMO

Young adults from disadvantaged populations access higher education through two-year colleges, but substance use research among young adults focuses on four-year colleges. Filling this research gap is important given recent policy changes that have increased marijuana availability for young adults. This study uses a subsample of college-enrolled participants from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to evaluate whether substance use predicts educational attainment seven years later, comparing 888 students attending a two-year college with 1,398 matched students attending a four-year college. Matched students were identified using a propensity score method so that students were comparable on 15 measures, including precollege grades, precollege test scores, and precollege substance use. Compared with similar four-year college students, two-year college students were more likely to use methamphetamines, cocaine, or marijuana; more likely to report problematic substance use; and less likely to use alcohol. Two-year college students who used methamphetamines in the past year (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.51, 95% CI (1.12, 2.04), p = 0.007) or past month (IRR = 1.69, 95% CI (1.09, 2.61), p = 0.02) or completed alcohol abuse treatment (IRR = 1.58, 95% CI (1.21, 2.07), p < 0.001) were less likely to complete college than two-year college students without those risk factors. Among the matched four-year college students, students who reported that drugs interfered with school or work in the past year (IRR = 1.84 (1.28, 2.64), p = 0.001), used cocaine in the past year (IRR = 1.47 (1.04, 2.08), p = 0.03), and used marijuana in the past year (IRR = 1.30 (1.07, 1.57), p = 0.007), past month (IRR = 1.31 (1.07, 1.61), p = 0.01), or ≥5 times in the past month (IRR = 1.44 (1.12, 1.85) p = 0.005) were less likely to complete college than the matched four-year college students without those risk factors. Substance use interventions should target both two-year and four-year college students. Two-year colleges that better accommodate students who complete substance use treatment may improve these students' completion. Students who use marijuana or cocaine or whose drug use impairs functioning may benefit from an incremental approach of completing a two-year degree prior to transferring to a four-year degree rather than enrolling directly in a four-year program.

13.
Aggress Behav ; 50(4): e22163, 2024 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949228

RESUMO

Whereas research on aggression and status motivation in youth has predominantly looked at a promotion focus (striving for popularity), a prevention focus (wanting to avoid low popularity) could also be an important determinant of aggression, as youth who fear low popularity may use strategic aggression to secure their position. The aim of the current study was to develop reliable measures for both popularity motivations, and examine how both motivations are uniquely and jointly related to aggression. Participants were 1123 Dutch secondary school students (M age = 14.4 years, 48% girls), who completed a 3-item measure of striving for high popularity based on existing questionnaires (Li & Wright, 2014; Ojanen et al., 2005), and a 3-item measure of avoiding low popularity consisting of an adapted version of the high popularity items. Aggressive behavior was measured through peer nominations. Motivations were moderately correlated (r = .51), but did not always co-occur within the same person, as 17% of the sample belonged to a cluster that scored low on striving for popularity, but moderately high on avoiding low popularity. When considered simultaneously, striving for high popularity was not related to any type of aggression, whereas avoiding affiliation with unpopular peers was related to strategic aggression. For physical and verbal aggression, gossiping, excluding and bullying, the association of avoiding low popularity with aggression was strongest when youth also strived for high popularity. Future work should take both popularity motivations into account to better understand, predict and intervene on youth's aggression toward peers.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Agressão , Motivação , Humanos , Agressão/psicologia , Feminino , Adolescente , Masculino , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Desejabilidade Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Países Baixos , Bullying/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951155

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diagnostic stability for people with First Episode Psychosis (FEP) is essential for treatment, but it remains poorly investigated, especially in adolescents and within a prospective design. The aims of this research were: (a) to examine diagnostic change in Italian adolescents with FEP treated within an "Early Intervention in Psychosis" program during a 2-year follow-up period and (b) to investigate any sociodemographic and clinical predictors at baseline. METHODS: At baseline, 66 adolescents with FEP was recruited. Their primary diagnosis was formulated both at baseline and at the end of follow-up. At presentation, FEP adolescents completed the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA). As for diagnostic stability, the Kappa statistic was calculated. The associations of diagnostic change with baseline clinical and sociodemographic features were analyzed using a logistic model with the diagnostic shift as dependent variable. A propensity score was finally calculated based on logistic analysis results. RESULTS: 38 (57.6%) FEP adolescents changed their opening diagnosis. The highest prospective diagnostic stability was for initial diagnosis of schizophrenia (95.4%) and affective spectrum psychoses (75%). Diagnostic instability was high for opening diagnosis of psychosis not otherwise specified, brief psychosis and schizophreniform disorder (100%). The best predictors of diagnostic change were fewer years of education, shorter duration of untreated psychosis and higher baseline levels of psychiatric symptoms. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic stability is crucial for treatment and clinical decision making. Addressing instability in FEP diagnoses is an important challenge for future diagnostic development in early psychosis, especially in adolescence.

15.
Diabet Med ; : e15397, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: People with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) face an increased risk of eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/DE), with adolescents being particularly vulnerable. Empirical knowledge on the mechanisms underlying development of ED/DE in T1D is crucial for evolving prevention strategies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Fourteen semi-structured interviews with adolescent females with T1D and ED/DE between 14 and 18 years were conducted and analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Analyses identified four main themes; 'Interconnected afflictions', 'Judgment', 'Feeling Different', and 'Chaos & Control', These themes explore the interconnectedness of T1D and ED/DE, with shame and guilt emerging as common underlying mechanism. The development of a biopsychosocial model was based on the integration of these data with existing models. CONCLUSIONS: The study extends previous developmental pathways of ED/DE in adolescents with T1D. We propose a biopsychosocial model that incorporates various factors: predisposing factors such as parental management of T1D and weight gain during adolescence; precipitating factors including comments on weight, frequency of weighing, perceptions of surveillance; the perpetuating bilateral influence of ED/DE and T1D and finally highlighting the protective mechanisms of disease acceptance encompassing parental handling of diagnosis and the contribution of healthcare professionals (HCP's) role in psychoeducation. The present study highlight the vulnerability of adolescence in the presence of T1D, particularly concerning issues related to eating, weight, and body. It offers clinically relevant insights, with the aim to improve communication and management strategies for this very specific group.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in early adolescence has been amply documented. However, there has been little research on the progression of NSSI over time. Most studies have focused on the risk factors for NSSI, with less attention devoted to understanding the role of protective factors. This paper aimed to expand existing knowledge about the development of NSSI, with an emphasis on the impacts of protective factors such as social support and socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: A total of 436 adolescents completed self-report surveys that addressed social support including friend, family, and teacher support, objective and subjective SES, and NSSI at three different points in time for 2 years. RESULTS: Latent growth curve analyses revealed that NSSI increased across early adolescence to mid-adolescence. Support from friends and family negatively predicted adolescents' initial NSSI level. Furthermore, subjective SES negatively predicted the rate of NSSI. CONCLUSIONS: These findings contribute to an understanding of the influences of both social support and SES on NSSI over time. NSSI interventions and education should include considerations of both the value of support from friends and family as well as subjective SES.

17.
J Sch Health ; 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The origin of inequalities in health outcomes has been explained by health selection and social causation models. Health selection processes operate particularly at school age. We study, if student allocation to teaching groups with aptitude tests (selective vs general class) differentiates adolescents by health behaviors and mental health. METHODS: Finnish schoolchildren 12-13 years from 12 selective classes, n = 248; 41 general classes, n = 703 answered a questionnaire on addictive products (tobacco, snus, alcohol, and energy drinks), digital media use, and mental health (health complaints, anxiety, and depression). Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify structures between outcomes, SEP (socioeconomic position), class type, and academic performance. RESULTS: Students in the selective classes reported less addictive digital media and addictive products use than students in the general classes. Differences in academic performance or SEP between the class types did not solely explain these differences. Mental health was not related to the class type. SEP was indirectly associated with health behaviors via the class type and academic performance. CONCLUSIONS: Selecting students to permanent teaching groups with aptitude tests differentiates students according to risky health behaviors. The impact of education policies using student grouping should also be evaluated in terms of students' health.

18.
J Res Adolesc ; 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961725

RESUMO

Adolescents experience significant developmental changes during a time of heightened sensitivity to social cues, particularly rejection by peers, which can be especially overwhelming for those with elevated levels of social anxiety. Social evaluative decision-making tasks have been useful in uncovering the neural correlates of information processing biases; however, linking youths' task-based performance to individual differences in psychopathology (e.g., anxiety symptoms) has proven more elusive. Here, we address this weakness with drift diffusion modeling to decompose youths' performance on the social judgment paradigm (SJP) to determine if this approach is useful in discovering individual differences in anxiety symptoms, as well as puberty, age, and sex. A sample of 103 adolescents (55 males, Mage = 14.49, SD = 1.69) completed the SJP and self-report measures of anxiety, as well as self- and parent-reported measures of puberty. The decision threshold parameter, reflecting the amount of evidence needed to make a social evaluative decision, predicted youth self-reported anxiety, above and beyond typical metrics of SJP performance. Our results highlight the potential advantage of parsing task performance according to the underlying cognitive processes. Future research would likely benefit from applying computational modeling approaches to social judgment tasks when attempting to uncover performance-based individual differences in psychopathology.

19.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963580

RESUMO

Numerous studies have sought to determine whether low self-esteem acts as a risk factor for depressive symptoms (i.e., a vulnerability model) or whether depressive symptoms lead to a decrease in self-esteem (i.e., a scar model). Although both models have received some support, very little research has: (a) addressed this question across critical life transitions likely to modify this pattern of associations, such as the transition to adulthood; (b) sought to identify the psychological mechanisms (i.e., mediators) underpinning these associations. The present study was designed to address these two limitations, focusing on the directionality of the associations between depressive symptoms and self-esteem from mid-adolescence to early adulthood while considering the role of motivational factors, namely mastery (intrinsic/extrinsic) and performance (approach/avoidance) goals as conceptualized in achievement goal theory. A sample of 707 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 (52.1% boys) was surveyed six times up to the age of 25. Results from a cross-lagged panel model (CLPM) revealed that depressed individuals were more likely to have low self-esteem, although self-esteem protected against depressive symptoms between ages 16-17 to 20-21. Moreover, while self-esteem promoted mastery-extrinsic goals which in turn reinforced self-esteem, depressive symptoms promoted performance-avoidance goals which led to more depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem. Overall, these findings highlight (1) the long-lasting negative consequences of depressive symptoms on self-esteem and (2) the crucial role played by academic motivation in explaining the development of depressive symptoms and self-esteem over time. In turn, these results help refine the vulnerability and scar models, and suggest that motivational factors should be considered in prevention and intervention efforts among young populations.

20.
Clin Neuropsychiatry ; 21(3): 169-181, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38988677

RESUMO

Objective: Evidence on the efficacy of social skills training for adolescents with Level 1 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is unclear. Method: We searched Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science until July 27th, 2023, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of social skills training for pre-adolescents and adolescents (aged 9-18) with Level 1 ASD. We then pooled data on efficacy from individual RCTs by conducting multivariate mixed-effects meta-analyses in R. We estimated possible bias in the retained RCTs using the RoB2 tool. Results: We retained 36 RCTs (encompassing 2796 participants), including 18 RCTs comparing an experimental treatment to a waiting list, and 18 RCTs comparing it to standard care/control treatment. Meta-analyses showed that experimental treatments were significantly more efficacious than waiting list or standard care/ control treatments in improving social skills (SMD = 0.3745; 95%CI = [0.2396; 0.5093]), as well as reducing behavioral symptoms (0.3154;0.1783, 0.4525) and anxious/depressive symptoms (0.2780; 0.0432, 0.5128). However, for some outcomes there was significant heterogeneity across studies and evidence of publication bias. Subgroup analyses and meta-regressions did not identify any specific clinical or demographic factors as significant predictors of outcome. The most common risk of bias across studies was related to deviations from intended interventions and measurement of the outcomes. Conclusions: At the group level, social skills training for adolescents with Level 1 ASD is efficacious, with small-to-moderate effect size. Future research should focus on personalized medicine approaches, aimed at tailoring interventions to specific characteristics of adolescents with Level 1 ASD.

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