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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249209, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339360

RESUMO

Abstract Alo vera is a centenary remedy use for minor wounds and burns, but its mechanism of wound healing has not been know since. This article will evaluate and gather evidence of the effectiveness and safety of the use of aloe vera in the treatment of burns. A systematic review was carried out on the databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, DECS, SCIELO, in the last 7 years, with the descriptors: "Aloe", "Burns" and "treatment". 16 articles were found. After using the exclusion criteria; research in non-humans and literature review; 5 articles were selected. The article Teplick et al. (2018) performed an in vitro clinical experiment in A. Vera solution, and demonstrated that there was proliferation and cell migration of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in addition to being protective in the death of keratonocytes. That is, it accelerates the healing of wounds. Muangman et al. (2016), evaluated 50 patients with 20% of the total body surface area burned with second-degree burns, between 18-60 years old, with half of the group receiving gauze dressings with soft paraffin containing 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate and the other half receiving polyester dressings containing extracts of medicinal plants mainly Aloe Vera. It had positive results, a higher healing speed and shorter hospital stay compared to the control group. Hwang et al. (2015) investigated the antioxidant effects of different extracts from 2,4,6,8,12 months of Aloe Vera. And the 6-month concentrated extract of 0.25 mg / mL had a higher content of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent / g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent / g extract) and the greater ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM equivalent ferrous sulfate / mg extract), that is, greater potential for free radical scavenging and also a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), suggesting evidence of a bioactive potential of A. vera . However, in the article Kolacz et al. (2014) suggested as an alternative treatment the use of Aloe Vera dressing in combination with honey, lanolin, olive oil, wheat germ oil, marshmallow root, wormwood, comfrey root, white oak bark, lobelia inflata, glycerin vegetable oil, beeswax and myrrh, without obtaining significant and conclusive results that would allow the conventional treatment of burns to be subsidized. Finally, in the article by Zurita and Gallegos (2017), it carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study with 321 people, both sexes between 17-76 years of age, of an inductive nature, exploring the experience of this population and their behavioral attitudes regarding the treatment of dermatoses. Aloe vera had 13.8% cited by individuals in the treatment of acne and 33.6% in the treatment of burns. Even with evidence that suggests the efficacy in the treatment of burns with the use of Aloe Vera extract, further clinical trials with larger sample space on the use of Aloe vera dressings in medium burns are suggested for further conclusions.


Resumo Alo vera é um remédio centenário usado para pequenas feridas e queimaduras, mas seu mecanismo de cicatrização de feridas não foi conhecido desde então. Este artigo avaliará e reunirá evidências da eficácia e segurança do uso de aloe vera no tratamento de queimaduras. Realizada revisão Sistemática nas bases de dados: MEDLINE, LILACS, DECS, SCIELO, nos últimos 7 anos, com os descritores: "Aloe", "Burns" and "treatment". Foram encontrados 16 trabalhos. Após utilizarmos os critérios de exclusão; pesquisa em nao humanos e revisão da literatura ; foram selecionados 5 artigos. O artigo Teplick et al. (2018) realizou um experimento clinico in vitro em solução de A. Vera, e demonstrou que houve proliferação e migração celular de fibroblastos e queratinócitos de pele humana, além de ser protetor na morte de queratonócitos. Ou seja, acelera a cicatrização das feridas. Já Muangman et al. (2016), avaliou 50 pacientes com 20% do total da área superficial corporal queimada com queimaduras de segundo grau, entre 18-60 anos, tendo metade do grupo como controle recebendo curativos de gaze com parafina mole contendo 0,5% acetado de clorexidina e a outra metade recebendo curativos com poliéster contendo extratos de plantas medicinais principalmente Aloe Vera. Teve resultados positivos, uma maior velocidade de cicatrização e menor tempo de internação comparado ao grupo controle. Já Hwang et al. (2015) investigou os efeitos antioxidante de diferentes extratos de 2,4,6,8,12 meses da Aloe Vera. E o extrato com 6 meses concentrado de 0,25 mg/mL teve maior teor de flavanóides (9,750 mg equivalente catequina / g extrato) e polifenóis (23,375 mg equivalente ácido gálico / g extrato) e o maior poder antioxidante redutor férrico (0,047 mM de sulfato ferroso equivalente / extrato mg), ou seja, maior potencial de eliminação de radicais livres e também efeito proteror contra o estresse oxidativo induzido por hidroperóxido de terc-butila (t-BHP), sugerindo indícios de um potencial bioativo da A. vera. Porém, no artigo Kolacz et al. (2014) sugeriu como tratamento alternativo o uso do curativo com Aloe Vera em conjunto de mel, lanolina, azeite de oliva, óleo de gérmen de trigo, raiz de marshmallow, absinto, raiz de confrei, casca de carvalho branco, lobelia inflata, glicerina vegetal, cera de abelha e mirra, não obtendo resultados significativos e conclusivos que permitam subsidiar o tratamento convencional das queimaduras. Por fim, no artigo de Zurita and Gallegos (2017), realizou um estudo descritivo transversal com 321 pessoas, ambos os sexos entre 17-76 anos, de natureza indutiva, explorando a vivência dessa população e suas atitudes comportamentais quanto ao tratamento de dermatoses. Aloe vera teve 13,8% citada pelos indivíduos no tratamento de acne e 33,6% no tratamento de queimaduras. Mesmo tendo evidências que sugerem a eficácia no tratamento de queimaduras com o uso do extrato da Aloe Vera, sugere-se mais ensaios clínicos com espaço amostral maior sobre o uso de curativos de Aloe vera em médio queimados para maiores conclusões.


Assuntos
Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Aloe , Cicatrização , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estudos Transversais
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 292: 119666, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725208

RESUMO

In this research we focused on the fabrication of an asymmetric bilayer membrane with core-shell/simple layer configuration providing the functions of needed hierarchically hydrophilicity and porosity, anti-infectious, tissue adhesion as well as degradation and integration with tissue, cells proliferation, and enhanced promotion of tissue regeneration. The bilayer membrane composed of collagen (Col), chitosan (CS), aloe vera (AV) and gelatin (Gel), not only simulates the features of the epidermis and dermis layer of a natural skin but also benefits from the materials necessary for the regeneration of injured skin tissue during the healing process. The results of full-thickness skin wound evaluation revealed that the fabricated asymmetric membrane could facilitate wound healing within 10 days mainly through enhancing cellular activities, enhancing collagen deposition, and promoting proliferation. Results of histopathological analysis and immunohistochemistry after 10 days of treatment, demonstrated more re-epithelialization and collagen density for the treated groups compared to the control group.


Assuntos
Aloe , Quitosana , Nanofibras , Quitosana/farmacologia , Colágeno/química , Cicatrização
3.
Biomarkers ; : 1-14, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35734963

RESUMO

Introduction: Burn injuries are underappreciated injuries that cause significant morbidity and mortality. Burn injuries, especially severe burns, trigger immunological and inflammatory responses, metabolic abnormalities, and distributive shock, all of which can be extended to multiple organ failures. Aloe vera (A. vera) has been exploited for its medicinal properties for centuries. The goal of the present study is to examine the therapeutic effect of topical and oral administration of A. vera against deep second-degree burn in rats. Materials and methods: skin burn was created on the back of rats, and wound healing was assessed within the three examined groups; control, topical A. vera and oral A. vera throughout 30 days. Wound tissues were examined histologically, immunohistochemically for the expression of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-ß1), peroxiredoxin (Prdx6), and mRNA abundance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was assessed. Results: Our finding showed acceleration of wound contraction with both topical and oral A. vera administration. Maturation of granulation tissues was seen in both A. vera-supplemented groups. The topical application of A. vera revealed marked remodelling of the granulation tissues and higher expression levels of TGF-ß1, VEGF, bFGF, and Prdx6 in comparison with control and oral A. vera groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Both oral and topical applications of A. vera have beneficial effects in deep second-degree burn wound healing by boosting the growth factors and antioxidant status of skin tissue. The topical treatment was more efficient in accelerating wound healing and hence could be used efficiently to treat second-degree burns.

4.
J Funct Biomater ; 13(2)2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35645262

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) display unique plasmonic and antimicrobial properties, enabling them to be helpful in various industrial and consumer products. However, previous studies showed that the commercially acquired silver nanoparticles exhibit toxicity even in small doses. Hence, it was imperative to determine suitable synthesis techniques that are the most economical and least toxic to the environment and biological entities. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using plant extracts and their physico-chemical properties were studied. A time-dependent in vitro study using HEK-293 cells and a dose-dependent in vivo study using a Drosophila model helped us to determine the correct synthesis routes. Through biological analyses, we found that silver nanoparticles' cytotoxicity and wound-healing capacity depended on size, shape, and colloidal stability. Interestingly, we observed that out of all the synthesized AgNPs, the ones derived from the turmeric extract displayed excellent wound-healing capacity in the in vitro study. Furthermore, the same NPs exhibited the least toxic effects in an in vivo study of ingestion of these NPs enriched food in Drosophila, which showed no climbing disability in flies, even at a very high dose (250 mg/L) for 10 days. We propose that stabilizing agents played a superior role in establishing the bio-interaction of nanoparticles. Our study reported here verified that turmeric-extract-derived AgNPs displayed biocompatibility while exhibiting the least cytotoxicity.

5.
Int J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 15(Suppl 1): S40-S46, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35645491

RESUMO

Introduction: Primary teeth with pulpal involvement and those having periapical issues should be retained until their normal exfoliation because their premature loss may lead to adverse aberrations in the future dentition. Root canals harbor different types of microorganisms and root canal infections generally are polymicrobial in nature. One of the most common and preferred root canal filling material which is commonly used for primary teeth is zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) cement. Aims and objectives: To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of ZOE with zinc oxide powder mixed with Morinda citrifolia extract, Aloe vera extract, and neem extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Materials and methods: The material used in the study were zinc oxide powder, eugenol liquid, M. citrifolia extract, A. vera extract, neem extract, petroleum jelly (Vaseline). The zinc oxide powder was mixed with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) percentage value of herbal extract. Result: Zinc oxide eugenol showed strong inhibitory effect against S. aureus and C. albicans. For P. aeruginosa, zinc oxide+M. citrifolia showed strong inhibitory. Petroleum jelly (Vaseline) was used as control agent which showed no inhibitory effect. Conclusion: The test root canal filling materials, i.e., ZOE, zinc oxide powder mixed with M. citrifolia extract, A. vera extract, and neem extract, respectively showed varied antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested, i.e., S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans. How to cite this article: Wasnik MB, Mittal R, Sajjanar A, et al. Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Zinc Oxide Eugenol with Zinc Oxide Mixed with Three Herbal Products to be Used as Root Canal Filling Material: An In Vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2022;15(S-1):S40-S46.

6.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(6)2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739955

RESUMO

Aloe vera skin (AVS) is a major by-product of Aloe processing plants all over the world. In this study, response surface methodology was used to optimize microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of bioactive compounds from AVS. The influence of extraction parameters, such as ethanol concentration (%Et), extraction temperature (T), time (t) and solvent volume (V), on extraction yield (Y), total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP methods) and aloin content, was studied. Optimum extraction conditions were determined as 80% ethanol, 80 °C, 36.6 min and 50 mL and optimized extracts showed interesting contents of polyphenols and antioxidant performance. The phenolic profile was determined by HPLC-DAD/MS and some major phenolic compounds, such as aloin A, aloin B, aloesin, aloe-emodin, aloeresin D, orientin, cinnamic acid and chlorogenic acid, were quantified while eight other compounds were tentatively identified. Moreover, structural and thermal properties were studied by FTIR and TGA analyses, respectively. The obtained results suggested the potential of AVS as a promising source of bioactive compounds, thus increasing the added value of this agricultural waste.

7.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(12)2022 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746067

RESUMO

Rifampicin, a potent broad-spectrum antibiotic, remains the backbone of anti-tubercular therapy. However, it can cause severe hepatotoxicity when given orally. To overcome the limitations of the current oral therapy, this study designed inhalable spray-dried, rifampicin-loaded microparticles using aloe vera powder as an immune modulator, with varying concentrations of alginate and L-leucine. The microparticles were assessed for their physicochemical properties, in vitro drug release and aerodynamic behavior. The spray-dried powders were 2 to 4 µm in size with a percentage yield of 45 to 65%. The particles were nearly spherical with the tendency of agglomeration as depicted from Carr's index (37 to 65) and Hausner's ratios (>1.50). The drug content ranged from 0.24 to 0.39 mg/mg, with an association efficiency of 39.28 to 96.15%. The dissolution data depicts that the in vitro release of rifampicin from microparticles was significantly retarded with a higher L-leucine concentration in comparison to those formulations containing a higher sodium alginate concentration due to its hydrophobic nature. The aerodynamic data depicts that 60 to 70% of the aerosol mass was emitted from an inhaler with MMAD values of 1.44 to 1.60 µm and FPF of 43.22 to 55.70%. The higher FPF values with retarded in vitro release could allow sufficient time for the phagocytosis of synthesized microparticles by alveolar macrophages, thereby leading to the eradication of M. tuberculosis from these cells.

8.
Foods ; 11(11)2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681363

RESUMO

The present study explored the stability of extracted anthraquinones (aloin, aloe-emodin and rhein) from whole-leaf Aloe vera gel (WLAG), its freeze-dried powder (FDP) and spray-dried powder (SDP) under varying pH and temperature conditions during storage. Each anthraquinone behaved differently under different processing parameters. The amount of anthraquinones present in the gel was higher than in FDP and SDP. The aloin contents decreased by more than 50% at 50 °C and 70 °C, while at 25 °C and 4 °C, the decrease was moderate. A substantial reduction in aloin concentration was noticed at pH 6.7, whereas it remained unaffected at pH 3.5. The temperature and pH had no significant effect on the stability of aloe-emodin. Interestingly, a small quantity of rhein was detected during storage due to the oxidative degradation of aloin into aloe-emodin and rhein. These findings can provide significant insight into retaining anthraquinones during processing while developing functional foods and nutraceuticals to obtain maximum health benefits.

9.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 160: 110075, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691189

RESUMO

Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a principal component of the gelatinous food Konjac. Konjac production through alkali treatment releases an undesirable amine-odor. Two acetylesterases (AME1 and AME2) active against konjac glucomannan (polymer or oligomer) were purified from the supernatant of Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 culture. We cloned the genes encoding AME1 and AME2 based on the genomic information of A. oryzae, constructed their expression systems in A. oryzae, and obtained the recombinant enzymes (rAME1 and rAME2). rAME1 did not act on the KGM polymer but only on the KGM oligomer, releasing approximately 60% of the acetic acid in the substrate. However, rAME2 was active against both KGM substrates, releasing approximately 80% and 100% of acetic acid from the polymer and oligomer, respectively. Both enzymes were active against xylan and exhibited a trace activity on ethyl ferulate. The acetyl group position specificities of both enzymes were analyzed via heteronuclear single quantum correlation NMR using oligosaccharides of glucomannan prepared from Aloe vera (AGM), which has a higher acetyl group content than KGM. rAME1 acted specifically on single-substituted acetyl groups and not on double-substituted ones. In contrast, rAME2 appeared to act on all the acetyl groups in AGM. Treatment of 3% KGM with rAME2 followed by heating to 90 °C resulted in gel formation under weakly acidic conditions. This is the first study to induce gelation of KGM under these conditions. A comparison of the breaking and brittleness properties of gels formed by alkaline and enzymatic treatments revealed similar texture of the two gels. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy of the surface structure of both gels revealed that both formed a fine mesh structure. Our findings on enzymatic gelation of KGM should lead to the development of new applications in food manufacturing industry.

10.
Vet Res Forum ; 13(1): 111-119, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35601785

RESUMO

Cisplatin (CP) as an important chemotherapeutic drug is used for the treatment of various malignancies; but it has some side effects on central nervous system, in particular hippocampus. The present study was aimed to determine the protective effects of Aloe vera (AV) gel on CP-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and neurons structure changes in the hippocampus of rats. Forty-eight rats were divided into six groups including control, CP (5.00 mg kg-1 per week; intraperitoneally), CP + AV (400 mg kg-1 per day; orally), CP + metformin (200 mg kg-1 per day; orally), AV (400 mg kg-1 per day; orally) and metformin (200 mg kg-1 per day; orally). At the end of treatment, brain samples were obtained for analysis of apoptotic genes expression and anti-oxidant markers as well as histological study. The results showed that CP caused an increase in malondialdehyde level and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels in CP group compared to control. The AV gel could diminish oxidative stress in the hippocampus of CP group and it resulted in down-regulation of Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-8 and up-regulation of Bcl-2 in CP group. It could ameliorate degenerative changes in hippocampus after exposure to CP. Our results showed that AV gel ameliorated oxidative stress, apoptosis and neuronal loss in the hippocampus of rats under CP treatment.

11.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(5)2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35631425

RESUMO

Plants contain underutilized resources of compounds that can be employed to combat viral diseases. Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (syn. Aloe barbadensis Mill.) has a long history of use in traditional medicine, and A. vera extracts have been reported to possess a huge breadth of pharmacological activities. Here, we discuss the potential of A. vera compounds as antivirals and immunomodulators for the treatment of viral diseases. In particular, we highlight the use of aloe emodin and acemannan as lead compounds that should be considered for further development in the management and prevention of viral diseases. Given the immunomodulatory capacity of A. vera compounds, especially those found in Aloe gel, we also put forward the idea that these compounds should be considered as adjuvants for viral vaccines. Lastly, we present some of the current limitations to the clinical applications of compounds from Aloe, especially from A. vera.

12.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(10)2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35631817

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a challenge for the survival of the human race. The steady rise of resistant microorganisms against the common antimicrobials results in increased morbidity and mortality rates. Iodine and a plethora of plant secondary metabolites inhibit microbial proliferation. Antiseptic iodophors and many phytochemicals are unaffected by AMR. Surgical site and wound infections can be prevented or treated by utilizing such compounds on sutures and bandages. Coating surgical face masks with these antimicrobials can reduce microbial infections and attenuate their burden on the environment by re-use. The facile combination of Aloe Vera Barbadensis Miller (AV), Trans-cinnamic acid (TCA) and Iodine (I2) encapsulated in a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) matrix seems a promising alternative to common antimicrobials. The AV-PVP-TCA-I2 formulation was impregnated into sterile discs, medical gauze bandages, surgical sutures and face masks. Morphology, purity and composition were confirmed by several analytical methods. Antimicrobial activity of AV-PVP-TCA-I2 was investigated by disc diffusion methods against ten microbial strains in comparison to gentamycin and nystatin. AV-PVP-TCA-I2 showed excellent antifungal and strong to intermediate antibacterial activities against most of the selected pathogens, especially in bandages and face masks. The title compound has potential use for prevention or treatment of surgical site and wound infections. Coating disposable face masks with AV-PVP-TCA-I2 may be a sustainable solution for their re-use and waste management.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460489

RESUMO

Pregnancy and feto-gestational toxicities on exposure to fluoride and its possible amelioration on co-administration with aloe vera were studied in pregnant Swiss albino mice. Once the confirmed pregnancy was tested, animals were equally divided into four groups as follows: group I was given no treatment and served as control, and groups II and III were administered with 100 and 300 ppm sodium fluoride, respectively, while group IV was co- administered aloe vera (300 mg/kg bw) along with sodium fluoride (300 ppm) daily for 14 days prior to gestation and continued till the 18th day of gestation. Animals were sacrificed on the 19th day of gestation for prenatal observations. Maternal body weight, the gravid uterine weight, number of corpora lutea in both the ovaries, number of implantations and resorptions, number of live (mature and immature) fetuses, and number of dead fetuses were examined in each dam. The treatment continued in another set of animals till the completion of the weaning period to observe postnatal changes due to test substances on the mother and pups. Sodium fluoride-treated animals showed morphometric and skeletal changes which were more pronounced in the high-dose group showing significantly decreased body weight gain in pregnant mothers and dead/immature fetuses. Morphometric changes included open eyelids, limb defects, wrinkles on the whole body, anophthalmia, pulmonary edema, enlarged esophagus, and decreased body weight of fetuses and pups. Alizarin-prepared skeletal structures of fetuses of such female mice showed delayed ossification or bending in the number of bones of skull, thoracic, and limb regions. However, concomitant exposure to sodium fluoride and aloe vera in treated animals led to a marked improvement in all the prenatal and postnatal variables. The study suggests that sodium fluoride at high concentrations may be teratogenic while co-administration of aloe vera during fluoride exposure might be beneficial in reducing these toxic effects. The use of aloe vera as a preventive agent or as a complimentary agent is thus recommended following fluoride exposure through the oral route.

14.
J Biomater Appl ; : 8853282221091042, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446716

RESUMO

The signalling response is determined by the cell's reaction to different biochemical and biophysical inputs such as stiffness, topological, and structural alignment. The surface patterns at the nano-scale can be an influential factor in cell signalling behaviour. It is important to understand the cellular response to the biophysical cues for biomedical applications. Biomaterials have an important role in regenerative tissue engineering. In this study, we have fabricated electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) and PCL-Aloe vera (PCL-AV) nanofibrous matrix and studied its effect on the human tenon fibroblast (HTF) cellular and morphological changes. The electrospun fibers were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Brunaur, Emette and Teller (BET) analysis for their morphology, composition, topography, surface area and porosity. The results revealed fiber size, roughness and porosity has been altered by addition of AV. The HTF cell viability, proliferation and expression of focal adhesion proteins, such as FAK, Ezrin, Vasp and Cofilin on the PCL-AV fiber matrix were examined. The results showed a change in cellular morphology and a significant change in the cofilin phosphorylation on PCL-AV nanofiber. The influence of Aloe vera composition on the nano-dimension of the PCL has made a significant impact on the cellular morphology at both gene and protein levels. This observation suggests that AV composition in the nanofiber can significantly influence the HTF cellular adhesions.

15.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458671

RESUMO

Aloe vera has been medicinally used for centuries. Its bioactive compounds have been shown to be very effective in the treatment of numerous diseases. In this work, a novel functional beverage was developed and characterized to combine the health benefits of probiotic bacteria with the Aloe vera plant itself. Two Aloe vera juices were obtained by fermentation either by a novel isolated Enterococcus faecium or a commercial Lactococcus lactis. The extraction of Aloe vera biocompounds for further fermentation was optimized. Extraction with water plus cellulase enhanced the carbohydrates and phenolic compounds in the obtained extracts. The biotransformation of the bioactive compounds from the extracts during fermentation was assessed. Both probiotic bacteria were able to grow on the Aloe vera extract. Lactic acid and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) together with fourteen individual phenolic compounds were quantified in the produced Aloe vera juice, mainly epicatechin, aloin, ellagic acid, and hesperidin. The amount of total phenolic compounds was maintained through fermentation. The antioxidant activity was significantly increased in the produced juice by the ABTS method. The novel produced Aloe vera juice showed great potential as a functional beverage containing probiotics, prebiotics, SCFA, and phenolic compounds in its final composition.


Assuntos
Aloe , Enterococcus faecium , Probióticos , Aloe/metabolismo , Bebidas , Enterococcus faecium/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Lactobacillus , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
16.
Toxicol Rep ; 9: 640-646, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35399219

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis is a disease of undetermined etiology and treatment. It affects the colon and rectum and typically involves the mucosa, manifesting as continuous areas of inflammation and ulceration. Aloe gel contains more than a hundred potentially active constituents of different classes. This study investigated the effect of aloe gel on experimentally-induced ulcerative colitis. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into groups A to F of six rats each. Ulcerative colitis was induced to rats in groups B to F by single intra-colonic administration of 2 mL of 4% acetic acid with a size 6F pediatrics catheter. In contrast, group A received an equivalent volume of normal saline by the same route. Twenty-four hours after induction, rats in groups B and C received normal saline and 1 mg/kg b. wt. daily dose of dexamethasone, respectively. In contrast, those in groups D, E, and F received 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg b. wt. doses of aloe gel, respectively, for 14 days. They were sacrificed 24 h after the last administration. We assessed disease progression by determining the clinical activity index, gross inflammation, histological alterations, the intensity of DNA in colon cells, and tissue level of nitric oxide. All the parameters but one increased significantly in group B rats. The quantitative distribution of DNA in colon cells reduced significantly in this group. Aloe gel doses significantly reversed these changes in a dose-dependent manner. Dexamethasone showed lesser efficacy relative to 60 mg dose of the Aloe gel extract. We conclude that Aloe vera gel has therapeutic potential in the treatment and management of ulcerative colitis. The most significant effects were observed in the groups treated with the highest dose of Aloe gel (60 mg/kg b. wt.). It is also worth noting that the remediated potential of aloe gel in acetic acid-induced UC surpasses that of dexamethasone.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394628

RESUMO

Diabetic wounds are characterized by a delayed closure rate due to the excess inflammation and the inhibition of angiogenesis. Natural products derived from Aloe vera have shown great promise due to their healing magnificent properties. Olive oil is another natural product with anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties that may contribute to the healing process. In the present investigation, we tried to evaluate the efficacy of topical application of Aloe gel and/or olive oil in the enhancement of diabetic wounds using histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Excisional wounds were created on the back skin of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Topical treatments of Aloe gel and/or olive oil were applied separately and in a combination (AVO) daily for experimental groups. Macroscopic and microscopic observations of the excision wounds were monitored at time intervals (3, 6, 9, 14 days) post-wounding. Macroscopic observations of the AVO group exhibited almost complete healing at day 14, while other groups were still in progress. Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis of the AVO group showed a mild expression pattern of NF-κB.. While, the cell proliferation (Ki-67), and angiogenesis (CD34) markers were upregulated. Conclusively, the obtained results showed that the AVO combination effectively improved the healing process in diabetic excisional wounds with significant differences in the healing kinetics compared to wounds that received Aloe gel or olive oil separately.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398918

RESUMO

The current study focuses on microwave-assisted zinc oxide quantum dots synthesis (ZnO-QDs) from zinc oxide bionanocomposite (ZnO-BC) preparation. The novelty lies in the preparation of ZnO-QDs, since the natural elements present in ZnO-BC itself acted as a surface penetration enhancer without using any chemical agent. Under ultraviolet (UV) light ZnO-QDs emitted a blue glow, confirming the fluorescence property. Using Box-Behnken design, the experimental factors of ZnO-QDs were optimized, yielding a positive response of 350 nm absorbance and these results also matched with the UV-visible spectroscopy characterization studies of ZnO-QDs. Using Escherichia coli, the antibacterial activity of ZnO-BC in comparison to ZnO-QDs was determined using the well diffusion method and an inhibition zone ranging from 11 to 23 mm and in the broth assay the OD values were reduced by almost seven and 10 times for ZnO-BC and ZnO-QDs, respectively, when compared to the control (untreated). The antibacterial activity demonstrated that our newly prepared BC and its QDs have superior activity when compared to the standard antibiotics such as ampicillin. This type of nanomaterial can be used as a new bioactive natural material with light-assisted activity for antibacterial coatings in the manufacture of personal protective equipment.

19.
Foods ; 11(5)2022 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267378

RESUMO

Aloe vera products, both in food and cosmetics, are becoming increasingly popular due to their claimed beneficial effects, which are mainly attributed to the active compound acemannan. Usually, these end products are based on powdered starting materials. High temperatures during the drying process to obtain the starting materials have several advantages, like shortening the drying time, eliminating toxic aloin and reducing bacterial contamination. Nevertheless, there are two major drawbacks: first, at temperatures of 80 °C or higher, structural changes in acemannan, especially its deacetylation (>46%), are triggered, which does not happen at lower temperatures (14% at 60 °C); secondly, a toxic principle is formed at higher temperatures, resulting in a higher cytotoxicity. Thus, two temperature-dependent but opposing effects cause with a median cytotoxic concentration of CC50 = 0.4× a peak of cytotoxicity at 80 °C; at 60 °C this cytotoxic substance is not formed and at 100 °C aloin is more readily eliminated, resulting in a CC50 = 1.1× and CC50 = 1.4×, respectively. The cytotoxic substance generated by dry heat at 80 °C is not a modified polysaccharide because its polysaccharide-enriched alcohol-insoluble fraction is with CC50 = 0.9× less cytotoxic. Moreover, this substance is polar enough to be washed away with ethanol. Additionally, when Aloe gel is heated at 80 °C under humid conditions (pasteurization), the cytotoxicity does not increase (CC50 = 1.6×). Finally, to produce powdered starting materials from Aloe gel, it is recommended to use temperatures of around 60 °C in order to preserve the acemannan structure (and thus biological activity) and the low cytotoxicity.

20.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267852

RESUMO

Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, there is a crucial need for the development of antimicrobial and antiviral personal protective equipment such as facemasks and gowns. Therefore, in this research we fabricated electrospun nanofibers composite with polyvinyl alcohol, aloe vera, and zinc oxide nanoparticles for end application in medical devices. Electrospun nanofibers were made with varying concentrations of aloe vera (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%) having a constant concentration of ZnO (0.5%) with varying concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%) having a constant concentration of aloe vera (0.5%). To check the morphology and composition, all prepared nanofibers were subjected to different characterization techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). In addition, its antimicrobial activity was checked both with qualitative and quantitative approaches against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The results suggest that increasing ZnO concentration kills and inhibits bacterial growth more proficiently compared to increasing aloe vera concentration in electrospun nanofibers; the highest antimicrobial was found with 4% ZnO, killing almost 100% of gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria and 99.2% of gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. These fabricated nanofibers have potential applications in medical devices and would help control the spread of many diseases.

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