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1.
Front Psychol ; 13: 811499, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664192

RESUMO

COVID-19 lockdowns constrained the training opportunities of athletes resulting in physical and mental hardship. In this study, athletes involved in the outdoor endurance sports of running, cycling or swimming were recruited through Facebook groups and using online mailing lists. The final sample (n = 3,551) consisted of 576 female respondents (16.2%), and 2,975 male respondents (83.8%). The mean age of participants was 44.13 years (min = 16, max = 83, and SD = 9.84). An online survey was designed to measure variables relevant to athletes' mental health; resilience and emotion regulation strategies; mobility restrictions; training routines; personal involvement in endurance sports; age; gender; and country of residence. Overall, the results of our study indicate that during lockdown, decreases in training volume, lower lockdown-specific resilience, and holding more negative perceptions about lockdown mobility restrictions (perceived strictness) all contributed to perceived barriers to training. In the analysis, athletes' relative observance of mobility restrictions was controlled for. Athletes exhibiting high personal commitment to their sports displayed: greater lockdown resilience, a greater use of adaptive coping strategies, and lower levels of perceived barriers to training.

2.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2022 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is ongoing discussion about whether sports participation is a risk or protective factor for eating disorders (EDs). Research is mixed, with some studies suggesting that athletes have higher mean levels of ED psychopathology compared to nonathletes, while other studies suggest the opposite effect or no differences. The purpose of the current meta-analysis was to identify whether female athletes reported higher mean levels of ED psychopathology compared to nonathletes. METHOD: Following PRISMA guidelines, we identified 56 studies that reported ED psychopathology for female athletes and nonathletes. A three-level random-effects model of between- and within-study variance was completed for the following outcome variables: overall ED psychopathology, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, restricting, and loss-of-control eating. RESULTS: Athletes reported lower levels of body dissatisfaction compared to nonathletes (g = -.21, p < .0001). Athletes and nonathletes reported similar levels of overall ED psychopathology, drive for thinness, restricting, and loss-of-control eating on average. Sport type significantly moderated standardized mean difference effect sizes of ED psychopathology in athletes versus nonathletes. Effect sizes comparing levels of drive for thinness, restricting, and loss-of-control eating in athletes versus nonathletes were larger for studies with athletes participating in aesthetic/lean sports compared to nonaesthetic/nonlean sports. DISCUSSION: Findings from this meta-analysis could inform future ED prevention and treatment in female athletes by providing further evidence that athletes in aesthetic/lean sports may report higher levels of ED psychopathology. Participating in nonaesthetic/nonlean sports may be a protective factor for experiencing less body dissatisfaction. PUBLIC SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The current meta-analysis summarized findings from 56 studies that assessed levels of disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, dietary restricting, and loss-of-control eating in female athletes and nonathletes. Athletes reported lower levels of body dissatisfaction compared to nonathletes, highlighting that participation in sport could have some protective factors. Athletes participating in sports that require weight categories (e.g., judo) and sports that emphasize thinness/leanness (e.g., gymnastics and distance running) had higher levels of disordered eating relative to athletes participating in other types of sports that do not emphasize thinness/leanness (e.g., volleyball and basketball).


OBJETIVO: Existe un debate abierto sobre si la participación en los deportes es un factor de riesgo o protector para los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA). La investigación es mixta, con algunos estudios que sugieren que los atletas tienen niveles medios más altos de psicopatología de TCA en comparación con los no atletas, mientras que otros estudios sugieren el efecto opuesto o ninguna diferencia. El propósito del presente metanálisis fue identificar si las atletas femeninas reportaron niveles medios más altos de psicopatología de TCA en comparación con las no atletas. MÉTODO: Siguiendo las guías PRISMA, se identificaron 56 estudios que informaron psicopatología de TCA para atletas femeninas y no atletas. Se completó un modelo de efectos aleatorios de tres niveles de varianza entre y dentro del estudio para las siguientes variables de resultado: psicopatología general de TCA, insatisfacción corporal, impulso por la delgadez, restricción y pérdida de control de la alimentación. RESULTADOS: Las atletas reportaron niveles más bajos de insatisfacción corporal en comparación con las no atletas (g = -.21, p <.0001). Las atletas y las no atletas reportaron niveles similares de psicopatología general de TCA, impulso por la delgadez, restricción y pérdida de control de la alimentación en promedio. El tipo de deporte moderó significativamente los tamaños del efecto de la diferencia de medias estandarizada de la psicopatología de TCA en atletas versus no atletas. Los tamaños del efecto que compararon los niveles de impulso por la delgadez, la restricción y la pérdida de control de la alimentación en atletas versus no atletas fueron mayores para los estudios con atletas que participaron en deportes que valoran lo estético/cuerpo magro, esbelto, en comparación con deportes que no valoran lo estético/cuerpo magro, esbelto. DISCUSIÓN: Los hallazgos de este metanálisis podrían informar la prevención y el tratamiento futuros de los TCA en atletas femeninas al proporcionar más evidencia de que las atletas en deportes que dan un gran valor a lo estético o al cuerpo magro, esbelto, pueden reportar niveles más altos de psicopatología de TCA. Participar en deportes que no dan valor a lo estético o al cuerpo magro, puede ser un factor protector para experimentar menos insatisfacción corporal.

3.
Am J Sports Med ; : 3635465221096843, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Master athletes (MAs), or athletes older than 40 years, make up a patient population whose outcomes after primary arthroscopic hip surgery are largely unknown. PURPOSE: To report minimum 2-year outcomes of MAs after primary hip arthroscopy and compare their results to a propensity-matched nonathlete (NA) control group. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected between February 2008 and April 2019 and retrospectively reviewed for all patients who underwent primary hip arthroscopy. Patients were included if they were older than 40 years and had preoperative data for the modified Harris Hip Score, Nonarthritic Hip Score, Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale, and visual analog scale score for pain. MAs reported participating in organized sports competition within 1 year before surgery and were propensity matched to a control group of patients who did not report participating in organized sports competition (NAs). Patient characteristics, radiographic and intraoperative findings, surgical procedures performed, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were reported and compared between the groups. The rates of achieving the minimal clinically important difference and maximum outcome improvement satisfaction threshold were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 366 hips were eligible; 328 (89.6%) had adequate follow-up data. 328 patients met inclusion criteria but 88 were not included due to the restrictions of the propensity score match ratio. Of these, 80 hips (76 patients) were classified as MAs (mean age, 48.9 ± 6.2 years) and were propensity matched 1:2 to an NA control group. Groups were comparable for baseline demographic and radiographic parameters, intraoperative findings, and procedures performed. MAs had significantly better baseline and minimum 2-year PROM scores (P < .05), higher satisfaction (P = .01), and higher rates of achieving clinically meaningful improvement across all the outcome tools used (P < .05). MAs, when compared with NAs, had lower rates of secondary arthroscopy (0% vs 7.5%, respectively; P = .001) and conversion to total hip arthroplasty (12.5% vs 26.9%, respectively; P = .011). CONCLUSION: MAs demonstrated favorable outcomes after primary hip arthroscopy. When compared with a propensity score-matched control group of NA patients, MAs demonstrated better preoperative and postoperative PROMs, higher rates of clinically meaningful improvement, and lower rates of secondary arthroscopy and conversion to total hip arthroplasty. Absolute improvements in PROM scores were similar between the groups.

4.
J Clin Med ; 11(11)2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683484

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the agreement between quantitative measurements of plasmatic and salivary biomarkers capable of identifying oxidative stress and muscle damage in athletes at rest and following exercise. Thirty-nine high-level athletes participating in track and field (running), swimming or rowing were recruited and assigned to one of three groups depending on the sport. Each athlete group underwent its specific exercise. Blood and saliva samples were collected before and immediately after the exercise. Diene conjugates (DC), triene conjugates (TC), Schiff bases (SB), and creatine kinase (CK) were measured. Comparisons were made using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Correlation analysis and Bland-Altman method were applied. DC levels were elevated in plasma (p < 0.01) and saliva (p < 0.01) in response to exercise in all three groups, as were the plasmatic (p < 0.01) and salivary (p < 0.01) TC and SB concentrations. CK activity was also significantly higher at postexercise compared to pre-exercise in both plasma (p < 0.01) and saliva (p < 0.01) in all groups. Strong positive correlation between salivary and plasmatic DC (p < 0.001), TC (p < 0.001), SB (p < 0.01), and CK (p < 0.001) was observed at rest and following exercise in each athlete group. The bias calculated for DC, TC, SB, and CK using the Bland-Altman statistics was not significant at both pre-exercise and postexercise in all three groups. The line of equality was within the confidence interval of the mean difference. All of the data points lay within the respective agreement limits. Salivary concentrations of DC, TC, SB, and CK are able to reliably reflect their plasma levels.

5.
Front Sports Act Living ; 4: 868263, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685684

RESUMO

Non-traumatic shoulder injuries are common in team handball. However, many athletes continue to throw, despite pain in the shoulder. This study investigated upper body kinematics and muscle activation while throwing in female elite handball players with and without shoulder pain. Thirty female elite team handball players, 15 with pain (age 22.2 ± 2.9 yrs.) and 15 without pain (age 20.4 ± 2.6 yrs.) performed five standing throws in which joint kinematics and muscle activity were measured in the following muscles: pectoralis major, infraspinatus, serratus anterior, latissimus dorsi, and upper-, middle-, and lower trapezius. The main findings revealed that peak joint angles and angular velocities were not different between groups; however, group differences were observed in earlier timing of position and longer time spent in maximal shoulder extension and external shoulder rotation in the pain group compared with the no pain group. The pain group also revealed a significant lower muscle peak activity in the serratus anterior during the cocking phase compared to the no pain group. After the cocking phase and at ball release, the groups had similar activation. In conclusion, the present study showed group differences in appearance and time spent in maximal humerus extension and external rotation and a different serratus anterior muscle peak activity between elite handball players playing with and without shoulder pain, which are identified as possible mechanisms of adaptation to avoid pain.

6.
Sports Med Open ; 8(1): 77, 2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The individual determinants of food choice have been extensively investigated in the general population, but there have been limited studies in athletes. A better understanding of the food making decisions can help to target interventions that lead to optimal intake for athletes' health and performance. A scoping review will provide an understanding of the sports and settings that have been investigated, the methods and approaches to assessing food choice, as well as the factors influencing food choice. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to map the available evidence on the multi-faceted determinants of food choice in athletes and describe key influences impacting their choices. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Athletes 16 years and over from any country who engage in physical activity with the intent to be competitive. Studies were included if they reported the multi-faceted determinants of food choice as either a primary or secondary outcome. All study designs were considered. SOURCES OF EVIDENCE: This review followed the PRISMA extension for Scoping Reviews. Eleven databases including PubMed, Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics), SPORTDiscus (EBSCO), PsycNET (APA), Health Collection (Informit), CINAHL (EBSCO), the Cochrane Library, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, Trove (National Library of Australia), JBI (Ovid), and Google scholar were searched between September-November 2020 and updated in March 2021. Charting of Data Search results were screened with selected studies extracted into a summary table established a priori by the authors. Study quality was assessed using standardised reporting tools for qualitative and quantitative research designs. The scope and quality of evidence was summarised and reported. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies were included. Qualitative research included one research thesis and six primary research studies using both focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Quantitative research included one research thesis and seven primary research studies with cross-sectional design using different validated and non-validated survey instruments. No longitudinal or intervention studies were found. The majority of studies have been published since 2018 and conducted across multiple countries with either mixed cohorts of athletes or focused on predominately endurance or team sports. The quality of reporting was variable, particularly for qualitative research. Outcomes suggested that performance and health were relevant to athlete food choice, with varying impact of competition season, the level of experience, the culture of the sport, the cultural background or nationality of the athlete, athlete sex and the food environment. CONCLUSION: More research is needed on the multi-faceted determinants of food choice in different cohorts of athletes, particularly females. Future research could explore the relationship between food choice, nutrition knowledge and diet quality or the change in food choice across the phase of the seasons and through injury and illness. Use of validated measurement tools and robust reporting will enable critical interpretation of the study methods and outcomes for use in practice. Registration OSF Registries: Open-ended registration 25th Sept 2020 https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/4PX2A.

7.
Sport Sci Health ; : 1-13, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35693326

RESUMO

Purpose: This review aimed to assess the effects of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on mental health to elite athletes. The emotional background influenced their sport career and was examined by questionnaires. Methods: We included original studies that investigated psychological outcomes in elite athletes during COVID-19 lockdown. Sixteen original studies (n = 4475 participants) were analyzed. Results: The findings showed that COVID-19 has an impact on elite athletes' mental health and was linked with stress, anxiety and psychological distress. The magnitude of the impact was associated with athletes' mood state profile, personality and resilience capacity. Conclusion: The lockdown period impacted also elite athletes' mental health and training routines with augmented anxiety but with fewer consequences than the general population thanks to adequate emotion regulation and coping strategies.

8.
Int J Sports Phys Ther ; 17(4): 593-604, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35693862

RESUMO

Background: Movement competency screens (MCSs) are commonly used by coaches and clinicians to assess injury risk. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding MCS reliability. Purpose: This study aimed to: (i) determine the inter- and intra-rater reliability of a sport specific field-based MCS in novice and expert raters using different viewing methods (single and multiple views); and (ii) ascertain whether there were familiarization effects from repeated exposure for either raters or participants. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Pre-elite youth athletes (n=51) were recruited and videotaped while performing a MCS comprising nine dynamic movements in three separate trials. Performances were rated three times with a minimal four-week wash out between testing sessions, each in randomized order by 12 raters (3 expert, 9 novice), using a three-point scale. Kappa score, percentage agreement and intra-class correlation were calculated for each movement individually and for the composite score. Results: Fifty-one pre-elite youth athletes (15.0±1.6 years; n=33 athletics, n=10 BMX and n=8 surfing) were included in the study. Based on kappa score and percentage agreement, both inter- and intra-rater reliability were highly variable for individual movements but consistently high (>0.70) for the MCS composite score. The composite score did not increase with task familiarization by the athletes. Experts detected more movement errors than novices and both rating groups improved their detection of errors with repeated viewings of the same movement. Conclusions: Irrespective of experience, raters demonstrated high variability in rating single movements, yet preliminary evidence suggests the MCS composite score could reliably assess movement competency. While athletes did not display a familiarization effect after performing the novel tasks within the MCS for the first time, raters showed improved error detection on repeated viewing of the same movement. Level of Evidence: Cohort study.

9.
Clin Neuropsychol ; : 1-22, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35670306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies have observed variable associations of prior contact sport participation with subjective and objective measures of cognitive function. This study directly investigated the association between subjective self-report and objective performance-based cognition among former collegiate football players, as well as its relationship to self-reported concussion history. METHODS: Former collegiate football players (N = 57; mean age = 37.9 years [SD = 1.49]) retired from sport 15-years prior were enrolled. Linear regression models examined associations between subjective cognition (Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders Cognitive Functioning-Short Form), and performance on a neuropsychological battery. Domain specific (executive function) metrics of subjective (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult) and objective cognition were also exclusively examined. Associations between self-reported concussion history with subjective and objective measures were tested. Potential influential factors (sleep quality and distress) were included as covariates. RESULTS: Subjective cognition was not significantly associated with any objective measures of cognitive functioning (p's > .05). Greater self-reported concussion history was inversely associated with subjective cognition (B = -2.49, p = .004), but not objective performance-based cognition (p's > .05). Distress was significantly related to all metrics of subjective cognition (p's < .001) as well as performance on delayed recall and verbal fluency (p's < .05). Sleep quality was only significantly related to timed visuospatial sequencing (p = .033). CONCLUSIONS: Reliance on self-reported measures of cognitive functioning alone is insufficient when assessing cognition in former contact sport athletes. Assessment of other factors known to influence subjective cognitive complaints should also be examined in determining the presence of cognitive deficits.

10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680588

RESUMO

Electronic sports (E-sports) are series of competitive activities different from the traditional physical sports, and E-sports athlete is becoming a new profession. Along with the fast development of E-sports industry, the number of E-sports athletes increased tremendously. The early retirement of some top-ranking athletes caused by occupational injuries has aroused the societal attentions on the health problems of E-sports athletes. Facing special occupational exposure, E-sports athletes encounter different health issues comparing to the counterparts of their ages. It is necessary to scientifically identify their health hazards and common health issues, in order to conduct effective health management for this particular professional group. This review summarized global literature on health issues and health management on E-sports athletes. The research on their health issues were mainly descriptive and there was a paucity on interventional research and health management. These provide references and directions on the future health services and research on E-sports athletes.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Traumatismos Ocupacionais , Esportes , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Eletrônica , Humanos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681978

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to analyse the fitness level of young horse riders before and after 12 weeks of training restrictions instituted due to the COVID-19 emergency. Anthropometrical measure assessment and an eight-items fitness test battery were administered to 61 puberal and adolescent female amateur horse riders. Subjects were evaluated within 3 weeks before (pre-tests) the period of training restrictions and on the first day of normal training after it (post-tests). Post-test results showed significant increases in body weight (Z: -1.732; p value: 0.001; ES: -0.157) and BMI (F: 9.918; p value: 0.003; ES: 0.146), whilst the performance in hand grip and abdominal strength, hip mobility, and 10 × 5 m Shuttle and Cooper 12 min tests' outcomes significantly decreased (F: 29.779; p value: 0.001 F: 29.779; p value: 0.001 F: 29.779; p value: 0.001 F: 29.779; p value: 0.001 F: 29.779; p value: 0.001, respectively). Correlation analysis revealed that riders' experience was significantly correlated with hand grip (p < 0.01), leg strength (p < 0.01), hip mobility (p < 0.05), and 5 × 10 m Shuttle (p < 0.01) and the Cooper 12 min (p < 0.01) test results. It could be suggested that equestrian activities could produce a higher fitness level in puberal and adolescent riders, whilst home-based, unsupervised, and unattentively planned training during the twelve weeks of training restrictions might be insufficient to maintain it.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atividades Cotidianas , Atletas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Força da Mão , Cavalos , Humanos , Pandemias
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682043

RESUMO

Social support can positively influence both physical and psychological recovery from sport-related injury. However, few studies have examined the influence of the quantity, quality, and timing of social support on athletes' psychological health following injury. This study examined the effects of changes in social support on post-injury depressive and anxiety symptoms among college-student athletes. We conducted a prospective cohort study among Division I college-student athletes. Participants completed surveys at baseline and at multiple time points post-injury until return to play (RTP). A total of 597 injuries sustained by 389 student athletes (n = 400 (67.0%) males; n = 238 (39.9%) football players; n = 281 (47.1%) freshman) were included. The overall amount of social support increased from baseline to 1-week post-injury (p < 0.05) and then remained unchanged until RTP. The overall satisfaction with the support received increased from baseline to 1-week post-injury (p < 0.05) but decreased (p < 0.05) from 1-week post-injury to RTP. Increases in satisfaction with the support received were associated with decreases in post-injury depressive (ß = -0.404), p < 0.0001) and anxiety symptoms (ß = -0.406), p < 0.0001). Interventions involving social support may help hasten college-student athletes' psychological recovery from injury.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Futebol Americano , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Atletas/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Apoio Social , Estudantes/psicologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682215

RESUMO

We studied 6368 people (4544 women and 1824 men; aged 18-74 years). The research goal was to determine whether the Cognitive Reflection Test score (logical thinking compared with intuitive thinking) depends-and in what way it depends-on the healthy lifestyle components and emotional health-related components as well as age (18-74 years) and gender. We established that analytical vs. intuitive thinking depended on components of a healthy lifestyle, physical activity, sleep, eating habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, specificity of sporting activity, body mass index, and emotional health-related components (stress, depression, impulsivity, subjective health, emotional intelligence), as well as age and gender. We found that logical thinking was not associated with sleep, moderate-to-vigorous PA, impulsivity, subjective health, and components of a healthy lifestyle. However, logical thinking decreases with age, gender (higher in men than in women), BMI (decreases in both genders over the second degree of obesity), depression (the more severe depression in women, the worse their logical thinking), sedentary behavior (people who sat for longer periods had more difficulty solving problems), and in professional sportswomen (logical thinking is worse in professional sportswomen than in sedentary women, amateur sportswomen, or women who use gyms). Finally, we determined inverse correlations between logical thinking, emotional intelligence, and stress.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682219

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of Judo athletes' psychological function on sports coping skills through self-management: the moderated mediating effect of tension. A total of 124 participants (66 males and 58 females) were included, comprising high school students, college students, and judo team players (age 16 to 30, 20.51 ± 3.17) in the Republic of Korea. The psychological function was measured using the Profile of Mood Test, Athletes' Self-Management Questionnaire, and Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28. The results of the analysis of the moderating effect of the athlete's self-management behavior showed that tension had a moderating effect on the relationship between the athlete's self-management behavior and sports coping skills. The mediating effect analysis revealed a mediating effect of self-management behavior on the relationship between player vitality and sports coping skills. It was also confirmed that tension had a moderating effect on athletes' self-management behavior and sports coping skills. Therefore, it was confirmed that the higher the self-management, the more moderated the mediating effect on sports coping skills. In conclusion, it was confirmed that psychological function affects sports coping skills, and thereby, the mediating effect of the athlete's self-management behavior is regulated by tension. In future research, it will be necessary to study the sports coping ability and performance of judo athletes according to tension control.


Assuntos
Atletas , Artes Marciais , Adaptação Psicológica , Afeto , Atletas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682433

RESUMO

In aging societies, physical activity may benefit functional fitness influencing the health of older people. The aim of this study was to explore the interrelation between age and perception of health and quality of life, and the mediating effects of functional fitness in older individuals. One hundred and sixty-six late middle-aged (55-64 years, young-old (65-74 years), and old (75-84 years) adults, divided into senior athletes (n = 44), physically active (n = 59), and sedentary individuals (n = 63) were evaluated for functional fitness (flexibility, strength, interlimb coordination, endurance) and physical (Physical Component Summary-PCS) and mental (Mental Component Summary-MCS) health and quality of life perception. Multiple mediation analyses were applied to assess the relationship between age and PCS and MCS indices and the role of functional fitness-related mediators. For MCS only, the mediation analysis showed a positive total and direct effect of age and a negative total indirect effect through mediators. No effects emerged for PCS. Despite a decline in their functional fitness, older individuals were able to maintain a mental health perception, also demonstrating how beneficial effects of physically active lifestyle on functional fitness can positively impact the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health with advancing age.


Assuntos
Análise de Mediação , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Aptidão Física , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682469

RESUMO

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has created challenges for college athletes as they return to sport and campus life. Emerging literature highlights some of these challenges, but no studies have used a primarily qualitative approach to assess the impact of the pandemic on college athletes. The purpose of this study was to better understand factors affecting college athletes' return to sport and campus life amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with varsity athletes who participated in the 2020-2021 season at a single university. Qualitative analysis was performed using the Strauss and Corbin method to derive codes, categories, and themes. Additionally, Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 (ACSI-28) scores were recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. (3) Results: A total of 20 student athletes were interviewed, revealing that confidence and motivation, increased stress and anxiety, and adaptive coping strategies were common themes affecting their experiences returning to sport and campus life. Results from the ACSI-28 showed an average score of 49.5 and a range of 24-66. (4) Conclusions: Semi-structured interviews revealed factors impacting return to sport and student life. These findings can help inform how to better support college athletes throughout the remainder of the current pandemic and moving forward.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , COVID-19 , Esportes , Adaptação Psicológica , Atletas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Volta ao Esporte
18.
Am J Sports Med ; 50(7): 1788-1797, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) revision report lower outcome scores on validated knee questionnaires postoperatively compared to cohorts with primary ACL reconstruction. In a previously active population, it is unclear if patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are associated with a return to activity (RTA) or vary by sports participation level (higher level vs. recreational athletes). HYPOTHESES: Individual RTA would be associated with improved outcomes (ie, decreased knee symptoms, pain, function) as measured using validated PROs. Recreational participants would report lower PROs compared with higher level athletes and be less likely to RTA. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: There were 862 patients who underwent a revision ACL reconstruction (rACLR) and self-reported physical activity at any level preoperatively. Those who did not RTA reported no activity 2 years after revision. Baseline data included patient characteristics, surgical history and characteristics, and PROs: International Knee Documentation Committee questionnaire, Marx Activity Rating Scale, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. A binary indicator was used to identify patients with same/better PROs versus worse outcomes compared with baseline, quantifying the magnitude of change in each direction, respectively. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate risk factors for not returning to activity, the association of 2-year PROs after rACLR surgery by RTA status, and whether each PRO and RTA status differed by participation level. RESULTS: At 2 years postoperatively, approximately 15% did not RTA, with current smokers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.3; P = .001), female patients (aOR = 2.9; P < .001), recreational participants (aOR = 2.0; P = .016), and those with a previous medial meniscal excision (aOR = 1.9; P = .013) having higher odds of not returning. In multivariate models, not returning to activity was significantly associated with having worse PROs at 2 years; however, no clinically meaningful differences in PROs at 2 years were seen between participation levels. CONCLUSION: Recreational-level participants were twice as likely to not RTA compared with those participating at higher levels. Within a previously active cohort, no RTA was a significant predictor of lower PROs after rACLR. However, among patients who did RTA after rACLR, approximately 20% reported lower outcome scores. Most patients with rACLR who were active at baseline improved over time; however, patients who reported worse outcomes at 2 years had a clinically meaningful decline across all PROs.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Osteoartrite , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Osteoartrite/cirurgia , Reoperação
20.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 10(6): 23259671221099840, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35677020

RESUMO

Background: Return to sports (RTS) and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) for elite athletes with femoral version abnormalities undergoing hip arthroscopy have not been well established. Purposes: To (1) report minimum 2-year PROs and RTS rates in elite athletes with femoral retroversion who underwent primary hip arthroscopy and (2) compare clinical results to those of a propensity-matched control group of elite athletes with normal femoral version who underwent primary hip arthroscopy. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed for elite (professional and collegiate) athletes with femoral version <5°, as measured on magnetic resonance imaging scans, who underwent hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome between March 2010 and April 2018. Inclusion criteria were preoperative and minimum 2-year follow-up PROs for the modified Harris Hip Score, Nonarthritic Hip Score, Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and visual analog scale for pain. Exclusion criteria were Tönnis grade >1, hip dysplasia, and previous ipsilateral hip surgery or conditions. Rates of achieving the minimal clinically important difference (MCID), Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS), and maximum outcome improvement satisfaction threshold were recorded in addition to RTS. Athletes with retroversion were propensity matched in a 1:2 ratio to elite athletes with normal femoral version (5°-20°) for comparison. Results: A total of 33 elite athletes (33 hips) with femoral retroversion who underwent hip arthroscopy met the inclusion criteria, and follow-up was available for 30 hips in 30 athletes (90.9%) at an average of 36.1 ± 25.6 months. Elite athletes with femoral retroversion demonstrated significant improvements in all recorded PROs, achieved the MCID and PASS for the HOS-SSS at high rates (86.7%), and returned to sports at a rate of 83.3%. PROs, rates of achieving MCID and PASS for the HOS-SSS, and RTS rates were similar between the study and propensity-matched control group. Conclusion: Elite athletes with femoral retroversion undergoing primary hip arthroscopy demonstrated favorable PROs and high RTS rates at a minimum 2-year follow-up. These results were comparable with those of a propensity-matched control group of elite athletes with normal femoral version.

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