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1.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 13(1)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36661641

RESUMO

Food and sleep are critical for human survival. However, for individuals with eating disorders, they face two critical disruptions in terms of abnormal feeding patterns as well as poor sleep. These difficulties are exacerbated as a result of the recent coronavirus pandemic, which caused drastic changes in daily life schedules and living arrangements. The current study therefore aims to explore, through qualitative means, how individuals with eating disorders are affected during the subsequent lockdowns, with a particular emphasis on the pandemic's impact on their sleep in Saudi Arabia. Two groups of participants were recruited: participants with eating disorders and healthy controls. Based on thematic analysis of focus group discussion data, it was found that both types of participants experienced poorer sleep and poorer mental health. Participants with eating disorders too showed a deterioration of their symptoms. However, healthy participants tended to show greater levels of recovery and coping. Based on the study findings, recommendations for future studies are made.

2.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite evidence supporting the link between dietary restraint (i.e., attempts at dietary restriction) and loss of control (LOC) eating among individuals with binge-spectrum eating disorders (EDs), some research suggests that dietary restraint may not be linked to LOC eating in all contexts. It is currently unknown how often dietary restraint results in successful dietary restriction, or which types of restraint/restriction confer highest risk for LOC eating. Furthermore, little research has evaluated momentary, temporal associations between dietary restraint and LOC eating. Thus, the present study aimed to (1) characterize dietary restraint and restriction, among individuals with LOC eating, and (2) examine temporal relationships between restraint/restriction and LOC eating within- and between-subjects. METHOD: The current study recruited adults with binge spectrum EDs (n = 96, 80.4% female) to complete a 7-14-day ecological momentary assessment protocol assessing ED symptoms. Multilevel models and linear regression evaluated within- and between-subjects associations between momentary restraint/restriction and LOC eating, respectively. RESULTS: Attempted avoidance of enjoyable foods, limiting the amount eaten, and any restraint predicted greater likelihood of LOC eating at the next survey. Attempts to delay eating predicted reduced likelihood of LOC eating at the next survey, though this effect was no longer statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. Diagnostic presentation moderated the association between attempted avoidance of enjoyable foods and LOC eating such that this association was significantly stronger for those on the BN-spectrum. DISCUSSION: Dietary restraint seems to be more predictive of LOC eating than dietary restriction both within- and between-subjects. Future treatments should target dietary restraint to reduce LOC eating. PUBLIC SIGNIFICANCE: Some research suggests that dietary restriction (i.e., reduced calorie intake) and restraint (i.e., attempted restriction) may not be linked to LOC eating in all contexts. We found that dietary restraint is more predictive of LOC eating than dietary restriction both within and between individuals. Future treatments should target dietary restraint to reduce LOC eating.

3.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678165

RESUMO

Obesity is an established risk factor for the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), especially phenotype A. PCOS is an important cause of fertility disorders in a large group of women of reproductive age. For many years, effective methods of treating hormonal disorders associated with PCOS have been sought in order to restore ovulation with regular menstrual cycles. Numerous studies support obesity treatment as an effective therapeutic method for many women. A seemingly simple method of treatment may prove to be particularly difficult in this group of women. The reason for this may be the lack of recognition the primary cause of obesity development or the occurrence of a vicious circle of disease. Primary causes of developing obesity may be emotional eating (EE) and eating disorders (EDs), such as binge eating disorder (BED) and its extreme form, addictive eating, as well as night eating syndrome (NES). All of these are caused by impaired function of the reward system. Consequently, these disorders can develop or be exacerbated in women with obesity and PCOS as a result of depression and anxiety related to hirsutism and fertility disturbances. Therefore, for the effective treatment of obesity, it is very important to recognize and treat EE, BED, and NES, including the appropriate selection of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Therefore, the aim of our manuscript is to analyze the available data on the relationships between EE, BED, NES, obesity, and PCOS and their impact on the treatment of obesity in women with PCOS.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Síndrome do Comer Noturno , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Humanos , Feminino , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/complicações , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/terapia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Hirsutismo/complicações , Hirsutismo/terapia , Obesidade/complicações
4.
Obes Surg ; 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690865

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Identifying eating behaviors associated with suboptimal weight loss following bariatric surgery remains important. This study assessed the relationship between eating behaviors and weight loss following bariatric surgery in a racially diverse sample. METHODS: Participants were assessed before surgery and 6 and 12 months postoperatively, with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5, the Eating Disorder Examination-Bariatric Surgery Version, and validated measures assessing a range of eating behaviors. Linear mixed effect models were used to test the impact of eating behaviors on percent weight loss (%WL) at 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: We enrolled 300 participants (mean age 40.1 years; BMI 45.9 kg/m2; 87% women; 62% Black and 30% White). The majority (82%) underwent sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Mean %WL was 23.0 ± 5.1% at 6 months and 26.2 ± 7.6% at 12 months. Subjective binge episodes prior to surgery predicted greater %WL over the first 12 postoperative months (p = 0.028). Postoperative disinhibition, hunger, night eating symptoms, objective binge episodes, global disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, and snacks per day were associated with smaller %WL over 12 months (all p's < 0.01). The presence of picking/nibbling and addictive-like eating behaviors was not associated with %WL at the end of the first postoperative year. CONCLUSION: Among a diverse participant sample, problematic eating behaviors following surgery were associated with smaller %WL over 12 months. Postoperative assessment and treatment of eating behaviors are needed to address these issues as they arise and to prevent attenuation of early weight loss in some patients.

5.
J Eat Disord ; 11(1): 10, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality that can be minimized by timely access to evidence-based treatment. However, disparate access to eating disorders treatment may contribute to significant health disparities amongst marginalized groups. This study examined the association between insurance type (public vs. private) and receipt of recommended mental health treatment in a sample of racially/ethnically diverse youth who presented to an adolescent medicine clinic with malnutrition secondary to disordered eating. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted for youth ages 11-25 years (N = 1060) who presented to an urban adolescent medicine specialty program between June 1, 2012 and December 31, 2019 for malnutrition secondary to disordered eating. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses examined the association between insurance type (public vs. private) and other demographic/clinical factors on receipt of recommended treatment within six months of the initial evaluation. RESULTS: Patients with public insurance were one third as likely to receive recommended treatment as patients with private insurance (AOR = 3.23; 95% CI = 1.99, 4.52), after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Latinx (AOR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.77) and Asian (AOR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.94) patients were half as likely to receive recommended treatment as White patients. CONCLUSIONS: Access to evidence-based mental health treatment is a necessary first step towards health equity for individuals with eating disorders. Additional work is needed to dismantle systemic inequities that contribute to disparities in care for youth of color and those with public insurance.


Early management of eating disorders, including mental health and medical treatment, improves outcomes and reduces the likelihood of significant complications including death. However, access to specialized mental health treatment can be challenging, particularly for patients from marginalized identities. This study examined how insurance type affects access to recommended mental health treatment for patients with eating disorders. It included a sample of 1060 youth of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds who presented to an adolescent medicine clinic with malnutrition secondary to disordered eating. In our sample, youth with public insurance were one third as likely to receive appropriate treatment as youth with private insurance. Additionally, Latinx and Asian patients were half as likely to receive appropriate treatment as White youth. These findings highlight the importance of not only improving access to mental health care for patients with eating disorders, but also addressing the systemic causes of disparities in care for youth of color and those with public insurance.

6.
J Psychiatr Res ; 158: 281-299, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623362

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Eating disorders (EDs) have high rates of relapse. However, it is still not clear which factors are the strongest predictors of ED relapse, and the extent to which predictors of relapse may vary due to study and individual differences. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify and compare which factors predict relapse in EDs and evaluate various potential moderators of these relations (e.g., ED subtype, sample age, length of follow-up, timing of predictor assessment, relapse operationalization). METHODS: A total of 35 papers (effects = 315) were included. We used a multilevel random-effects model to estimate summary study-level effect sizes, and multilevel mixed-effects models to examine moderator effects. RESULTS: Higher level of care, having psychiatric comorbidity, and higher severity of ED psychopathology were associated with higher odds of relapse. Higher leptin, higher meal energy density/variety, higher motivation for change, higher body mass index/weight/body fat, better response to treatment, anorexia nervosa-restricting (vs. anorexia nervosa-binge purge) subtype diagnosis, and older age of ED onset were associated with lower odds of relapse. Several moderators were identified. DISCUSSION: A variety of variables can predict ED relapse. Furthermore, predictors of ED relapse vary among ED subtypes, sample ages, lengths of follow-up, timing of predictor assessments, and relapse operationalization. Future research should identify the mechanisms by which these variables may contribute to relapse.

7.
J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc ; : 10783903221147930, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disordered eating is common but underrecognized in people with obesity and the relationship of food insecurity, mood, and binge-spectrum eating disorders has not been well addressed in samples with higher weight. Young adults are particularly vulnerable to developing disordered eating. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of food insecurity, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and loneliness among young adults (aged 18-35 years) who screened positive for binge-spectrum eating disorders (i.e., binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa), those with subthreshold forms of these disorders, and individuals who did not screen positive for these conditions. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study of young adults with a self-reported body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 from the United States who were recruited online. Participants (N = 1,331; M ± SD age = 28.0 ± 3.4 years; body mass index [BMI] = 36.5 ± 6.2 kg/m2; 73.9% male; 56.3% White) completed surveys that evaluated disordered eating behaviors, food insecurity, mood, and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: In the sample, 8.0% of participants screened positive for binge-spectrum eating disorder and 16.0% had probable subthreshold symptoms. Higher depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.03, 1.20], p = .01), perceived stress (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = [1.07, 1.19], p < .001), and food insecurity scores (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = [1.03, 1.21], p = .01) were associated with an increased likelihood of threshold binge-spectrum eating disorders. CONCLUSION: People with disordered eating should also be evaluated for mood disorders and food insecurity and vice versa. Further research is needed to evaluate interventions that address food insecurity and mood disorders, which may help to decrease disordered eating.

8.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639882

RESUMO

This commentary discusses the systematic review by Walsh et al. that has found that people with atypical anorexia nervosa have similar symptoms and severity as have people with anorexia nervosa. In this paper, the discussion is broadened to other eating disorders diagnoses and the problem of overlap and crossover between syndromes that impacts adversely on the need for diagnoses to be distinct both at assessment but also over time. It is argued that the derivation of eating disorder diagnostic criteria has also been vulnerable to erroneous assumptions and biased observations. Whether atypical anorexia nervosa becomes a standalone diagnosis or is joined with an expanded anorexia nervosa, future delineations should be based on empirical research including neuroscience.

9.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Eating disorders (ED) may be associated with an increased prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) relative to healthy (HC) and psychiatric (PC) controls. However, precise estimates of differences in prevalence between individuals with EDs and controls are unclear. We compared the prevalence of NSSI, suicidal ideation (SI), suicide attempts (SA), and deaths by suicide in controls and individuals with EDs. METHOD: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and CINAHL for peer-reviewed publications reporting the prevalence of NSSI and/or STBs in EDs and HC or PC group (PROSPERO: CRD42021286754). A series of random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for NSSI, SI, SA, and death by suicide in EDs. RESULTS: Across 32 studies, individuals with an ED had a significantly increased prevalence of NSSI (HC: OR = 6.85 [95% CI: 3.60, 13.04]; PC: OR = 2.74 [95% CI: 1.49, 5.06]), SI (HC: OR = 3.63 [95% CI: 2.43, 5.41]; PC: OR = 3.10 [95% CI: 2.01, 4.78]), and SA (HC: OR = 5.16 [95% CI: 4.27, 6.24]; PC: OR = 1.37 [95% CI: 0.37, 4.99]) relative to HC and PC groups. A 2.93-times increased odd of death by suicide did not achieve statistical significance. There was a high-level of heterogeneity between studies. DISCUSSION: Our findings indicate that ED populations have an increased prevalence of NSSI, SI, and SA but not death by suicide compared to controls and emphasize the need for effective clinical strategies to address these behaviors in ED populations. PUBLIC SIGNIFICANCE: This review provides evidence for an increased prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in populations with eating disorders compared to controls. Our findings emphasize the need for effective clinical strategies to address these behaviors in patients with eating disorders.

10.
J Eat Disord ; 11(1): 5, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Binge eating disorder (BED) is defined as recurrent ingestion of an unusually large amount of food in a discrete period of time. BED has the highest prevalence of all eating disorders. Studies have shown a strong relationship between BED and both physical and psychological factors such as obesity, depression and anxiety. This research aimed to report the prevalence and associated factors of BED among Bahrainis (aged 15-30 years). METHODS: A total of 959 participants (aged 15-30 years) completed self-administered online questionnaires. BED was measured using the binge eating disorder Screener-7. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and General Anxiety Disorder-7 were used to measure depression and anxiety, respectively. RESULTS: Out of all participants, 21.2% had binge eating symptoms. A higher BMI, a restricted diet, depression and anxiety were associated with more frequent binge eating symptoms. Out of all associated factors, depression had the strongest association with binge eating, (rp = 0.371, p < 0.0001). However, sociodemographic variables including age and other medical conditions were not significantly associated with BED symptoms. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the prevalence of BED symptoms was significantly high among the study participants. The results point out the crucial role of awareness of the interaction between obesity, depression and anxiety as potential risk factors for binge eating tendencies. Further research should examine their relationship with BED.


Binge eating disorder is an eating disorder characterized by the consumption of a large amount of food in a short period of time with loss of control over stopping accompanied by emotional stress during the episode. Studies have identified multiple risk factors that may contribute to binge eating, including lifestyle, psychological well-being of the individual, stress, genetics, family history, age and sex. The current study examined binge eating symptoms among adolescents and young adults aged 15­30 years to estimate the prevalence of the disorder in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Furthermore, participants were tested for depression and anxiety to investigate whether they were associated with the disorder. The results revealed that approximately one-fifth of the participants had binge eating symptoms. A high body mass index, depression and anxiety were significantly associated with binge eating symptoms. We hope this study will be reliable for use in epidemiological studies and further research.

11.
J Eat Disord ; 11(1): 7, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevention and treatment of eating disorders relies on an extensive body of research that includes various foci and methodologies. This scoping review identified relevant studies of eating disorders, body image, and disordered eating with New Zealand samples; charted the methodologies, sample characteristics, and findings reported; and identified several gaps that should be addressed by further research. METHODS: Using scoping review methodology, two databases were searched for studies examining eating disorders, disordered eating, or body image with New Zealand samples. Snowball methods were further used to identify additional relevant articles that did not appear in initial searches. Two independent reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of 473 records. Full text assessment of the remaining 251 records resulted in 148 peer-reviewed articles being identified as eligible for the final review. A search of institutional databases yielded 106 Masters and Doctoral theses for assessment, with a total of 47 theses being identified as eligible for the final review. The included studies were classified by methodology, and the extracted information included the study foci, data collected, sample size, demographic information, and key findings. RESULTS: The eligible studies examined a variety of eating disorder categories including binge-eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa, in addition to disordered eating behaviours and body image in nonclinical or community samples. Methodologies included treatment trials, secondary analysis of existing datasets, non-treatment experimental interventions, cross-sectional observation, case-control studies, qualitative and mixed-methods studies, and case studies or series. Across all of the studies, questionnaire and interview data were most commonly utilised. A wide range of sample sizes were evident, and studies often reported all-female or mostly-female participants, with minimal inclusion of males and gender minorities. There was also an underrepresentation of minority ethnicities in many studies, highlighting the need for future research to increase diversity within samples. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive and detailed overview of research into eating disorders and body image in New Zealand, while highlighting important considerations for both local and international research.

12.
EClinicalMedicine ; 56: 101811, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36618893

RESUMO

Background: The detrimental effects of weight stigma are a growing concern as a contributor to negative physical and mental health outcomes, disparities in care, and healthcare avoidance. Research exploring the impact of weight-neutral healthcare is limited but suggests weight-neutral interventions are associated with positive psychological and behavioral outcomes. Little is known about patients' lived experiences receiving weight-neutral healthcare. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews between Feb 5, 2019 and Feb 25, 2020 with 21 women (90% non-Hispanic white, mean age 49 ± 14.8 years) who had type 2 diabetes or prediabetes and high body weight (mean body mass index 43.8 ± 8.4, range: 30.2-63.9) and previously attended a specialized treatment program for binge eating disorder. We recruited individuals with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes who completed of >2 weeks of a specialized binge eating disorder treatment program with the ability to participate in an English-spoken interview and did not have cognitive impairment or severe psychopathology that would limit recall or engagement in the interview. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis and Nvivo software. The main outcome we studied was patients' lived experience in healthcare settings and in a weight-neutral eating disorder treatment program. Findings: Participants reported experiencing weight stigma in healthcare encounters and believed this decreased the quality of care they received. While participants frequently attempted to lose weight, they experienced embarrassment, internalized a sense of failure, and felt blamed for their weight and health conditions. In describing experiences within a weight-neutral paradigm, participants reported that helpful elements included consistency in the eating pattern (emphasizing adequate, varied, and nourishing intake), sufficient and specific education, and comprehensive support. Reported impacts included decreased binge episodes, experiencing less shame, and increased resiliency following treatment. Some participants experienced the weight-neutral treatment recommendations and the absence of the pursuit of weight loss as challenging. Interpretation: Weight-neutral treatment may improve psychological and behavioral outcomes regarding binge eating, and longitudinal, quantitative research is warranted. These findings are useful to decrease weight stigma in provider-patient interactions. Funding: The Dudley Allen Sargent Research Fund, Boston University.

13.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 76(supl.1): e20220197, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1407486

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze subjective experiences related to adaptation to remote care by users with eating disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: a descriptive study with a qualitative approach conducted with users of an eating disorders outpatient clinic. A semi-structured remote interview was applied using the Google Meet application. The data were submitted to lexical analysis using ALCESTE software and discussed in the light of scientific evidence. Results: the remote appointment is a positive strategy but not a substitute for the face-to-face modality. The research cited financial savings, closer contact with professionals, and flexibility of service schedules as advantages. It pointed out the difficulty in clinical evaluation concerning weight, vital signs, and poor mastery of technology as limitations. Final Considerations: the study induces discussion about the systematization of remote care, which, during the COVID-19 pandemic, were responsible for providing a greater sense of support to people with eating disorders.


RESUMEN Objetivos: analizar experiencias subjetivas relacionadas a la adaptación a la atención remota por usuarios con trastornos alimenticios durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de abordaje cualitativo realizado con usuarios de un ambulatorio especializado en trastornos alimenticios. Fue aplicada una entrevista semiestructurada remota, utilizándose el aplicativo Google Meet. Los datos fueron sometidos al análisis lexical mediante software ALCESTE y discutidos a la luz de las evidencias científicas. Resultados: la consulta remota es una estrategia positiva, pero no substitutiva de la presencial. Ventajas como economía financiera, mayor contacto con los profesionales y flexibilización de horarios de atenciones fueron citadas. Dificultad de evaluación clínica en relación al peso, signos vitales y poco dominio de tecnología fueron apuntados como limitaciones. Consideraciones Finales: el estudio induce la discusión sobre sistematización de atenciones remotas, las cuales, durante la pandemia de COVID-19, fueron responsables por fornecer mayor sensación de soporte a personas con trastornos alimenticios.


RESUMO Objetivos: analisar as experiências subjetivas relacionadas à adaptação ao atendimento remoto por usuários com transtornos alimentares durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos: estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa realizado com usuários de um ambulatório especializado em transtornos alimentares. Foi aplicada uma entrevista semiestruturada remota, utilizando-se o aplicativo Google Meet. Os dados foram submetidos à análise lexical por meio do software ALCESTE e discutidos à luz das evidências científicas. Resultados: a consulta remota é uma estratégia positiva, mas não substitutiva da modalidade presencial. Vantagens como economia financeira, maior contato com os profissionais e flexibilização de horários de atendimentos foram citadas. Dificuldade de avaliação clínica em relação ao peso, sinais vitais e pouco domínio da tecnologia foram apontados como limitações. Considerações Finais: o estudo induz a discussão sobre sistematização dos atendimentos remotos, os quais, durante a pandemia de COVID-19, foram responsáveis por fornecer maior sensação de suporte às pessoas com transtornos alimentares.

15.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(2 Suppl 3): E297-E305, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36479493

RESUMO

Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, have a deep social impact, concluding with death in cases of severe disease. Eating disorders affect up to 5% of the population in the industrialized countries, but probably the phenomenon is under-detection and under-diagnosis. Eating disorders are multifactorial disorders, resulting from the interaction between environmental triggers, psychological factors, but there is also a strong genetic component. In fact, genetic factors predispose for approximately 33-84% to anorexia nervosa, 28-83% to bulimia nervosa, and 41-57% to binge eating disorder. Twins and family studies have provided an unassailable proof on the heritability of these disorders. Other types of genetic studies, including genome-wide association studies, whole genome sequencing and linkage analysis, allowed to identify the genes and their variants associated with eating disorders and moreover global collaborative efforts have led to delineate the etiology of these disorders. Next Generation Sequencing technologies can be considered as an ideal diagnostic approach to identify not only the common variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphism, but also rare variants. Here we summarize the present knowledge on the molecular etiology and genetic determinants of eating disorders including serotonergic genes, dopaminergic genes, opioid genes, appetite regulation genes, endocannabinoid genes and vitamin D3.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Humanos , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/genética , Países Desenvolvidos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Bulimia Nervosa/genética
16.
Eat Behav ; 48: 101699, 2022 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565528

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have suggested the positive influence of social support on the treatment and recovery of eating disorders (EDs). Yet, more research is needed on how objective and subjective social support differ between ED diagnostic groups using nationally representative data. Therefore, the current secondary data analysis examined associations between EDs and objective and subjective social support using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) study. METHODS: Participants completed measures of lifetime and past year diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge-eating disorder (BED) and items assessing objective social support (i.e., number of close friends and close relatives) and subjective social support (i.e., perceptions of availability of support). RESULTS: Compared to those without EDs, those with AN, BN, and BED had poorer subjective social support-or lower perceptions of social support. However, there were fewer differences regarding objective social support. Individuals with BN reported a lower number of close relatives compared to those without EDs and those with AN, but there were no differences in the number of close friends between ED groups. Those who experienced remission from EDs had higher perceptions of social support compared to those with past year EDs. DISCUSSION: The findings show deficits in subjective social support across EDs but only lower objective social support in BN. This highlights the clinical utility of increasing perceptions of social support across EDs. The findings also show the importance of perceived social support in recovery from EDs.

17.
Pediatr Obes ; : e12990, 2022 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36484235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This randomized clinical trial tested the effectiveness of an addiction-based digital weight-loss intervention, focusing on withdrawal/abstinence from self-identified problem foods, snacking and excessive amounts at meals, and discomfort displacement, with and without coaching, compared to an in-person, multi-disciplinary, care model among adolescents with obesity. We hypothesized that the digital intervention with coaching would yield greater weight loss and lower delivery burden than the standard clinical arm, and greater participant engagement than the digital arm without coaching. METHODS: Adolescents were randomized to app intervention, with or without coaching, or in-person multidisciplinary obesity intervention for 6 months. The primary outcome was change in %BMIp95 at weeks 12 and 24. A mixed-effects linear regression model was used to assess the association between change in %BMIp95 and intervention arm. We were also interested in assessing delivery burden, participant engagement and evaluating the relationships between weight change and demographic characteristics, mood, executive function and eating behaviours. RESULTS: All adolescents (n = 161; BMI ≥95th%, age 16 ± 2.5 year; 47% Hispanic, 65% female, 59% publicly insured) lost weight over 24-weeks (-1.29%, [-1.82, -0.76], p < 0.0001), with no significant weight loss difference between groups (p = 0.3). Girls lost more weight than boys, whereas binge eating behaviour at baseline was associated with increase in %BMIp95 when controlling for other covariates. There was no association between ethnicity, mood, timing of intervention in relation to the pandemic, or executive function and change in %BMIp95 . CONCLUSIONS: Contrary with our hypothesis, our results showed no difference in the change in BMI status between treatment arms. Since efficacy of this digital intervention was not inferior to in-person, multi-disciplinary care, this could offer a reasonable weight management option for clinicians, based on youth and family specific characteristics, such as accessibility, resources, and communication styles. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT035008353.

18.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 969115, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405908

RESUMO

Objective: Online treatment for binge eating disorder (BED) is an easily available option for treatment compared to most standard treatment procedures. However, little is known about how motivation types characterize this population and how these impact treatment adherence and effect in an online setting. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a sample of written motivation statements from BED patients, to learn more about how treatment and online treatment in particular, presents in this population. Methods: Using self-determination theory in a mixed methods context, we investigated which types of motivation were prevalent in our sample, how this was connected with patient sentiment, and how these constructs influence treatment and adherence. Results: Contrary to what most current literature suggests, we found that in our sample (n = 148), motivation type was not connected with treatment outcome. We did find a strong association between sentiment scores and motivation types, indicating the model is apt at detecting effects. We found that when comparing an adult and young adult population, they did not differ in motivation type and the treatment was equally effective in young adults and adults. In the sentiment scores there was a difference between sentiment score and adherence in the young adult group, as the more positive the young adults were, the less likely they were to complete the program. Discussion: Because motivation type does not influence online treatment to the same degree as it would in face-to-face treatment it indicates that the typical barriers to treatment may be less crucial in an online setting. This should be considered during intake; as less motivated patients may be able to adhere better to online treatment, because the latter imposes fewer barriers of the kind that only strong motivation can overcome. The fact that motivation type and sentiment score of the written texts are strongly associated, indicate a potential for automated models to detect motivation based on sentiment.

19.
J Eat Disord ; 10(1): 168, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are common and linked to negative health outcomes. Previous studies have found associations between ACEs and binge-eating disorder (BED), though they have mainly focused on adults and use cross-sectional data. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between ACEs and BED in a large, national cohort of 9-14-year-old early adolescents in the US. METHODS: We analyzed prospective cohort data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (N = 10,145, 2016-2020). Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the associations between self-reported ACEs and BED based on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia at two-year follow-up, adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, baseline household income, parental education, site, and baseline binge-eating disorder. RESULTS: In the sample, (49% female, 46% racial/ethnic minority), 82.8% of adolescents reported at least one ACE and 1.2% had a diagnosis of BED at two-year follow-up. The mean number of ACEs was higher in those with a diagnosis of BED compared to those without (2.6 ± 0.14 vs 1.7 ± 0.02). The association between number of ACEs and BED in general had a dose-response relationship. One ACE (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-10.89), two ACEs (aOR 3.88, 95% CI 1.28-11.74), and three or more ACEs (aOR 8.94, 95% CI 3.01-26.54) were all associated with higher odds of BED at two-year follow-up. When stratified by types of ACEs, history of household mental illness (aOR 2.18, 95% 1.31-3.63), household violence (aOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.42-4.15), and criminal household member (aOR 2.14, 95% CI 1.23-3.73) were most associated with BED at two-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents who have experienced ACEs, particularly household challenges, have higher odds of developing BED. Clinicians may consider screening for ACEs and providing trauma-focused care when evaluating patients for BED.


Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are common among adolescents and a significant public health concern given their associations with various health outcomes later in life. The current study examined the associations between ACEs and binge-eating disorder (BED) among early adolescents using a large, national sample in the United States. Participants with three or more ACEs had nearly nine times higher odds of developing BED at two-year follow-up. Of the different types of ACEs, household mental illness, household violence, and having a criminal household member were most strongly associated with BED. Screening for ACEs when evaluating adolescents for BED should be considered, and clinicians should provide trauma-informed care for adolescents with BED.

20.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370263

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review relevant factors and barriers to care for binge-eating disorder (BED) in Black women. We examine evidence for the treatment of BED and provide recommendations to improve cultural relevance for assessing and treating BED in Black women. RECENT FINDINGS: BED is the most common eating disorder among Black women. Moreover, evidence supports alternative factors that contribute to the onset of BED in Black women, including stress, trauma, and food insecurity. Furthermore, though there are evidence-based treatments for BED, disparities persist in access to care and treatment retention. Recommendations for increasing the cultural relevance of assessments and treatments are provided. Gaps in the literature remain on the use of evidence-based treatments for BED among Black women. As such, healthcare providers should include Black women as co-collaborators in their care and seek out training and consultation to aid in providing culturally affirming treatment.

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