Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.783
Filtrar
1.
Front Nutr ; 9: 865497, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662932

RESUMO

Despite continuous advances in pharmacotherapy, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains the world's leading killer. Atherosclerosis relates not only to an increased level of cholesterol, but involves the development of atherosclerotic plaques, which are formed as a result of processes including inflammation and oxidative stress. Therefore, in addition to the classical risk factors for ASCVD (such as type 2 diabetes, overweight, obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome), residual risk factors such as inflammation and oxidative stress should also be reduced. The most important intervention in ASCVD is prevention, which includes promoting a healthy diet based on products of natural origin. Curcumin, which is often present in the diet, has been demonstrate to confer several benefits to health. It has been shown in numerous clinical trials that curcumin exhibited anti-diabetic, lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as promoting weight loss. All this means that curcumin has a comprehensive impact on the most important risk factors of ASCVD and may be a beneficial support in the treatment of these diseases. Recently, it has also been shown that curcumin may have a beneficial effect on the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and might be helpful in the prevention of long-COVID complications. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the safety and efficacy of curcumin in the prevention and treatment of cardiometabolic diseases.

2.
Cureus ; 14(5): e24642, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35663675

RESUMO

The prevalence of heart disease in farmers is well documented, but there is limited research characterizing the diverse risk factors associated specifically with male farmers over the age of 45 in the United States, while also providing a multifactorial strategy to address these concerns. The majority of current research either focuses on the general rural population or does not take into account different demographic variables. Hence, this review looked to address those gaps by focusing on those specific variables. A literature review was generated looking at risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in farmers using key search terms. Next, an additional search was conducted focusing on treatment plans to address these concerns. The articles were then sorted based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The initial articles were sorted by one researcher and then reassessed on two separate occasions. The literature review was performed using these databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Ovid Medline. A total of 221 articles were generated, of which 12 articles matched the criteria. The articles highlighted important risk factors that were either social or non-social determinants of health that negatively impacted the target population. These were followed up by offering solutions that attempted to provide a holistic approach, including clinical and community-based interventions. Male farmers over the age of 45 years are at an increased risk of being diagnosed with heart disease compared to non-farmers in the same demographic. When attempting to implement interventions, stress management should be incorporated into the treatment plan. In addition, a multifaceted approach targeting clinical and community concerns is recommended.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 785719, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665348

RESUMO

Background: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aims of our real-life study were to compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and cardiovascular events (CVEs) among patients with PsA with a control population, to evaluate the impact of correcting factors in equations that assess cardiovascular risk (CVR) in PsA, and to determine the percentage of patients who reach the LDLc target as indicated by the European guidelines. Methods: In this observational cross-sectional monocentric case-control study, we used a standardized procedure to systematically assess patients with PsA aged 25-85 years who met the Classification for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR) criteria. Controls were extracted from the MOnitoring NAtionaL du rISque Artériel (MONALISA) study. We compared the prevalence of CVRFs, CVEs, the CVR, and the percentage of patients reaching recommended LDLc target in both populations. The CVR was first assessed using SCORE and QRISK2 equations. Then, the SCORE equation was corrected by applying a 1.5 multiplication factor, as recommended by EULAR for rheumatoid arthritis (SCORE-PsA), and the QRISK2 was corrected using the "rheumatoid arthritis" item (QRISK2-PsA). Results: A total of 207 PsA and 414 controls were included. CVRFs and CVEs were more frequent in the PsA group. After controlling for age and gender, atherothrombotic disease was increased in the PsA population (SCORE p = 0.002, QRISK2 p = 0.001). Using the SCORE-PsA increased the percentage of patients with a high or very high CVR from 39.3 to 45.3% in the PsA group. Similarly, using the QRISK2-PsA increased the percentage of patients with a CVR ≥ 10% from 44.9 to 53.2%. The percentages of patients with PsA with high LDLc in the high and very high CVR groups were not significantly different from controls, despite a trend in favor of patients with PsA. Of the 83 PsA with a QRISK2 ≥ 10%, only 22.9% were treated with statin vs. 35.8% of the 134 controls. The QRISK2-PsA score did not alter these results. Conclusion: In real-life, patients with PsA have a higher prevalence of CVRFs, as well as a higher prevalence of CVEs compared to the general population. The CVR is higher in the PsA population than in the controls either using the SCORE and QRISK2 equations or using the corrected SCORE- PsA and QRISK2-PsA equations.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is a predictive risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and is assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Although it is known that nitric oxide-dependent endothelial dysfunction occurs after consuming a high-fat meal, the magnitude of the effect and the factors that affect the response are unquantified. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis exploring the quantitative effect of a single high-fat meal on endothelial function and determine the factors that modify the FMD response. DESIGN: Six databases were systematically searched for original research published up to January 2022. Eligible studies measured fasting and postprandial FMD following consumption of a high-fat meal. Meta-regression was used to analyze the effect of moderator variables. The protocol was pre-registered in the Prospero database (ID# CRD42020187244). RESULTS: There were 131 studies included of which 90 were suitable for quantitative meta-analysis. A high-fat meal challenge transiently caused endothelial dysfunction, decreasing postprandial FMD at 2-hours: -1.02 percentage points (pp) (95% CI: [-1.34, -0.70], P < 0.01, I2 = 93.3%), 3-hours: -1.04 pp ([-1.48, -0.59], P < 0.001, I2 = 84.5%), and 4-hours: -1.19 pp ([-1.53, -0.84], P < 0.01, I2 = 94.6%). Younger, healthy-weight participants exhibited a greater postprandial reduction in FMD% than older, heavier, at-risk groups after a high-fat meal (P < 0.05). Percent fat of the meals was inversely associated with the magnitude of postprandial change in FMD at 3-hours (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: A single high-fat meal adversely impacts endothelial function, with the magnitude of the impact on postprandial FMD moderated by fasting FMD, participant age, body mass index, and fat content of the meal. Recommendations are made to standardize the design of future postprandial FMD studies and optimize interpretation of results, as high-fat meals are commonly used in clinical studies as a challenge to assess endothelial function and therapeutics.

5.
J Clin Med ; 11(11)2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683633

RESUMO

In 103 subjects with a high genetic risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), family history (FH) of AD and ApoE ɛ4 characterization (ApoE ɛ4) were analyzed for changes in the retinal vascular network by OCTA (optical coherence tomography angiography), and AngioTool and Erlangen-Angio-Tool (EA-Tool) as imaging analysis software. Retinal vascularization was analyzed by measuring hypercholesterolemia (HCL) and high blood pressure (HBP). Angio-Tool showed a statistically significant higher percentage of area occupied by vessels in the FH+ ApoE ɛ4- group vs. in the FH+ ApoE ɛ4+ group, and EA-Tool showed statistically significant higher vascular densities in the C3 ring in the FH+ ApoE ɛ4+ group when compared with: i)FH- ApoE ɛ4- in sectors H3, H4, H10 and H11; and ii) FH+ ApoE ɛ4- in sectors H4 and H12. In participants with HCL and HBP, statistically significant changes were found, in particular using EA-Tool, both in the macular area, mainly in the deep plexus, and in the peripapillary area. In conclusion, OCTA in subjects with genetic risk factors for the development of AD showed an apparent increase in vascular density in some sectors of the retina, which was one of the first vascular changes detectable. These changes constitute a promising biomarker for monitoring the progression of pathological neuronal degeneration.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(11)2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684596

RESUMO

VO2max index has a significant impact on overall health. Its estimation through wearables notifies the user of his level of fitness but cannot provide a detailed analysis of the time intervals in which heartbeat dynamics are changed and/or fatigue is emerging. Here, we developed a multiple modality biosignal processing method to investigate running sessions to characterize in real time heartbeat dynamics in response to external energy demand. We isolated dynamic regimes whose fraction increases with the VO2max and with the emergence of neuromuscular fatigue. This analysis can be extremely valuable by providing personalized feedback about the user's fitness level improvement that can be realized by developing personalized exercise plans aimed to target a contextual increase in the dynamic regime fraction related to VO2max increase, at the expense of the dynamic regime fraction related to the emergence of fatigue. These strategies can ultimately result in the reduction in cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Corrida , Análise por Conglomerados , Coração , Frequência Cardíaca , Consumo de Oxigênio , Aptidão Física/fisiologia
7.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 907457, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694679

RESUMO

Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are submicron membrane-bound vesicles released from various cells, which are emerging as a potential novel biomarker in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) due to their procoagulatory and prothrombotic properties. However, there is little information about the relationships between circulating EVs and conventional and thrombogenic risk markers of CVDs. Objective: To investigate the relationships between circulating EVs, conventional cardiovascular risk markers and thrombogenic markers in subjects with moderate risk of CVDs. Design: Subjects (n = 40) aged 40-70 years with moderate risk of CVDs were recruited and assessed for body mass index, blood pressure and plasma lipid profile, as well as platelet aggregation, clot formation, thrombin generation and fibrinolysis. Numbers of circulating EVs were assessed by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis and flow cytometry. A range of assays were used to assess the procoagulatory activity of plasma and circulating EVs. Results: Circulating EV numbers were positively associated with body mass index, blood pressure, plasma triacylglycerol concentration and overall CVD risk. Higher circulating EV numbers were also associated with increased thrombin generation and enhanced clot formation, and EVs isolated from subjects with moderate CVD risk promoted thrombin generation ex vivo. Higher numbers of endothelial-derived EVs were associated with a greater tendency for clot lysis. Plasma triacylglycerol concentration and diastolic blood pressure independently predicted circulating EV numbers, and EV numbers independently predicted aspects of thrombin generation and clot formation and 10-year CVD risk. Conclusion: Circulating EVs were strongly associated with both conventional and thrombogenic risk markers of CVDs, and also with overall CVD risk, highlighting a potentially important role for EVs in CVDs.

8.
J Nutr ; 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diets emphasizing unsaturated fat and high fiber are associated with reducing cardio-metabolic risk factors. Avocados are rich in mono- and poly-unsaturated fats and fiber. OBJECTIVE: Assess replacement of carbohydrate energy with avocado energy for 12 weeks on glucose homeostasis and cardio-metabolic risk factors in self-selecting free-living adults with overweight or obesity and insulin resistance. METHODS: In a single-center, randomized, 2-arm, controlled, 12-week parallel trial, adults [n = 93, male: female 39:54, mean ± SD age 42 ± 12 years, BMI 32.6 ± 3.9 kg/m2,  homeostatic assessment for insulin resistance, 2.7 ± 1.7] were counseled to exchange avocado (AV) or control food (C, low-fat low-fiber energy-matched) for carbohydrate food in their usual diet for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the change in Matsuda Insulin Sensitivity Index (MISI) after 12-week interventions. Secondary outcomes were changes in fasting and post-oral glucose tolerance test glycemic variables, fasting lipids, endothelial activation and inflammation markers. ASA24 dietary assessment tool captured weekly dietary intake. Intervention effects were mainly determined by analysis of covariance using PC-SAS, 9.4. RESULTS: Dietary total, mono- and poly-unsaturated fat, fiber, and vegetable intake were higher in the AV group compared to C group (P < 0.05), and no change in body weight or composition was observed (P > 0.05). Differences between the changes in MISI after AV compared to C were not different (Δ0-12 week, P = 0.1092). Differences in fasting insulin (Δ0-12 week, P = 0.0855) and improved HbA1c (Δ0-12 week P = 0.0632) after AV vs C were suggested. C-reactive protein was significantly lower after AV vs C at 12 weeks (P = 0.0418). Select biomarkers of endothelial activation and lipoproteins by NMR were also influenced by AV vs C food intake. CONCLUSIONS: Avocado intake was associated with a healthier dietary pattern and trends favoring improved glucose control and reduced biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk when replacing avocado energy for carbohydrate energy in free-living adults with overweight or obesity and insulin resistance.

10.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 97, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is a potential biomarker for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, its relation with other CV risk evaluation tools in T1D has not been elucidated yet. This study aimed to evaluate arterial stiffness in T1D patients free from known CVD, and compare it to other CV risk evaluation tools used in T1D. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in adults with a T1D duration of at least 10 years and without established CVD. Patients were categorized in CVD risk groups based on 2019 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines, and the STENO T1D risk engine was used to estimate 10-year risk for CV events. Arterial stiffness was evaluated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV). Coronary artery calcium (CAC) score was assessed and carotid ultrasound was performed. Ambulatory 24-h blood pressure and central hemodynamic parameters were evaluated. Data on renal function and diabetic kidney disease was retrieved. RESULTS: 54 patients (age: 46 ± 9.5 years; T1D duration: 27 ± 8.8 years) were included. One-fourth of patients showed prematurely increased aortic stiffness based on cf-PWV (24%). Cf-PWV was significantly associated with CAC score, carotid intima-media thickness, central hemodynamic parameters and diabetic kidney disease. Based on STENO, 20 patients (37%) were at low, 20 patients (37%) at moderate, and 14 patients (26%) at high 10-year risk for CV event. Cf-PWV was strongly associated with the STENO score (rs = + 0.81; R2 = 0.566, p < 0.001), increasing with each higher STENO group (p < 0.01). However, cf-PWV was not significantly different between the two CV risk groups (high versus very high) based on ESC criteria, and ESC criteria compared to STENO classified 10 patients more as having > 10% 10-year risk for CV events (n = 44/54; 81.5% versus n = 34/54; 63%). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that a substantial proportion of long-standing T1D patients free from known CVD show premature arterial stiffening. Cf-PWV strongly associates with the STENO risk score for future CV events and with cardiovascular imaging and function outcomes, thereby illustrating the clinical importance of arterial stiffness. The data, however, also show considerable heterogeneity in CV risk and differences in risk categorisation between the STENO tool and ESC criteria.There is a need for refinement of CV risk classification in T1D, and future studies should investigate if evaluation of arterial stiffness should be implemented in T1D clinical practice and which patients benefit the most from its assessment.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682429

RESUMO

People with severe mental illness (PSMI) have a shorter life expectancy and are more likely to have cardiovascular disease than the general population. Patients, carers, psychiatric professionals and primary care providers can all play a role in increasing PSMI physical health. The present qualitative exploratory study aimed to explore the views of these four populations as part of the multi-phase COPsyCAT project, whose objective is to build and test a cardiovascular risk prevention programme for PSMI. Overall, 107 people participated in the study's 16 focus groups, which were transcribed and analysed in a thematic analysis. With a view to building the health promotion programme, major themes identified in the corpus were translated into a list of needs as follows: communication, information, training and support. Results show that it is essential to improve communication between all the different stakeholders in mental health. The greatest challenge facing this programme will be to adapt it to the needs and expectations of PSMI while facilitating work between the various mental health stakeholders. Simple and inexpensive actions could be taken to improve the cardiovascular health of PSMI and will be experimented with during the programme's feasibility study which will start in September 2022.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Transtornos Mentais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682865

RESUMO

Late vascular complications play a prominent role in the diabetes-induced increase in morbidity and mortality. Diabetes mellitus is recognised as a risk factor driving atherosclerosis and cardiovascular mortality; even after the normalisation of blood glucose concentration, the event risk is amplified-an effect called "glycolytic memory". The hallmark of this glycolytic memory and diabetic pathology are advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reactive glucose metabolites such as methylglyoxal (MGO), a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound derived mainly from glycolysis. MGO and AGEs have an impact on vascular and organ structure and function, contributing to organ damage. As MGO is not only associated with hyperglycaemia in diabetes but also with other risk factors for diabetic vascular complications such as obesity, dyslipidaemia and hypertension, MGO is identified as a major player in the development of vascular complications in diabetes both on micro- as well as macrovascular level. In diabetes mellitus, the detoxifying system for MGO, the glyoxalase system, is diminished, accounting for the increased MGO concentration and glycotoxic load. This overview will summarise current knowledge on the effect of MGO and AGEs on vascular function.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Angiopatias Diabéticas , Hiperglicemia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Angiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Humanos , Óxido de Magnésio , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 848284, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651853

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the association of insulin resistance (IR) with cardiovascular risk factors and sleep complaints among citizens of Palanga over a 10-year follow-up period. This epidemiological longitudinal cohort study was performed with 835 subjects. Methods: All participants were evaluated for sociodemographic, clinical and cardiovascular risk factors, behavioral factors, self-perceived health and biochemical analysis. IR was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Results: All study participants were stratified into two groups, without IR (HOMA-IR ≤ 2.7) and with IR (HOMA-IR > 2.7). The analysis of parameters between the two study groups showed statistically significant relationships between IR, cardiovascular risk factors and sleep complaints within the 10-year period. After adjusting for a 10-year period, sex, age, body mass index, physical activity, education, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, presence of disease, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes mellitus (DM), IR was statistically significantly more frequent in subjects with increased sleep latency [odds ratio (OR) 1.37, 95% CI 1.01-1.93; p = 0.043], snoring frequency (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.05-1.79; p = 0.020) and very loud snoring (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.04-1.74, p = 0.026). Conclusions: The incidence of obesity, MetS, DM, elevated fasting glucose level, triglyceridemia and sleep complaints became more frequent after a 10-year period in subjects with IR. Over a 10-year period, IR was significantly associated with an increase in sleep complaints: sleep latency reflecting difficulty to fall asleep, snoring and very loud snoring.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Sono , Ronco/complicações
14.
Atherosclerosis ; 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The evidence for an association between obesity and increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid stiffness (CS) in the young has been limited by methodological challenges related to study populations, measurements, methods of percentile derivation and comprehensiveness of obesity markers investigated. This nationwide general population study developed new CS and CIMT centiles in the young and used them to study associations with body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height-ratio, bioimpedance-derived absolute and relative fat mass, fat-free mass, subscapular skinfold thickness and blood pressure. METHODS: In its 11-year follow-up, the KiGGS cohort, which is based on a nationally representative sample, included semi-automated state-of-the-art sonographic CIMT and CS measurements in 4,709 participants aged 14 to 28. Distensibility coefficient (DC), stiffness index ß, Young's elastic modulus (YEM) and Peterson's elastic modulus (Ep) centiles were modelled by sex, age and height simultaneously. RESULTS: CS increased with age in both sexes, and young men had stiffer arteries than young women at all ages. All obesity measures at baseline and at follow-up, except for subscapular skinfold thickness, were positively associated with several CS parameters with moderate relative risks (RR), e.g. cross-sectional RR 2.23 (95% CI 1.26-3.93) for DC ≥ 90th percentile when waist circumference ≥90th percentile; RR 5.98 (3.38-10.56) for elevated DC associated with simultaneously elevated waist circumference and BP. CONCLUSIONS: These new state-of-the-art CS percentiles show consistent associations of obesity with CS in the young and support primary prevention efforts starting at a young age.

15.
Prev Med Rep ; 27: 101819, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35656215

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia is a fundamental risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and can worsen the prognosis, if unaddressed. Lipid guidelines are still evolving as dyslipidemia is affecting newer patient subsets. However, these guidelines are governed by regional demographics and ethnic data. Primary care practitioners (PCPs) are the first to offer treatment, and hence placed early in the healthcare continuum. PCPs shoulder a huge responsibility in early detection of dyslipidemia for primary prevention of future cardiovascular (CV) events. Therefore, as members of Cardiovascular RISk Prevention (CRISP) in Asia network, the authors intend to align and shape-up the daily clinical practice workflow for PCPs and have a goal-directed strategy for managing dyslipidemia. This paper reviews the major international lipid guidelines, namely the American and European guidelines, and the regional guidelines from Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam to identify their commonalities and heterogeneities. The authors, with a mutual consensus, have put forth, best in-clinic practices for screening, risk assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and management of dyslipidemia, particularly to reduce the overall risk of CV events, especially in the Asian context. The authors feel that PCPs should be encouraged to work in congruence with patients to decide on best possible therapy, which would be a holistic approach, rather than pursuing a "one-size-fits-all" approach. Since dyslipidemia is a dynamic field, accumulation of high-quality evidence and cross-validation studies in the future are warranted to develop best in-clinic practices at a global level.

16.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 893374, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35656402

RESUMO

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable tool for the evaluation of several physiological factors modulating the heart rate (HR). Importantly, variations of HRV parameters may be indicative of cardiac diseases and altered psychophysiological conditions. Recently, several studies focused on procedures for contactless HR measurements from facial videos. However, the performances of these methods decrease when illumination is poor. Infrared thermography (IRT) could be useful to overcome this limitation. In fact, IRT can measure the infrared radiations emitted by the skin, working properly even in no visible light illumination conditions. This study investigated the capability of facial IRT to estimate HRV parameters through a face tracking algorithm and a cross-validated machine learning approach, employing photoplethysmography (PPG) as the gold standard for the HR evaluation. The results demonstrated a good capability of facial IRT in estimating HRV parameters. Particularly, strong correlations between the estimated and measured HR (r = 0.7), RR intervals (r = 0.67), TINN (r = 0.71), and pNN50 (%) (r = 0.70) were found, whereas moderate correlations for RMSSD (r = 0.58), SDNN (r = 0.44), and LF/HF (r = 0.48) were discovered. The proposed procedure allows for a contactless estimation of the HRV that could be beneficial for evaluating both cardiac and general health status in subjects or conditions where contact probe sensors cannot be used.

17.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657494

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) has been identified as a novel cardiovascular risk factor. Here we review the relationship of lifestyle and environmental risk factors predisposing to somatic mutations and CHIP and provide an overview on age-related cardiovascular outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: CHIP has been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in both epidemiological and experimental studies. The most commonly mutated candidate driver genes are DNMT3A, TET2, JAK2, and ASXL1. The underlying mechanisms appear predominantly related to inflammatory pathways. Although age is the dominant risk factor for developing CHIP, emerging evidence suggests that other factors such as smoking, obesity/type 2 diabetes, or an unhealthy diet play a role in the occurrence of somatic mutations. Evidence suggests a strong link between vascular risk factors, somatic hematopoietic mutations, and age-related cardiovascular disease. Further studies on CHIP biology are required to identify targeted interventions for risk reduction in patients with CHIP and inform the utility of screening strategies.

18.
Acta Cardiol Sin ; 38(3): 381-390, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673336

RESUMO

Objective: Elevated lipoprotein(a) level is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the strength of this association in healthy individuals is unknown. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed medical records obtained from a Health Examination Program. The records, covering the period 2002-2015, were from 2,634 men at low risk, as indicated by their Framingham Risk Score and Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) score, and included lipoprotein(a) data. We categorized the participants on the basis of their lipoprotein(a) level and analyzed the association of this level with cardiovascular events. Results: The study population had a mean age of 46 years. In total, 32 cardiovascular disease events - 6 strokes and 26 coronary artery events - were identified. An increase of 5 mg/dL in the lipoprotein(a) level (independent of low-density cholesterol) raised the cardiovascular disease risk by 8% over a period of 10 years (p = 0.014). Sensitivity analysis also yielded this result, even after excluding hypertension and diabetes. Conclusions: Elevated lipoprotein(a) may be a risk factor for coronary artery disease, even in male populations defined as having a low risk according to the Framingham Risk Score and SCORE.

19.
J Diabetes Metab Disord ; 21(1): 751-758, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673477

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of Ramadan intermittent fasting on metabolic and inflammatory profiles in type 2 diabetic patients (T2D). Methods: It was a prospective study including 55 T2D patients treated with oral hypoglycemic drugs, who intended to observe Ramadan fasting in 2019. All participants underwent a questionnaire, a physical examination, laboratory investigations, and a cardiovascular risk assessment using the Framingham score before Ramadan (T0), immediately after Ramadan (T1), and two months after Ramadan (T2). Results: The mean age of participants was 54.5 ± 10.1 years. The number of fasted days was 29.3 ± 2.3 days. The mean total daily calorie intake decreased significantly by 19% during Ramadan (p < 10-3). A significant decrease in weight (79.8 ± 12.9 vs 78.4 ± 13.3 kg, p = 0.003), body mass index (29.8 ± 5.4 vs 29.2 ± 5.4 kg/m2, p = 0.004), waist circumference (98.2 ± 9.6 vs 96.3 ± 10.2 cm, p = 0.015), fat body mass (24.3 ± 9.4 vs 23.5 ± 9.7 kg, p = 0.043) was observed at T1. The weight loss was significantly correlated with the number of fasting days (r = 0.348, p = 0.009) and was maintained at T2. Serum fructosamine increased at T1 (303.6 ± 46 vs 333.49 ± 59.49 µmol/L, p < 10-3) and returned to its baseline levels at T2. A significant decrease in insulin (9.7 ± 5.5 vs 7.98 ± 5.05 mIU/L, p = 0.043), fibrinogen (3.7 ± 0.8 vs 3.4 ± 0.6 g/L, p = 0.003), and hs-CRP (4.8 ± 5.7 vs 3.7 ± 4.5 mg/L, p = 0.058) levels was observed at T1. Homocysteine level was significantly higher after Ramadan (12.2 ± 6.2 vs 13.5 ± 6.4 µmol/L, p = 0.001). However, no significant changes were found in blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR, uric acid, lipids, and white blood cells count. The mean Framingham score decreased insignificantly after Ramadan. Conclusions: Ramadan fasting in T2D patients seems to have a favorable impact on anthropometric parameters and inflammatory profile. However, it may cause a transient worsening of glycemic control.

20.
J Diabetes Metab Disord ; 21(1): 493-510, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673482

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the effects of Manilkara zapota (L) P. Royen fruit peel extract (EMZFP) and its fractions in ameliorating diabetes and its complications in alloxan and STZ-NA induced diabetes in Wistar rats. Methods: Antidiabetic effects of EMZFP were assessed in alloxan (150 mg kg-1) induced diabetes in differently grouped rats (n=6). Diabetic rats were treated with EMZFP 150, 300, and 600 mg kg-1 while, glimepiride (0.09 mg kg-1) was used as a reference standard. Treated animals were assessed for various biological parameters i.e. blood glucose, serum lipids, nephroprotective markers, cardiovascular risk indices, liver glycogen, neuropathy, body weight, and histopathology of kidneys. However, for evaluating antidiabetic effects of fractions (chloroform, acetone, ethyl acetate, and remaining ethanol fraction) of EMZFP, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (60 mg kg-1)-nicotinamide (120 mg kg-1/ml) in differently grouped male rats (n=6). Diabetic rats were treated with EMZFP fractions 200 mg kg-1 however; glibenclamide (10 mg kg-1) was a reference standard and evaluated for blood glucose, serum lipids, cardiovascular risk indices, and diabetic neuropathy. Results: EMZFP 300 and 600 mg kg-1/day demonstrated significant antihyperglycemic effects with augmentation in glycogen content, perfection in serum lipid profile, cardiovascular risk indices, body weight enhancement, nephroprotective effects, beneficial in peripheral neuropathy, and histopathological evidence of reversal of glomerulosclerosis. EMZFP-Et and EMZFP-EA fractions depicted a significant improvement in blood glucose, serum lipid profile, cardiovascular risk indices, and peripheral neuropathy. Conclusion: EMZFP and its Et and EA fractions ameliorated diabetes and its complications by improving glycemic control and associated biochemical alteration. Highlights: • Manilkara Zapota (L.) P. Royen fruit peel 70% ethanolic extract exert antidiabetic effects• EMZFP significantly ameliorated diabetic biochemical parameters and its complications.• EMZFP-Et and EMZFP-EA fractions exert potential antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic effects and significantly improved cardiovascular risk indices, and peripheral neuropathy.• Studied MZFP can be used as promising natural herbal source of antidiabetic principles.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...