Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.842
Filtrar
1.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 79, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Addressing socioeconomic inequalities in early child development (ECD) is key to reducing the intergenerational transmission of health inequalities. Yet, little is known about how socioeconomic inequalities in ECD develop over the course of childhood. Our study aimed to describe how inequalities in ECD by maternal education develop from infancy to middle childhood. METHODS: We used data from Generation R, a prospective population-based cohort study in The Netherlands. Language skills were measured at ages 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 years, using the Minnesota Child Development Inventory. Socioemotional (i.e. internalizing and externalizing) problems were measured at ages 1.5, 3, 5 and 9 years using the Child Behavior Checklist. We estimated inequalities in language skills and socioemotional problems across the above-mentioned ages, using linear mixed models with standardized scores at each wave. We used maternal education as indicator of socioeconomic position. RESULTS: Children of less educated mothers had more reported internalizing (B = 0.72, 95%CI = 0.51;0.95) and externalizing (B = 0.25, 95%CI = 0.10;0.40) problems at age 1.5 years, but better (caregiver reported) language skills at 1 year (B = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.36;0.64) than children of high educated mothers. Inequalities in internalizing and externalizing problems decreased over time. Inequalities in language scores reversed at age 2, and by the time children were 4 years old, children of less educated mothers had substantially lower language skills than children of high educated mothers (B = -0.38, 95%CI = -0.61;-0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Trajectories of socioeconomic inequality in ECD differ by developmental domain: whereas inequalities in socioemotional development decreased over time, inequalities increased for language development. Children of less educated mothers are at a language disadvantage even before entering primary education, providing further evidence that early interventions are needed.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Mães , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mães/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Elife ; 112022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731202

RESUMO

Working in Africa provides neuroscientists with opportunities that are not available in other continents. Populations in this region exhibit the greatest genetic diversity; they live in ecosystems with diverse flora and fauna; and they face unique stresses to brain health, including child brain health and development, due to high levels of traumatic brain injury and diseases endemic to the region. However, the neuroscience community in Africa has yet to reach its full potential. In this article we report the outcomes from a series of meetings at which the African neuroscience community came together to identify barriers and opportunities, and to discuss ways forward. This exercise resulted in the identification of six domains of distinction in African neuroscience: the diverse DNA of African populations; diverse flora, fauna and ecosystems for comparative research; child brain health and development; the impact of climate change on mental and neurological health; access to clinical populations with important conditions less prevalent in the global North; and resourcefulness in the reuse and adaption of existing technologies and resources to answer new questions. The article also outlines plans to advance the field of neuroscience in Africa in order to unlock the potential of African neuroscientists to address regional and global mental health and neurological problems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Neurociências , África , Criança , Mudança Climática , Saúde Global , Humanos
3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 66, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation and hygiene, exposure to household air pollution and low cognitive and socio-emotional stimulation are risk factors affecting children in low- and middle-income countries. We implemented an integrated home-environmental intervention package (IHIP), comprising a kitchen sink, hygiene education and a certified improved biomass cookstove, and an early child development (ECD) programme to improve children´s health and developmental outcomes in the rural high-altitude Andes of Peru. METHODS: We conducted a one-year cluster-randomised controlled trial among 317 children < 36 months divided into 4 arms (IHIP + ECD, IHIP, ECD, and Control) and 40 clusters (10 clusters per arm). ECD status (socio-emotional, fine and gross motor, communication, cognitive skills, and an overall performance) measured with the Peruvian Infant Development Scale and the occurrence of self-reported child diarrhoea from caretakers were primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of acute respiratory infections and the presence of thermo-tolerant faecal bacteria in drinking water. The trial was powered to compare each intervention against its control arm but it did not allow pairwise comparisons among the four arms. Primary analysis followed the intention-to-treat principle. For the statistical analysis, we employed generalised estimating equation models with robust standard errors and an independent correlation structure. RESULTS: We obtained ECD information from 101 children who received the ECD intervention (individually and combined with IHIP) and 102 controls. Children who received the ECD intervention performed better in all the domains compared to controls. We found differences in the overall performance (64 vs. 39%, odd ratio (OR): 2.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-4.9) and the cognitive domain (62 vs 46%, OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5). Data analysis of child morbidity included 154 children who received the IHIP intervention (individually and combined with ECD) and 156 controls. We recorded 110,666 child-days of information on diarrhoea morbidity and observed 1.3 mean episodes per child-year in the children who received the IHIP intervention and 1.1 episodes in the controls. This corresponded to an incidence risk ratio of 1.2 (95% CI: 0.8-1.7). CONCLUSIONS: Child stimulation improved developmental status in children, but there was no health benefit associated with the home-environmental intervention. Limited year-round access to running water at home and the possible contamination of drinking water after boiling were two potential factors linked to the lack of effect of the home-environmental intervention. Potential interactions between ECD and home-environmental interventions need to be further investigated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN-26548981. Registered 15 January 2018-Retrospectively registered, https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN26548981 .


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Água Potável , Altitude , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Água Potável/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Peru/epidemiologia , População Rural
5.
J Reprod Infant Psychol ; : 1-15, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created many challenges for families across the world, with those who have recently had a baby particularly vulnerable to increased stress Study Aim: The current study aimed to explore the experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic of families who have recently had a baby in Melbourne, Australia. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with sixteen parents participating in a family-based intervention during early parenthood and seven clinicians who delivered the program. RESULTS: Parents and clinicians described impacts of the pandemic on parent and family functioning included mental health concerns, stress and irritability, feelings of isolation, and increased relationship tension. Parents discussed coping strategies used during the crisis, including activities with their family, connecting with others, trying to stay positive, and self-care activities such as spending time outdoors. Both parents and clinicians acknowledged the importance of mental health and parenting support during and following the pandemic, and for these services to be promoted and easily accessible. DISCUSSION: The study highlights the mental health and parenting support needs of families during times of crisis and emphasises the importance of early intervention for families exhibiting poor communication and relationship tension.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682060

RESUMO

The influence of the neighbourhood built environment on young children's physical development has been well-documented; however, there is limited empirical evidence of an association with social and emotional development. Parental perceptions of the neighbourhood built environment may act as facilitators or barriers to young children's play and interactions in their local environment. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between parents' perceptions of the neighbourhood built environment and the social-emotional development of children aged two-to-five years. Parents' positive perceptions of traffic safety (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.55, 0.98), crime safety (OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.64, 0.99) and land use mix-access (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.56, 0.98) were associated with lower odds of social-emotional difficulties, while positive perceptions of walking and cycling facilities were associated with higher odds of difficulties (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.02, 1.55). Positive perceptions of land use mix-access (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.03, 1.69), street connectivity (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.10, 1.66) and neighbourhood aesthetics (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.01, 1.60) were associated with higher odds of prosocial behaviours. Interventions to improve parents' perceptions of built environment features may facilitate opportunities for play and interactions which contribute to healthy social-emotional development.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Características de Residência , Ciclismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Crime , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Caminhada/psicologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682362

RESUMO

Neighbourhood-level interventions offer a promising opportunity to promote child mental health at a population level; however, neighbourhood effects are still regarded as a 'black box' and a better understanding of the specific design elements, such as public open space, is needed to inform actionable policy interventions. METHODS: This study leveraged data from a population linked dataset (Australian Early Development Census-Built Environment) combining information from a national census of children's developmental outcomes with individualised geospatial data. Associations between access to (within 400 m and 800 m from home), and quality of, public open space and child mental health outcomes across eight capital cities were estimated using multilevel logistic regression models, adjusting for demographic and contextual factors. Access was defined based on proximity of public open space to children's home addresses, within distance thresholds (400 m, 800 m) measured along the road network. Effect modification was tested across maternal education groups. RESULTS: Across the eight capital cities, inequities in access to child friendly public open spaces were observed across maternal education groups and neighbourhood disadvantage quintiles. Children with access to any type of public open space within 800 m of home had lower odds of demonstrating difficulties and higher odds of competence. Children with access to child friendly public open spaces within 800 m of home had the highest likelihood of demonstrating competence. CONCLUSION: Improving access to neighbourhood public open space appears to be a promising strategy for preventing mental health difficulties and promoting competence in early childhood. Action is needed to redress socio-spatial inequities in access to child friendly public open space.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Web Semântica , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Humanos , Características de Residência
8.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 228: 103646, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749821

RESUMO

Smartphone and tablet usage duration may relate to problems with early development in children. It is imperative to determine the appropriate duration of its usage by children. The purpose of the study was 1) to investigate the correlation between child development and smartphone and tablet usage duration, 2) to study the correlation of smartphone and tablet usage duration between children and their caregivers, and 3) to correlate child development and other factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Eighty-five community children with a mean age of 4.05 ± 0.91 years were recruited as study subjects. Development was assessed using the Denver Developmental Screening Test II, which includes gross motor, language, fine motor-adaptive and personal-social developments. Subsequently, details of smartphone and tablet usage for the next seven days were recorded. The average duration of smartphone and tablet usage was 82.78 ± 62.82 min/day. In addition, 32.94%, 11.76%, 9.42%, and 2.35%, of children were classified as suspected fine motor-adaptive, personal-social, language, and gross motor development, respectively. The main findings revealed a highly significant correlation between a child's smartphone and tablet usage duration and their gross motor development. Children's smartphone and tablet usage duration showed a positive significant correlation with the duration spent on smartphones and tablets by mothers and relatives. Father's medical history and family income showed a significant correlation with child development. Thus, caregivers must pay attention to the smartphone and tablet usage time of children, mothers and relatives to prevent abnormal development in children.

9.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 7(1): 18, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and governments' attempts to contain it are negatively affecting young children's health and development in ways we are only beginning to understand and measure. Responses to the pandemic are driven largely by confining children and families to their homes. This study aims to assess the levels of and associated socioeconomic disparities in household preparedness for protecting young children under the age of five from being exposed to communicable diseases, such as COVID-19, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: Using data from nationally representative household surveys in 56 LMICs since 2016, we estimated the percentages of young children under the age of five living in households prepared for communicable diseases (e.g., COVID-19) and associated residential and wealth disparities at the country- and aggregate-level. Preparedness was defined on the basis of space for quarantine, adequacy of toilet facilities and hand hygiene, mass media exposure at least once a week, and phone ownership. Disparities within countries were measured as the absolute gap in two domains-household wealth and residential area - and compared across regions and country income groups. RESULTS: The final data set included 766,313 children under age five. On average, 19.4% of young children in the 56 countries lived in households prepared for COVID-19, ranging from 0.6% in Ethiopia in 2016 to 70.9% in Tunisia in 2018. In close to 90% of countries (50), fewer than 50% of young children lived in prepared households. Young children in rural areas or in the poorest households were less likely to live in prepared households than their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: A large portion of young children under the age of five in LMICs were living in households that did not meet all preparedness guidelines for preventing COVID-19 and caring for patients at home. This study highlights the need to ensure all families in LMICs have the means to prevent the spread of the pandemic or other communicable illnesses to young children during pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pobreza , Prevalência
10.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 223: 105480, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753197

RESUMO

Adults are experts at recognizing familiar faces across images that incorporate natural within-person variability in appearance (i.e., ambient images). Little is known about children's ability to do so. In the current study, we investigated whether 4- to 7-year-olds (n = 56) could recognize images of their own parent-a person with whom children have had abundant exposure in a variety of different contexts. Children were asked to identify images of their parent that were intermixed with images of other people. We included images of each parent taken both before and after their child was born to manipulate how close the images were to the child's own experience. When viewing before-birth images, 4- and 5-year-olds were less sensitive to identity than were older children; sensitivity did not differ when viewing images taken after the child was born. These findings suggest that with even the most familiar face, 4- and 5-year-olds have difficulty recognizing instances that go beyond their direct experience. We discuss two factors that may contribute to the prolonged development of familiar face recognition.

11.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 884779, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722494

RESUMO

Background: Early intervention delivered through telehealth is critically needed during crises, particularly for children in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to determine the applicability of the international Guide for Monitoring Child Development (GMCD) intervention delivered through telehealth during the COVID-19 lockdown in Turkey. Methods: Using a mixed-methods longitudinal design, we recruited children with developmental difficulties aged 0-42 months with an appointment during the first lockdown at Ankara University Developmental Pediatrics Division and seen face-to-face only once before. Developmental pediatricians applied the GMCD intervention during a single telephone call. As a novel intervention component, caregivers were asked to record and send back videos of the child's development when there were doubts about the child's functioning. Caregivers were called 1 year later by blinded independent researchers and a semi-structured interview on applicability was conducted. Applicability of the caregiver recorded video component of the intervention was assessed by a blinded observer using the GMCD Video Observation Tool. Results: Of 122 children that received the telehealth delivered GMCD intervention, 114 (93.4%) were included in the 1-year outcome study. Most were boys (51.8%); median age was 16.5 (IQR: 10.0-29.0) months, 51.0% had chronic health conditions, and 66.7% had developmental delay. All caregivers that received the intervention were mothers; 75.4% had at least high school education. The intervention was reported as applicable by 80.7% with high levels of satisfaction. On multivariate regression analysis, absence of chronic health related conditions was significantly associated with applicability (OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.02-8.09). Of 31 caregivers that were asked for videos, 19 sent back 93 videos that were technically observable. One or more developmental domains were observed in all videos; in 52.6%, caregivers provided early learning opportunities. Conclusions: The findings of this study imply that the telehealth delivered GMCD intervention for children with developmental difficulties is applicable during the pandemic. The intervention content and frequency needs to be augmented for children with chronic health conditions. Further research is required to examine applicability and effectiveness of the GMCD intervention in other settings, particularly in LMICs.

12.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 138: 104714, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661684

RESUMO

This paper examines developmental outcomes for children prenatally exposed to methamphetamine through maternal use. PSYCHINFO, Scopus, PubMed and ERIC databases were systematically searched for studies up to December 2020. The search identified 38 articles examining cognitive, language, motor and neuroanatomical outcomes in children from birth to 16 years. Study quality was appraised using the Newcastle Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Findings from neuroanatomical studies suggested that prenatal methamphetamine exposure may alter whole brain microstructure and reduce subcortical volumes across multiple brain regions. Meta-analysis of 14 studies using a random-effects model revealed associations between exposure and poorer intellectual functioning (Cohen's d = 0.89, 95 % CI: 0.47-1.30), problem solving skills (Cohen's d = 0.82, 95 % CI: 0.07 -1.56), short-term memory (Cohen's d = 0.91, 95 % CI: 0.38-1.43), and language development (Cohen's d = 0.74, 95 % CI: 0.30-1.18). These results emphasise the significant impact of intrauterine methamphetamine exposure across multiple areas of child development, noting that limited total sample size, heterogeneity between studies and control for confounds suggested further studies are required. There is a need for further intervention studies to identify effective prevention and harm minimisation approaches.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742490

RESUMO

This paper examines the impact of parental beliefs on child development outcomes (for both cognitive and social-emotional skills) based on a three-wave longitudinal survey in rural China. The survey waves were conducted when the sample children were 18-30 months, 22-36 months, and 49-65 months, respectively. A total of 815 children and their primary caregivers who participated in all three wave surveys were enrolled in this study. Using difference-in-differences and propensity score matching approaches, the results indicate that strengthened parental beliefs have a positive and significant impact on child social-emotional development. Specifically, between the periods of the Wave 1 survey (when children were 18-30 months old) and the Wave 3 survey (when children were 49-65 months old), and between the Wave 2 survey (when children were 22-36 months old) and the Wave 3 survey, strengthened parental beliefs were causally associated with more favorable child social-emotional scores by 0.44 SD (p < 0.01) and 0.49 SD (p < 0.01), respectively. No significant impact, however, was found between the period of the Wave 1 survey and the Wave 2 survey. In contrast, weakened parental beliefs had a negative and significant impact on child social-emotional development. Specifically, weakened parental beliefs were causally associated with worse child social-emotional abilities by 0.35 SD (p < 0.01), 0.30 SD (p < 0.01), and 0.22 (p < 0.05) for the time period of the Wave 1 to Wave 2, Wave 1 to Wave 3, and Wave 2 to Wave 3, respectively. No significant impact of parental beliefs, however, was found on child cognitive development. In addition, the findings of the mediation analysis show that only a marginal impact of parental beliefs on child social-emotional development can be indirectly explained by parental beliefs through parenting practices. This study calls on policy makers to improve parental beliefs and parenting practices in the hope that it will lead to better child development in rural China.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Poder Familiar , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Humanos , Lactente , Poder Familiar/psicologia , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Neurotoxicology ; 91: 234-244, 2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643326

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Methylmercury (MeHg) is a known neurodevelopmental toxicant in sufficient dosage and is universally found in fish. Current fish advisories for children are based on epidemiology studies examining prenatal exposure with a premise that MeHg exposure resulting from children eating fish could also be neurotoxic and have long-term consequences. However, the evidence that this assumption is true is limited. We investigated postnatal MeHg exposure from regular fish consumption using time weighted Hg measurements to determine if there are neurotoxic consequences. METHODS: We examined 85 neurodevelopmental outcomes measured from ages 9-24 years in the Seychelles Child Development Study Main Cohort (n = 312-550) and examined their association with time-weighted measures of postnatal MeHg exposure in childhood and early adulthood. Postnatal MeHg exposure measured in the first cm of participants' hair samples collected at seven evaluations were used to create two time-weighted (TW) average MeHg exposure metrics, one for childhood (TW-C) and the other for early adulthood (TW-A). TW-C was based on Hg measures at three ages between 6 months and 5.5 years, and TW-A was based on Hg measured at up to four ages between 17 and 24 years. We examined the association between each of these exposure metrics and the neurodevelopmental outcomes using linear regression with adjustment for covariates known to influence neurodevelopmental outcomes. RESULTS: There were 14 statistically significant associations between a postnatal metric and an endpoint. Six were associated with the TW-C and eight with the TW-A. Thirteen were adverse. Only the TW-C association at 9 years with the Bender Gestalt error score showed improvement. TW-C was adversely associated at 9 years with the Continuous Performance Task risk score, at 22 years with the Boston Naming Test (BNT) total and no cues scores, and at 24 years with the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) auditory response time variability and visual response time mean on the logarithmic scale. TW-A was adversely associated at 17 years with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test % total errors, the Woodcock-Johnson passage comprehension, and the CANTAB rapid visual information processing false alarms, and at 22 years with the BNT total and no cue scores, the CANTAB rapid visual information processing false alarms and the intra-extra dimensional shift total errors and trials. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that postnatal MeHg exposure may be adversely associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in early adulthood. However, the associations are statistical and of unknown, if any, clinical significance. The results need confirmation in other cohorts.

15.
Med (N Y) ; 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse drug effects (ADEs) in children are common and may result in disability and death, necessitating post-marketing monitoring of their use. Evaluating drug safety is especially challenging in children due to the processes of growth and maturation, which can alter how children respond to treatment. Current drug safety-signal-detection methods do not account for these dynamics. METHODS: We recently developed a method called disproportionality generalized additive models (dGAMs) to better identify safety signals for drugs across child-development stages. FINDINGS: We used dGAMs on a database of 264,453 pediatric adverse-event reports and found 19,438 ADEs signals associated with development and validated these signals against a small reference set of pediatric ADEs. Using our approach, we can hypothesize on the ontogenic dynamics of ADE signals, such as that montelukast-induced psychiatric disorders appear most significant in the second year of life. Additionally, we integrated pediatric enzyme expression data and found that pharmacogenes with dynamic childhood expression, such as CYP2C18 and CYP27B1, are associated with pediatric ADEs. CONCLUSIONS: We curated KidSIDES, a database of pediatric drug safety signals, for the research community and developed the Pediatric Drug Safety portal (PDSportal) to facilitate evaluation of drug safety signals across childhood growth and development. FUNDING: This study was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

16.
Child Youth Care Forum ; 51(2): 395-420, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research finds center-based child care typically benefits children of low socio-economic status (SES) but few studies have examined if it also reduces inequalities in developmental disadvantage. OBJECTIVE: I test if the length of time in center-based care between ages one and three years associates with child development scores at age three years, focusing on the impact for groups of children in the lower tercile of child development scores and in the lower SES tercile. METHODS: Using data from 1,606 children collected in a nationally representative Chilean survey, I apply a value-added approach to measure gains in child development scores between age one and three years that are associated with length of time in center-based child care. RESULTS: Disadvantages at age one year were associated with lower child development scores at age three years. No benefits of additional time in center-based care were found for the non-disadvantaged group, but positive associations were found between more time in center-based care and child development outcomes for children with the SES disadvantage only. Center-based care was not associated with child development trajectories of children with lower child development scores at age one year, no matter their SES status. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that Chilean center-based child care reduces SES inequality in child development scores between ages one and three years, but only if children already were not low-scorers at age one year.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666337

RESUMO

Lacking the capacity for guilt is a defining characteristic of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Although guilt is a multifaceted construct, past CU research has rarely considered the reasons underlying children's negative emotional responses to wrongdoing. The present study investigated how different forms of guilt were associated with CU traits during early and middle childhood in a Canadian community sample. We interviewed 4- and 8-year-olds (N = 300; 50% female) to assess their emotion attributions and reasoning in response to hypothetical acts of aggression. Interview responses were used to calculate variables representing undifferentiated, ethical, and non-ethical guilt ratings. Caregivers rated children's CU tendencies at baseline and again 3 years later. Higher ethical guilt was associated with lower CU scores concurrently and 3 years later. Higher non-ethical guilt was associated with higher CU scores at baseline (for older children) and 3 years later (for all children). Undifferentiated guilt was not associated with CU after controlling for demographic variables.

18.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 71(4): 305-326, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673787

RESUMO

In previous years, concerns have been repeatedly raised regarding the impact of parental use of smartphones and other portable digital devices (PDD) in the presence of infants and young children on children's development. Recently, this topic gainedmore attention by researchers. Therefore, this review aimed at answering the following questions based on the current state of research: How does parental use of PDD in the presence of their 0-3-year-old child affect the quality of the parent-child interaction and relationship, their child's affective and physiological regulation as well as social-emotional and cognitive development? The literature search of six databases based on previously established criteria resulted in 22 articles. The results suggest that parents are less sensitive and responsive towards their children while using PDD. Furthermore, negative effects on children's affect and physiological regulation during parental device use were reported, which appear not to persist beyond the period of use. Moreover, parental technoference in everyday life might affect the parent-child relationship, although respective findings are inconsistent. Furthermore, parental technoference appears to be associated with impaired child learning. Further research is needed to determine the extent of parental use and specific patterns of use leading to lasting negative consequences for child development.


Assuntos
Relações Pais-Filho , Smartphone , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Pais/psicologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709352

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Missed appointments (MAs) at child development centres (ChDCs) cause multiple problems: they preclude timely diagnosis and treatment of both the invited child and children whose appointment was delayed due to overbooking, as well as disrupting efficient organisational management. The aim of this study was to assess the rate and describe the reasons for missed appointments at Israeli ChDCs, and to evaluate the association of socio-demographic, clinical, and administrative variables with MA rates. METHODS: This nested case-control study included all children scheduled for initial appointments (N = 1143) at three centres during 1 year. Parents of children who missed their appointment and a sample of those who attended were interviewed by telephone. RESULTS: The rate of missed appointments was 26.6%, and the most frequent reasons were unexpected events (26.0%) and lack of insurance coverage (23.4%). Variables associated with lower MA rates were: having had ≥3 types of rehabilitative interventions (odds ratios (OR) = 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.44), detailed referral letter (OR = 0.48; 95%CI 0.30-0.75), telephone reminder (OR = 0.37; 95%CI 0.24-0.57) and health maintenance organisations or private insurance coverage (OR = 0.12; 95%CI 0.06-0.17 and OR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.38-0.89, respectively). CONCLUSION: Encouraging physician's referral letters and personal-contact reminders can reduce missed appointments. Understanding the family's and the child's personal characteristics, and the organisational/administrative aspects of missed appointments may guide efforts to ensure timely care for every child.

20.
Trials ; 23(1): 505, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, household air pollution (HAP) is a leading environmental cause of morbidity and mortality. Our trial aims to assess the impact of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for cooking to reduce household air pollution exposure on child health outcomes, compared to usual cooking practices in Bangladesh. The primary aim is to evaluate if reduced exposure to HAP through the provision of LPG for cooking from early gestation through to age 2 improves child anthropometry, health, and neuro-cognitive developmental outcomes, compared to children exposed to emissions from usual practice. METHODS: Two-arm parallel cluster randomized controlled trial (cCRT). We will extend the intervention and follow-up of our existing "Poriborton" trial. In a subset of the original surviving participants, we will supply LPG cylinders and LPG stoves (intervention) compared to usual cooking practices and extend the follow-up to 24 months of age. The expected final sample size, for both (intervention and control) is 1854 children with follow-up to 2 years of age available for analysis. DISCUSSION: This trial will answer important research gaps related to HAP and child health and neuro-cognitive developmental outcomes. This evidence will help to understand the impact of a HAP intervention on child health to inform policies for the adoption of clean fuel in Bangladesh and other similar settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Poriborton: Change trial: Household Air Pollution and Perinatal and early Neonatal mortality is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12618001214224, original trial registered on 19th July 2018, extension approved on 23rd June 2021. www.anzctr.org.au .


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Utensílios Domésticos , Petróleo , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Culinária , Feminino , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...