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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 30: e64056, jan. -dez. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362171

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever a evolução temporal do pré-natal quanto o mês do início do pré-natal, vacinação e orientações sobre aleitamento materno nos anos de 1997, 2006 e 2016. Método: estudo transversal operacionalizado em bancos de dados da II, III e IV Pesquisa Estadual de Saúde e Nutrição. Foram descritas as variáveis: mês de início do pré-natal, doses da vacina antitetânica e orientação sobre o aleitamento materno recebidas no pré-natal. Protocolo de pesquisa aprovado pelo comitê de ética em pesquisa da instituição. Resultados: em 2016 observou-se aumento significativo do início precoce do pré-natal quando comparado a 1997 e 2006 (p<0,001). A vacinação antitetânica durante a gravidez apresentou um aumento significativo em 2006 e 2016 comparado a 1997, assim como a proporção de gestantes que receberam orientações sobre aleitamento materno durante o pré-natal (p<0,001). Conclusões: houve melhoria da assistência pré-natal quanto ao início precoce, vacinação antitetânica e orientações sobre aleitamento materno.


Objective: to describe the temporal evolution of prenatal care in terms of the month when prenatal care began, vaccination and guidelines on breastfeeding in 1997, 2006 and 2016. Method: cross-sectional study operationalized in databases of the II, III and IV State Health and Nutrition Survey. The variables were described: month when prenatal care began, doses of tetanus vaccine and guidance on breastfeeding received during prenatal care. Research protocol approved by the Research Ethics Committee. Results: in 2016 there was a significant increase in early prenatal care when compared to 1997 and 2006 (p<0.001). Tetanus vaccination during pregnancy showed a significant increase in 2006 and 2016 compared to 1997, as did the proportion of pregnant women who received guidance on breastfeeding during prenatal care (p<0.001). Conclusions: there was an improvement in prenatal care regarding early initiation, tetanus vaccination and guidelines on breastfeeding.


Objetivo: describir la evolución temporal de la atención prenatal en función del mes de inicio de la atención prenatal, vacunación y guías de lactancia materna en 1997, 2006 y 2016. Método: estudio transversal operacionalizado en bases de datos de la II, III y IV Encuesta Estatal de Salud y Nutrición. Las variables fueron descritas: mes de inicio de la atención prenatal, dosis de vacuna antitetánica y orientación sobre lactancia materna recibida durante la atención prenatal. Protocolo de pesquisa aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la instituición. Resultados: en 2016 hubo un aumento significativo en la atención prenatal temprana en comparación con 1997 y 2006 (p <0,001). La vacunación contra el tétanos durante el embarazo mostró un aumento significativo en 2006 y 2016 en comparación con 1997, al igual que la proporción de mujeres embarazadas que recibieron orientación sobre la lactancia materna durante la atención prenatal (p <0,001). Conclusiones: hubo una mejora en la atención prenatal en cuanto a inicio temprano, vacunación antitetánica y guías de lactancia materna.

2.
Confl Health ; 16(1): 30, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impacts of COVID-19 are unprecedented globally. The pandemic is reversing decades of progress in maternal, newborn, child health and nutrition (MNCHN), especially fragile and conflict-affected settings (FCAS) whose populations were already facing challenges in accessing basic health and nutrition services. This study aimed to investigate the collateral impact of COVID-19 on funding, services and MNCHN outcomes in FCAS, as well as adaptations used in the field to continue activities. METHODS: A scoping review of peer-reviewed and grey literature published between 1st March 2020-31st January 2021 was conducted. We analysed 103 publications using a narrative synthesis approach. 39 remote semi-structured key informant interviews with humanitarian actors and donor staff within 12 FCAS were conducted between October 2020 and February 2021. Thematic analysis was undertaken independently by two researchers on interview transcripts and supporting documents provided by key informants, and triangulated with literature review findings. RESULTS: Funding for MNCHN has been reduced or suspended with increase in cost of continuing the same activities, and diversion of MNCHN funding to COVID-19 activities. Disruption in supply and demand of interventions was reported across different settings which, despite data evidence still being missing, points towards likely increased maternal and child morbidity and mortality. Some positive adaptations including use of technology and decentralisation of services have been reported, however overall adaptation strategies have been insufficient to equitably meet additional challenges posed by the pandemic, and have not been evaluated for their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is further exacerbating negative women's and children's health outcomes in FCAS. Increased funding is urgently required to re-establish MNCHN activities which have been deprioritised or halted. Improved planning to sustain routine health services and enable surge planning for emergencies with focus on the community/service users throughout adaptations is vital for improved MNCHN outcomes in FCAS.

4.
Arch Dis Child ; 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680401

RESUMO

One in three children in the UK lives in relative poverty. There are clear and consistent links between child poverty and paediatric morbidity and mortality. In this review, we discuss drivers for family poverty in the UK, and how this leads to poor child health outcomes. We present a framework for healthcare professionals and institutions to consider interventions and strategies relating to socioeconomic health inequalities. We will focus on approaches to mitigate the effects of child poverty on children using our services at a local level and outline the importance of healthcare workers advocating for structural and high-level policy change to address the deep-rooted societal problems that cause child poverty.

5.
Arch Dis Child ; 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680402

RESUMO

There is an observed link between physical illness and mental health difficulties and an increased likelihood of mental health difficulties in young people with chronic health conditions. The main outcome focus in paediatric settings is on physical health outcomes and functioning. In terms of functioning, the focus is on quality of life, measures of emotional well-being and perceptions of personal change, which are likely to be multifaceted and vary between patients. To complement standardised and diagnostically based measures, goal-based outcome measurement may be considered. The aim of this paper is to build on previous research, to provide a reflective commentary based on the authors' clinical and research experience in the use and interpretation of goal-based outcomes, to address what using goal-based measures for outcome purposes in these settings means practically. Examples are provided to demonstrate the importance of considering meaningful outcomes of importance to young people and how professionals may presume that physical 'recovery' is the goal of treatment, but what recovery means to that young person may be very nuanced. Further key considerations and suggested phrasing are given to introduce and work with young people's goals.

6.
Arch Dis Child ; 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) among healthy children aged between 0 and 18 years living in South-East Asia (SEA). DESIGN: We systematically searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for observational studies assessing VDD among healthy children in the SEA region as the primary or secondary outcome from database inception to 6 April 2021. PubMed was used for e-pubs and publications not indexed in Medline. Publications that included abstracts in English were included. We performed a systematic review to describe the prevalence of VDD in SEA children. RESULTS: Our initial search identified 550 publications with an additional 2 publications from manual screening. Of those, 21 studies from 5 different countries (Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Cambodia) were summarised and included in forest plots. The prevalence of VDD (<50 nmol/L) ranged from 0.9% to 96.4%, with >50% of newborns having VDD, and severe VDD (<30 nmol/L) ranged from 0% to 55.8%. Female sex and urban living were the most common determinants of VDD. CONCLUSIONS: VDD among healthy children living in the SEA region is common. Efforts to detect VDD and the implementation of preventive measures, including education on safe sun exposure and oral vitamin D supplementation or food fortification, should be considered for key target groups, including adolescent females and pregnant and lactating women to improve the vitamin D status of newborns. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020181600).

8.
J Hum Lact ; : 8903344221101874, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical distancing associated with the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to suboptimal maternal mental health, social support after birth, and infant feeding practices. RESEARCH AIMS: To compare breastfeeding prevalence in participants who were pregnant at a time when strict physical distancing measures were imposed in Fortaleza, the capital of Ceará state, Brazil, with the pre-pandemic breastfeeding levels, and to assess the association of breastfeeding prevalence with maternal common mental disorders, and sociodemographic and health predictors. METHOD: A cross-sectional prospective two-group comparison design using two population-based surveys was carried out in Fortaleza before and after the pandemic. Participants (n = 351) who had a live birth in Fortaleza in July or August 2020, and participants (n = 222) who had a child younger than 12 months in 2017 were surveyed. Crude and adjusted multinomial logistic regressions with robust variance were used to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Similar prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding were observed in 2021 (8.1%) and 2017 (8.5%; p = .790). An increase in predominant (2.2% vs. 13.4%; p < .001) and a decrease in complementary breastfeeding (64.0% vs. 48.4%; p = .037) was observed in 2021, compared to 2017. The prevalence of maternal common mental disorders also increased in 2021 (17.6% vs. 32.5%, p < .001). No statistically significant associations were found between breastfeeding patterns, maternal common mental disorders, and other predictors in 2017 or 2021. CONCLUSIONS: Participants who delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic delayed solid foods introduction and breastfed predominantly longer than participants during the pre-pandemic period. While common mental disorders significantly increased, they were not associated with differences in breastfeeding.

9.
Vaccine ; 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697575

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vaccinating children against COVID-19 protects children's health and can mitigate the spread of the virus to other community members. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to use a socio-ecological perspective to identify multi-level factors associated with US parents' intention to vaccinate their children. METHODS: This study used a longitudinal online cohort. Multinomial logistic regression models assessed socio-ecological predictors of negative and uncertain child COVID-19 vaccination intentions compared to positive intentions. RESULTS: In June 2021, 297 parents were surveyed and 44% reported that they intended to vaccinate their children while 25% expressed uncertainty and 31% did not intend to vaccinate their children. The likelihood of reporting uncertain or negative intention, compared to positive intention to vaccinate their children was higher among parents who had not received a COVID-19 vaccination and those who did not have trusted information sources. Parents who talked to others at least weekly about the COVID-19 vaccine were less likely to endorse uncertain compared to positive vaccine intentions (aRRR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20-0.93). A sub-analysis identified that parents had significantly higher odds of intending to vaccinate older children compared to younger children (children ages 16-17 years v. 0-4 years OR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.05-3.84). An additional sub-analysis assessed the stability of parents' intention to vaccinate their children between March 2021 and June 2021 (N=166). There was transition within each intention group between the study periods; however, symmetry and marginal homogeneity test results indicated that the shift was not statistically significant. Parents expressing uncertainty in March 2021 were the most likely to change their intention, with 24% transitioning to positive intention and 23% to negative intention in June 2021. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest that programs to promote vaccination uptake should be dyadic and work to promote child and parent vaccination. Peer diffusion strategies may be particularly effective at promoting child vaccination uptake among parents expressing uncertainty.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the dental attendance patterns of Australian children with and without disabilities using data from Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. METHODS: Data on 6470 participants within two groups (B cohort [aged 12-13]: n = 3381; K cohort [aged 16-17]: n = 3089) were used for the study. Binomial regression models were fitted to examine the association between disability status and dental attendance. The models were adjusted for gender, parent's country of birth, region of residence, highest parental education and household weekly income, and multiple imputations was used for handling missing data. RESULTS: Children with disabilities constituted 2.4% and 3.8% of the study sample in the B and K cohort, respectively. The unadjusted risk ratio of irregular (vs. regular) dental attendance between children with and without disabilities was 1.07 (95% CI 0.78-1.46) in the B cohort and 1.15 (95% CI 0.93-1.42) in the K cohort. After adjustment and imputation, the risk ratios were 1.03 (95% CI 0.76-1.41) and 1.10 (95% CI 0.89-1.36) in the B and K cohort, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Dental attendance pattern was positively, but minimally, associated with disabilities in older children, and factors including region of residence, parental education and household income were related to disability status and dental attendance. Further studies are required to clarify the association and ascertain key factors that affect the health and wellbeing of children with disabilities.

11.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e050417, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant changes to family life, society and essential health and other services. A rapid review of evidence was conducted to examine emerging evidence on the effects of the pandemic on three components of nurturing care, including responsive caregiving, early learning, and safety and security. DESIGN: Two academic databases, organisational websites and reference lists were searched for original studies published between 1 January and 25 October 2020. A single reviewer completed the study selection and data extraction with verification by a second reviewer. INTERVENTIONS: We included studies with a complete methodology and reporting on quantitative or qualitative evidence related to nurturing care during the pandemic. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Studies reporting on outcomes related to responsive caregiving, early learning, and safety and security were included. RESULTS: The search yielded 4410 citations in total, and 112 studies from over 30 countries met our eligibility criteria. The early evidence base is weighted towards studies in high-income countries, studies related to caregiver mental health and those using quantitative survey designs. Studies reveal issues of concern related to increases in parent and caregiver stress and mental health difficulties during the pandemic, which was linked to harsher and less warm or responsive parenting in some studies. A relatively large number of studies examined child safety and security and indicate a reduction in maltreatment referrals. Lastly, studies suggest that fathers' engagement in caregiving increased during the early phase of the pandemic, children's outdoor play and physical activity decreased (while screen time increased), and emergency room visits for child injuries decreased. CONCLUSION: The results highlight key evidence gaps (ie, breastfeeding support and opportunities for early learning) and suggest the need for increased support and evidence-based interventions to ensure young children and other caregivers are supported and protected during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pandemias , Poder Familiar , Pais
12.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 333, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood stunting and anemia are on the increase in many resource-constrained settings, without a counter increase in proper feeding practices such as exclusive breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of stunting, anemia and exclusive breastfeeding across African countries. METHODS: Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from 39 African countries was analyzed. Data from under 5 children were analyzed. Forest plot was used to determine inequalities in the prevalence of the outcome variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of stunting was highest in Burundi (56%), Madagascar (50%) and Niger (44%). In addition, Burkina Faso (88%), Mali (82%), Cote d'Ivoire and Guinea (75% each) and Niger (73%) had the highest prevalence of anemia. Furthermore, Burundi (83%), Rwanda (81%) and Zambia (70%) had the highest exclusive breastfeeding. We found statistical significant difference in the prevalence of stunting, anemia and exclusive breastfeeding (p < 0.001). Higher prevalence of stunting and anemia were estimated among the male, rural residents, those having mothers with low education and from poor household wealth. CONCLUSION: Concerted efforts are required to improve childhood health, survival and proper feeding practice. Reduced stunting and anemia could be achieved through sustained socioeconomic improvement that is shared in equity and equality among the population. Interventions aimed at increasing food availability can also aid in the reduction of hunger, particularly in impoverished communities.


Assuntos
Anemia , Aleitamento Materno , Anemia/epidemiologia , Burkina Faso , Criança , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681968

RESUMO

Infant massage is performed in various international contexts. There is a need for an updated literature review on this topic. The purpose of the current review was to investigate the effects of infant massage. A systematic literature review was conducted to investigate the effects of infant massage on the following outcomes: pain relief, jaundice, and weight gain. The inclusion criteria were infants from 0-12 months. The literature search was performed until January 2022, using the CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases, and included studies published from 2017-2021, returning 16 RCT/CCT studies with a total of 1416 participating infants. A review template was used by two independent reviewers to assess the risk of bias in the included studies. The results were synthesized and presented in the form of tables and narratives. In five of seven studies (n = 422 resp. n = 717) investigating pain relief, infant massage was found to alleviate pain. In all six studies (n = 455) investigating effects on infant massage and jaundice, beneficial effects were found on bilirubin levels. In all four studies (n = 244) investigating weight gain, increased weight gain was found among participants who received infant massage. The present literature review provides an indication of the current state of knowledge about infant massage and identifies its positive effects; however, the results must be interpreted with caution. Infant massage may be effective at relieving pain, improving jaundice, and increasing weight gain. Although statistically significant differences were not found between all experimental and control groups, no adverse effects of infant massage were observed. By placing the aforementioned effects in the context of child health care, infant massage may prove beneficial on these outcomes. Given the dearth of research on infant massage in the context of child health care, further research is warranted.


Assuntos
Massagem , Manejo da Dor , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Dor , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Ganho de Peso
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682010

RESUMO

Financial counselling and income-maximisation services have the potential to reduce financial hardship and its associated burdens on health and wellbeing in High Income Countries. However, referrals to financial counselling services are not systematically integrated into existing health service platforms, thus limiting our ability to identify and link families who might be experiencing financial hardship. Review evidence on this is scarce. The purpose of this study is to review "healthcare-income maximisation" models of care in high-income countries for families of children aged between 0 and 5 years experiencing financial difficulties, and their impacts on family finances and the health and wellbeing of parent(s)/caregiver(s) or children. A systematic review of the MEDLINE, EMBase, PsycInfo, CINAHL, ProQuest, Family & Society Studies Worldwide, Cochrane Library, and Informit Online databases was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A total of six studies (five unique samples) met inclusion criteria, which reported a total of 11,603 families exposed to a healthcare-income maximisation model. An average annual gain per person of £1661 and £1919 was reported in two studies reporting one Scottish before-after study, whereby health visitors/midwives referred 4805 clients to money advice services. In another UK before-after study, financial counsellors were attached to urban primary healthcare centres and reported an average annual gain per person of £1058. The randomized controlled trial included in the review reported no evidence of impacts on financial or non-financial outcomes, or maternal health outcomes, but did observe small to moderate effects on child health and well-being. Small to moderate benefits were seen in areas relating to child health, preschool education, parenting, child abuse, and early behavioral adjustment. There was a high level of bias in most studies, and insufficient evidence to evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare-income maximisation models of care. Rigorous (RCT-level) studies with clear evaluations are needed to assess efficacy and effectiveness.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Renda , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Atenção à Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682355

RESUMO

Collaboration between birth care and Preventive Child Health Care (PCHC) in the Netherlands is so far insufficient. The aim of the Connecting Obstetric; Maternity; Pediatric and PCHC (COMPLETE) study is to: (1) better understand the collaboration between birth care and PCHC and its underlying mechanisms (including barriers and facilitators); (2) investigate whether a new multidisciplinary strategy that is developed as part of the project will result in improved collaboration. To realize the first aim, a mixed-method study composed of a (focus group) interview study, a multiple case study and a survey study will be conducted. To realize the second aim, the new strategy will be piloted in two regions in an iterative process to evaluate and refine it, following the Participatory Action Research (PAR) approach. A prospective study will be conducted to compare outcomes related to child health, patient reported outcomes and experiences and quality of care between three different cohorts (i.e., those that were recruited before, during and after the implementation of the strategy). With our study we wish to contribute to a better understanding of collaboration in care and develop knowledge on how the integration of birth care and PCHC is envisioned by stakeholders, as well as how it can be translated into practice.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Criança , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e055830, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether use of expressed human milk in the first two weeks postpartum is associated with cessation of human milk feeding and non-exclusive human milk feeding up to 6 months. DESIGN: Pooled data from two prospective cohort studies SETTING: Three Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program (CPNP) sites serving vulnerable families in Toronto, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 337 registered CPNP clients enrolled prenatally from 2017 to 2020; 315 (93%) were retained to 6 months postpartum. EXCLUSIONS: pregnancy loss or participation in prior related study; Study B: preterm birth (<34 weeks); plan to move outside Toronto; not intending to feed human milk; hospitalisation of mother or baby at 2 weeks postpartum. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Main exposure variable: any use of expressed human milk at 2 weeks postpartum. OUTCOMES: cessation of human milk feeding by 6 months; non-exclusive human milk feeding to 4 months and 6 months postpartum. RESULTS: All participants initiated human milk feeding and 80% continued for 6 months. Exclusive human milk feeding was practiced postdischarge to 4 months by 28% and to 6 months by 16%. At 2 weeks postpartum, 34% reported use of expressed human milk. Any use of expressed human milk at 2 weeks was associated with cessation of human milk feeding before 6 months postpartum (aOR 2.66; 95% CI 1.41 to 5.05) and with non-exclusive human milk feeding to 4 months (aOR 2.19; 95% CI 1.16 to 4.14) and 6 months (aOR 3.65; 95% CI 1.50 to 8.84). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NCT03400605, NCT03589963.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Leite Humano , Assistência ao Convalescente , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Alta do Paciente , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e053782, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aim to examine the phenomenon of infant and child death clustering while considering the unobserved heterogeneity (frailty) at the family level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analysed Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2017-2018 data, including the birth history information for 47 828 children born to 18 134 women. We used Gompertz shared frailty model to control the correlation between event times at the mother level and capture the unobserved risks in infant and child deaths. OUTCOME MEASURES: We estimated two sets of survival regression models where the failure event is the survival status of the index child during the infancy period, that is, from birth to 11 months, and childhood period, that is, between 12 and 59 months, respectively. All children who died during infancy and childhood were coded as 'yes'; otherwise, they were coded as 'no'. RESULTS: About 2% of mothers experienced two or more infant deaths, and cumulatively these mothers account for 20% of all infant deaths in the sample. Children whose previous sibling was not alive at the time of their conception had 1.86 times (95% CI 1.59 to 2.17) more risk of dying as an infant. However, we did not find a statistically significant effect of death scarring on the risk of child mortality among siblings. Statistically significant frailty effect with a variance of 0.33 (95% CI CI 0.17 to 0.65) and 0.54 (95% CI 0.14 to 2.03)] in infancy and childhood, respectively, indicates the clustering of survival risks within families due to unobserved family-level characteristics shared by the siblings. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that preceding birth interval, mother's age at first birth and mother's education are the most critical factors which can help in reducing scaring effect on infant mortality. Additionally, women from poor socioeconomic strata should be focused on as still an infant, and child mortality is concentrated among poor households.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Intervalo entre Nascimentos , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Morte do Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e057284, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We described development, health and justice system outcomes for children in contact with child protection and public housing. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of outcomes for children known to child protection who also had contact with public housing drawn from the South Australian (SA) Better Evidence Better Outcomes Linked Data (BEBOLD) platform. SETTING: The BEBOLD platform holds linked administrative records collected by government agencies for whole-population successive birth cohorts in SA beginning in 1999. PARTICIPANTS: This study included data from birth registrations, perinatal, child protection, public housing, hospital, emergency department, early education and youth justice for all SA children born 1999-2013 and followed until 2016. The base population notified at least once to child protection was n=67 454. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Contact with the public housing system. SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Hospitalisations and emergency department presentations before age 5, and early education at age 5, and youth justice contact before age 17. RESULTS: More than 60% of children with at least one notification to child protection had contact with public housing, and 60.2% of those known to both systems were known to housing first. Children known to both systems experienced more emergency department and hospitalisation contacts, greater developmental vulnerability and were about six times more likely to have youth justice system contact. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial overlap between involvement with child protection and public housing in SA. Those children are more likely to face a life trajectory characterised by greater contact with the health system, greater early life developmental vulnerability and greater contact with the criminal justice system. Ensuring the highest quality of supportive early life infrastructure for families in public housing may contribute to prevention of contact with child protection and better life trajectories for children.


Assuntos
Habitação Popular , Web Semântica , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1165, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Edutainment aims to spread educational messages in an entertaining way, and often reaches large audiences. While studies increasingly report the impacts of edutainment interventions, there is limited context-specific evidence on the underlying processes and barriers to effective delivery, especially in rural areas. This article presents results from a process evaluation of a community-based edutainment intervention designed to improve knowledge, attitudes, and practices on gender-based violence (GBV), sexual and reproductive health (SRH), and maternal and child health. The intervention focused on the television series, C'est la Vie!, screened through biweekly film clubs in rural Senegal and included post-screening discussions and thematic workshops, meant to reinforce messages, increase knowledge, and change social norms. The objectives of this study were to assess intervention adaptation, implementation fidelity, participants' responsiveness or engagement, and series appropriateness. METHODS: The intervention was implemented from December 2019 to March 2020 in 120 villages in Kaolack and Kolda regions of Senegal, and targeted adolescent girls and young women aged 14 to 34. The process evaluation was carried out in March 2020 in 14 villages using: i) individual semi-structured interviews with implementers (n = 3), village chiefs (n = 8), married women (n = 9), adolescent girls (n = 8), and men (n = 8); ii) focus groups with men (n = 7, 29 participants) and women (n = 10, 100 participants); and iii) observations of screening sessions (n = 4) and post-screening discussions (n = 2). Data were analyzed using thematic and content analysis. RESULTS: The results highlight that adaptation of the intervention helped reach the target population and improved participant attendance, but might have compromised fidelity to original design, as intervention components were shortened and modified for rural delivery and some facilitators made ad hoc modifications. The screenings coverage and frequency were adequate; however, their duration was shortened due to COVID-19 restrictions in Senegal. Participant responsiveness was excellent, as was the series appropriateness for most topics, including GBV. SRH remains a sensitive topic for youth, especially when the film clubs included non-peers, such as slightly older women. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that using film clubs to deliver sensitive edutainment content in rural areas is feasible and has potential for scale-up.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Violência de Gênero , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Reprodutiva , Senegal
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e052209, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate interdistrict variations in childhood ambulatory sensitive hospitalisation (ASH) over the years. DESIGN: Observational population-based study over 2008-2018 using the Primary Health Organisation Enrolment Collection (PHO) and the National Minimum Dataset hospital events databases. SETTING: New Zealand primary and secondary care. PARTICIPANTS: All children aged 0-4 years enrolled in the PHO Enrolment Collection from 2008 to 2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: ASH. RESULTS: Only 1.4% of the variability in the risk of having childhood ASH (intracluster correlation coefficient=0.014) is explained at the level of District Health Board (DHB), with the median OR of 1.23. No consistent time trend was observed for the adjusted childhood ASH at the national level, but the DHBs demonstrated different trajectories over the years. Ethnicity (being a Pacific child) followed by deprivation demonstrated stronger relationships with childhood ASH than the geography and the health system input variables. CONCLUSION: The variation in childhood ASH is explained only minimal at the DHB level. The sociodemographic variables also only partly explained the variations. Unlike the general ASH measure, the childhood ASH used in this analysis provides insights into the acute conditions sensitive to primary care services. However, further information would be required to conclude this as the DHB-level performance variations.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Assistência Médica , Criança , Geografia , Programas Governamentais , Humanos
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