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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627332

RESUMO

The purposes of this study were to ascertain the morphological characteristics of a plantaris tendon (PT) insertion using a larger-scale dissection of Korean cadavers and to classify the types of PT insertion related to the calcaneal tendon (CT). A total of 108 feet from adult formalin-fixed cadavers (34 males, 20 females) were dissected. The morphological characteristics and measurements of the PT insertion were evaluated. Five types of PT insertion were classified, wherein the most common type was Type 1 (39 feet, 63.1%). Type 2 and Type 3 were similar, with 16 feet (14.8%) and 15 feet (13.9%), respectively. Type 4 (6 feet, 5.6%) was the rarest type, and Type 5 had 25 feet (23.1%). The case of an absent PT was noted in 7 feet (6.5%). In the proximal portion, the tendon had a thick and narrow shape, became thin and wide in the middle portion, and then changed to thick and narrow again just before the insertion into the calcaneal tuberosity. This study confirmed the five types according to the location of the PT and the area of its insertion-related CT. The morphology of the PT insertion may be anatomically likely to influence the occurrence of tendinopathy in the CT.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo , Tendinopatia , Adulto , Cadáver , Feminino , , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia
2.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 818610, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35350185

RESUMO

There is no consensus about the optimal internal fixation selection for treatment of posterolateral tibial plateau fracture. This study described a novel plate through an anterolateral approach for posterolateral tibial plateau fractures (PTPFs). We evaluated the biomechanical performance of a novel plate and two conventional internal implants and investigated the anatomic feasibility of the novel plate. The fracture models were randomly assigned into six groups: Groups A-C were the model groups of posterolateral split fracture, fixed with the posterior buttress plate, the lateral locking plate, and the novel plate, respectively. Groups D-E were the model groups of posterolateral depression fracture, fixed with the posterior buttress plate, the lateral locking plate, and the novel plate, respectively. We evaluated the biomechanical performance of six model groups by the biomechanical testing and finite element analysis. Progressively increasing axial compressive loads were applied to each synthetic fracture model by using a customized indentor under 250-750 N loads. Meanwhile, we dissected 12 fresh frozen knee specimens and fixed them with the novel plate through the anterolateral approach. We recorded the adjacency of the novel plate to important anatomic structures. Biomechanical testing showed that the novel plate had the least displacement, followed by the posterior buttress plate, and the lateral plate had the most displacement in posterolateral split fracture. There was no significant difference in the displacement between the novel plate and the lateral plate at different loads in posterolateral depression fractures. And the posterior buttress plate showed the most displacement. In the finite element analysis, the maximum stress values of Groups A, B, and C were 383.76, 414.63, and 305.07 MPa under the load of 750 N, respectively. The maximum stress values of Groups D, E, and F were 474.28, 436.31, and 413.4 MPa under the load of 750 N, respectively. In the anatomic study, the placement of the novel plate had a low risk of damage to the important anatomic structures of knee posterolateral corner. The novel plate could be a great choice for the treatment of PTPFs due to better biomechanical performance and easy manipulation.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35206468

RESUMO

The precise location of the Master Knot of Henry (MKH) has important clinical significance, but its anatomical definition has not been agreed upon. The purpose of this study is to present a linear regression equation for predicting length variables based on foot length, by evaluating the correlation of length variables related to flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and flexor digitorum longus (FDL), with respect to the location of the MKH. A total of 95 limbs were dissected from 48 adult cadavers, and were fixed in formalin. Measurements were made for the length parameter, with reference to the landmark. The relevance between length variables was analyzed through simple correlation analysis and linear regression analysis. The foot length was 213.69 ± 17.53 mm, MKH-great toe distal phalanx was 140.16 ± 14.69 mm, MKH-FHL insertion was 124.55 ± 13.46 mm, MKH-little toe distal phalanx was 121.79 ± 13.41 mm, MKH-FDL little toe insertion was 109.07 ± 14.16 mm, and the FHL-FDL angle was 33.15 ± 5.39. The correlation coefficient between all the length variables for foot length showed a high positive correlation. We derived a regression equation that can predict the length of each variable. This regression formula is considered to be highly useful because it can estimate the positional relationship of the MKH relatively simply.


Assuntos
, Tendões , Adulto , Cadáver , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético , Dedos do Pé
4.
Kurume Med J ; 67(1): 49-52, 2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35095020

RESUMO

The second largest intracranial specialization of the dura mater, the tentorium cerebelli, is a transverse fold that partially separates the cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres. During routine dissection of the posterior cranial fossa, a left-sided hypoplastic region of the tentorium cerebelli was observed. This fenestration was seen at the posterior portion of the tentorium as a posteromedial strip of tissue rising vertically to interface with the falx cerebri. Although isolated cases of tentorial hypoplasia have been reported in, for example, cases of Chiari II malformation, we believe isolated fenestration of this membrane is very rare, especially in the absence of the Chiari II malformation. The current case adds to the sparse literature on isolated tentorial defects and might be of interest to neurosurgeons or clinicians who review intracranial imaging.


Assuntos
Dura-Máter , Cerebelo , Fossa Craniana Posterior/cirurgia , Dissecação , Dura-Máter/anormalidades , Humanos
5.
Neurosurg Rev ; 45(3): 2193-2199, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031899

RESUMO

Our aim was to clarify the variations in the positional relationship between the base of the lateral plate of the pterygoid process and the foramen ovale (FO), which block inserted needles during percutaneous procedures to the FO usually used for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Ninety skulls were examined. The horizontal relationship between the FO and the posterior border of the base of the lateral plate of the pterygoid process was observed in an inferior view of the skull base. Skulls that showed injury to either the FO or the lateral plate of the pterygoid process on either side were excluded. One hundred and sixty sides of eighty skulls were eligible. The relationship between the FO and the posterior border of the base of the lateral plate was classified into four types. Among the 160 sides, type III (direct type) was the most common (35%), followed by type I (lateral type, 29%) and type IV (removed type, 21%); type II (medial type) was the least common (15%). Of the 80 specimens, 53 showed the same type bilaterally. In type IV, the posterior border of the base of the lateral plate is disconnected from the FO, so percutaneous procedures for treating trigeminal neuralgia could fail in patients with this type.


Assuntos
Forame Oval , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo , Forame Oval/cirurgia , Humanos , Agulhas , Base do Crânio , Osso Esfenoide/cirurgia , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/cirurgia
6.
Eur Spine J ; 31(3): 678-684, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35094163

RESUMO

Pseudoaneurysms of the lumbar arteries following transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) are rare postoperative complications that usually occur around the transverse process. However, there are few detailed descriptions of the transverse branch and other branches of the dorsal branches at the L1-L4 disks. STUDY DESIGN: Ten adult embalmed cadavers were anatomically studied. OBJECTIVES: The purposes of the study were to describe the vascular distribution of the dorsal branches, especially the transverse branches, at the L1-L4 levels and provide information useful for TLIF. METHODS: Ten embalmed cadavers studied after their arterial systems were injected with red latex. The quantity, origin, pathway, distribution range and diameter of the branches were recorded and photographed. RESULTS: The transverse branch appeared in all 80 intervertebral foramina. The transverse branch was divided into 2 types: In type 1, the arteries divided into superior branches and inferior branches; the arteries in type 2 divided into 3 branches (superior, intermedius and inferior branches). CONCLUSIONS: The transverse branches of the dorsal arteries are common structures from L1 to L4, and 2 types of transverse branches were found. A thorough understanding of the dorsal branches, especially the transverse branches of the lumbar artery, may be very important for reducing both intraoperative bleeding during the surgery and the occurrence of pseudoaneurysms after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares , Fusão Vertebral , Adulto , Aorta Abdominal , Artérias , Cadáver , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/irrigação sanguínea , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia
7.
J Clin Anesth ; 77: 110646, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35021139

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of action of the thoracic intertransverse process (ITP) block. DESIGN: Three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (3D micro-CT) study and cadaveric evaluation. SETTING: A translational research unit for anatomy and analgesia in a university hospital. PATIENTS: Twelve embalmed and three non-embalmed human cadavers were used in this study. MEASUREMENTS: Micro-CT images of the mid-thoracic paravertebral space and its adjacent ligamentous tissues were acquired and 3D images were reconstructed. Manual dissection and histologic examination of these structures complemented the images. To confirm our findings, the dye-spreading pattern after ultrasound-guided ITP injection of 20 mL dye solution at T4-T5 was evaluated. MAIN RESULTS: Micro-CT and histologic findings showed that the costotransverse foramen (the medial slit of the superior costotransverse ligament) and the costotransverse space (between the rib and the transverse process) were potential pathways to the thoracic paravertebral space during ITP block. Single-level ITP injection with a dye solution resulted in a multilevel segmental paravertebral spread in cadaveric evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: The space posterior to the superior costotransverse ligament, the target area for ITP blocks, has potential anatomical pathways to the thoracic paravertebral space. The costotransverse foramen and the costotransverse space provided the anatomical conduit for the anterior and intersegmental paravertebral spread of the ITP block.


Assuntos
Inosina Trifosfato , Bloqueio Nervoso , Cadáver , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
8.
Surg Today ; 52(2): 354-358, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223991

RESUMO

The framework for cadaver surgical training (CST) in Japan was established in 2012, based on the "Guidelines for Cadaver Dissection in Education and Research of Clinical Medicine" of the Japan Surgical Society (JSS) and the Japanese Association of Anatomists. Subsequently, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare allocated funding from its budget for CST. By 2019, CST was being practiced in 33 medical schools and universities. Currently, the CST Promotion Committee of the JSS reviews each CST report submitted by medical schools and universities and provides guidance based on professional autonomy. This paper outlines the history of CST in Japan and presents a plan for its future. To sustain and oversee CST implementation, an operating organization, funded by stakeholders, such as government agencies, academic societies, and private companies, is needed.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Cadáver , Dissecação/educação , Educação Médica/métodos , Educação Médica/tendências , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Anatomia/organização & administração , Doação Dirigida de Tecido , Cirurgia Geral/organização & administração , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Japão , Faculdades de Medicina , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Universidades
9.
Anat Sci Int ; 97(2): 157-164, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686966

RESUMO

Although the hip joint is regarded as inherently stable, hip pain and injuries caused by traumatic/non-traumatic hip instability are relatively common in active individuals. A comprehensive understanding of hip anatomy may provide better insight into the relationships between hip stability and clinical problems. In this review, we present our recent findings on the hip morphological characteristics, especially focusing on the intramuscular tendon of the gluteus medius tendon and its insertion sites, hip capsular attachment on the anterosuperior region of the acetabular margin, and composition of the iliofemoral ligament. We further discussed the hip stabilization mechanism based on these findings. The characteristics of the gluteus medius tendon suggest that even a single muscle has multiple functional subunits within the muscle. In addition, the characteristics of the hip capsular attachment suggest that the width of the capsular attachment is wider than previously reported, and its wide area shows adaptive morphology to mechanical stress, such as bony impression and distribution of the fibrocartilage. The composition of the iliofemoral ligament and its relation to periarticular structures suggest that some ligaments should be defined based on the pericapsular structures, such as the joint capsule, tendon, and aponeurosis, and also have the ability to dynamically coordinate joint stability. These anatomical perspectives provide a better understanding of the hip stabilization mechanism, and a biomechanical study or an in vivo imaging study, considering these perspectives, is expected in the future.


Assuntos
Articulação do Quadril , Cápsula Articular , Nádegas , Humanos , Ligamentos Articulares , Tendões
10.
Clin Anat ; 35(1): 45-51, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554601

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this review, cases of herpes zoster (HZ) infection following receipt of COVID-19 vaccines will be analyzed. We also present two cases of oral HZ following the COVID-19 vaccine and discuss this clinical anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database search using PubMed was conducted in August 2021 and 20 articles were found to be eligible for review. Patient data and vaccine information were analyzed. In addition, two cases of oral HZ infection following the receipt of COVID-19 vaccines are presented. RESULTS: A total of 399 cases were identified. The affected dermatomes mimicked the regular distribution of HZ. For the dermatomes of the face, the various reports used different ways to describe the areas involved; CNV, CNV1, CNV2, CNV3, lower jaw, forehead, and under the eyebrow (CNV, 2 cases; CNV1, 4 cases; CNV2, 3 cases; and CNV3, 3 cases). Some patients who had a history of varicella zoster virus vaccination had HZ following the COVID-19 vaccination. Two patients with oral HZ following vaccination were found to have involvement of the greater palatine nerve. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine-related HZ cases have been reported worldwide. Although many studies with a larger number of cases are ongoing, detailed information can be obtained from case reviews as reported herein.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster , Herpes Zoster , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Herpes Zoster/etiologia , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/efeitos adversos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
11.
Cureus ; 13(11): e19433, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909338

RESUMO

Recently, two cases of oral herpes zoster (HZ) following COVID-19 vaccines were reported. It was suggested that COVID-19 vaccine-related oral HZ cases might be missed or misdiagnosed as stomatitis or isolated oral herpes. In this report, five cases of oral HZ following COVID-19 vaccinations are presented. Four cases were observed on the hard palate (V2), and one case was found on the mandible (V3). Four patients did not receive any treatment for their oral HZ, but one patient also had skin reactions on her right orbit and ear and was thus treated with an antiviral drug. As these cases were seen during such a short period of time and in one practice, the relationship with the COVID-19 vaccination appears to be related.

12.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829351

RESUMO

We completed an anatomic cadaver study in order to examine the arterial supply around the knee and to create useful images regarding the arterial surgical anatomy around the knee. A total of four unmatched fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were utilized. There was no medical history of osteoporosis, bony or soft-tissue injury or surgery in any of the knees. The femoral arteries were cannulated with a large catheter at the proximal aspect of the cadavers, and liquid latex in different colours was injected. Τhe specimens were then placed into a bath of 8.0% sodium hypochlorite to complete debridement of the soft tissues to various degrees. The specimens were checked every 15 to 30 min until adequate debridement occurred, and photographs were taken during each stage of this process. Sodium hypochlorite, among others, chemically debrides the vessel walls leaving the casts of the vessel lumens filled with solid coloured latex in order to illustrate the vascular supply pattern to the structures of interest. Knowing the probability of where these arteries should be located adds to the knowledge that surgeons have at their disposal when performing procedures involving arthroscopy, arthroplasty and osteotomies, which can help decrease unnecessary damage to the arteries.

13.
Anat Sci Educ ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748279

RESUMO

Despite its significant clinical use, there is no standardized point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) curriculum in undergraduate medical education. As Covid-19 abruptly mandated the use of virtual education, instructors were challenged to incorporate and improve POCUS education within these new constraints. It was hypothesized that integrating POCUS into anatomy via brief video lessons and a subsequent interactive virtual lesson would lead to an objective understanding of POCUS concepts, improved understanding of the corresponding anatomy, and subjective improvement of student confidence with POCUS. A cross-sectional descriptive study assessed first-year medical students' perspectives and performance before and after the interventions (n = 161). The intervention was split into two parts: (1) three optional 10-minute POCUS videos that reinforced anatomy concepts taught in the laboratory sessions, and (2) a subsequent two-hour interactive virtual session reviewing POCUS and anatomy concepts. Students completed a knowledge and confidence assessment tool before and after the interactive session. Survey responses (n = 51) indicated that 94% of students felt the optional videos improved their understanding of POCUS and were educationally valuable. One half of medical students (50%) indicated that the demonstrations improved their anatomy understanding. Initial self-reported confidence was low after the optional video lessons, despite an average score of 58% on the knowledge assessment (n = 130). However, confidence increased significantly along with an increase in score performance to 80% after the interactive session (n = 39, P < 0.01). Results suggest that the virtual integration pilot enhanced student learning of both anatomy and POCUS.

14.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 43(11): 1875-1886, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The maxillary artery (MA) is one of the terminal branches of the external carotid artery (ECA) and through its branches, it is responsible for vascularizing several organs and muscles of the head and neck, including their surrounding soft tissues, the oral and sinonasal cavities, dura mater, and various cranial nerves. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of maxillary artery anatomy according to the Anatomical Quality Assurance (AQUA) checklist. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search through PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, SciELO, Springerlink, WILEY and BIREME databases. We applied the Anatomical Quality Assurance (AQUA) checklist for analysis the methodological quality of the articles. RESULTS: From a total of 11,759 articles found in the first search, and after applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, in addition to eliminating duplicate articles, a final number of 24 articles were identified. The information on the maxillary artery was analyzed from each study regarding its course in relation to the lateral pterygoid muscle, the intra- and extraluminal diameters of the maxillary artery and its branches, and the types of branching of the maxillary artery in the pterygopalatine fossa. CONCLUSION: From this study, it was possible to conclude the importance of anatomical knowledge of the maxillary artery, for its application in the clinical study of the head and neck, as well as the need to apply the AQUA checklist in the development of systematic anatomical reviews to ensure accurate reliability and a better assessment of the effect of anatomical publications.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Artéria Maxilar , Humanos , Músculos Pterigoides , Fossa Pterigopalatina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573961

RESUMO

The variations in the tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) could not be defined by previous classification; thus, this study used a larger-scale cadaver with the aim to classify the types of TPT insertion based on the combination of the number and location of TPT insertions. A total of 118 feet from adult formalin-fixed cadavers were dissected (68 males, 50 females). The morphological characteristics and measurements of TPT insertion were evaluated. Four types of TPT insertions were classified, wherein the most common type was type 4 (quadruple insertions, 78 feet, 66.1%), which was divided into four new subtypes that were not defined in the previous classification. The second most common type was type 3 (triple insertions, 25 feet, 21.2%) with three subtypes, including the new subtype. Type 2 was found in 13 feet (11%), and the rarest type was type 1 (2 feet, 1.7%), wherein the main tendon was only attached to the navicular bone and the medial cuneiform bone. We suggest high morphological variability of the TPT in relation to the insertion location, along with the possibility of significant differences according to race and gender. Moreover, this classification will help clinicians understand adult flatfoot deformity-related posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD).

16.
Cureus ; 13(6): e15901, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336417

RESUMO

The lesser occipital nerve (LON) is a cutaneous branch of the cervical plexus that arises from the second and sometimes the third spinal nerve and innervates the scalp. During routine dissection of the neck, the LON was observed to arise directly from the spinal accessory nerve. The aberrant nerve measured 1.9 mm in diameter and 10.2 cm in length. Although anatomical variations of the LON such as duplication and triplication have been observed, we believe the origination of this nerve directly and exclusively from the spinal accessory nerve is exceedingly rare. The current case adds to the sparse literature on the variations of the LON and might be of interest to clinicians treating neurological conditions or surgeons operating in the area.

17.
Gland Surg ; 10(7): 2284-2292, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this article we review the literature on the inferior labial gland from a clinical and anatomical perspective. BACKGROUND: Regardless of its importance in clinical practice, there are no medical literature that comprehensively reviewed the inferior labial gland. METHODS: A database search using PubMed and Google Scholar was conducted. The following keywords were used in the search: "lower labial salivary gland", "lower labial gland", "inferior labial salivary gland", AND "inferior labial gland". CONCLUSIONS: The human labial glands are types of minor salivary gland that continuously secrete small amounts of mucous and serous substances to maintain oral health. The inferior labial glands are innervated by the inferior labial branch of the mental nerve, and the inferior labial branch of the facial artery is the main arterial supply to the lower lip. Although they only have an auxiliary role in saliva production compared to the major salivary glands, minor salivary glands provide a certain amount of lubrication in the oral cavity by the continuous outflow of saliva. The inferior labial gland not only promotes moisturization in the oral cavity but also secretes substances with antibacterial effects, which is important for the function of the oral cavity. A recent study showed that the rate of salivary secretion from the inferior labial glands does not change with age, and in some cases the inferior labial glands are used for diagnosing intractable diseases such as Sjogren's syndrome and cystic fibrosis. In addition, since the inferior labial glands themselves can be the site of cyst and/or neoplasia development, we should be careful to distinguish them from other diseases. Elucidation of the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the inferior labial glands, is important for understanding human health and diseases.

18.
Front Surg ; 8: 641581, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250002

RESUMO

Anatomical education and surgical training with cadavers are usually considered an appropriate method of teaching, above all for all surgeons at various levels. Indeed, in such a way they put into practice and exercise a procedure before performing it live, reducing the learning curve in a safe environment and the risks for the patients. Really, up to now it is not clear if the nonuse of the cadavers for anatomical education and surgical training can have also forensic implications. A substantial literature research was used for this review, based on PubMed and Web of Science database. From this review, it is clear that the cadaveric training could be considered mandatory, both for surgeons and for medical students, leading to a series of questions with forensic implications. Indeed, there are many evidences that a cadaver lab can improve the learning curve of a surgeon, above all in the first part of the curve, in which frequent and severe complications are possible. Consequently, a medical responsibility for residents and surgeons which perform a procedure without adequate training could be advised, but also for hospital, that has to guarantee a sufficient training for its surgeons and other specialists through cadaver labs. Surely, this type of training could help to improve the practical skills of surgeons working in small hospitals, where some procedures are rare. Cadaver studies can permit a better evaluation of safety and efficacy of new surgical devices by surgeons, avoiding using patients as ≪guinea pigs≫. Indeed, a legal responsibility for a surgeon and other specialists could exist in the use of a new device without an apparent regulatory oversight. For a good medical practice, the surgeons should communicate to the patient the unsure procedural risks, making sure the patients' full understanding about the novelty of the procedure and that they have used this technique on few, if any, patients before. Cadaver training could represent a shortcut in the standard training process, increasing both the surgeon learning curve and patient confidence. Forensic clinical anatomy can supervise and support all these aspects of the formation and of the use of cadaver training.

19.
Ann Anat ; 238: 151786, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies abound regarding the views of faculty anatomists and medical students on the importance of anatomy and the dissection of human bodies, but very little is known about the views of practicing physicians. METHODS: A survey was distributed among physicians and surgeons practicing in Spain in order to find out their views on the practice and consequences of human dissection by undergraduate students of medicine. The most relevant definition to qualify faculty anatomists of medical schools was also requested. Responses were repeatedly clustered into characteristic subgroups for analysis. RESULTS: In total, 536 physicians and surgeons belonging to 36 different specialties in seven Spanish hospitals responded to the survey. The results highlighted two main facts. Firstly, faculty anatomists were perceived as teachers, above any other professional identity (namely: physician, biologist or scientist); nonetheless, the ascription of identities varied between specialties (p=0.009); and it also depended on whether the respondents had dissected in their undergraduate degree (p=0.03) and on the respondent's gender (p=0.03). Secondly, physicians and surgeons confirmed that dissecting human cadavers serves the undergraduate student not only for acquiring anatomical knowledge, but also essential skills and attitudes, including professionalism. CONCLUSIONS: The results strongly suggest that dissection practice should be reinforced and enriched in undergraduate medical school. As this is important in itself, the results of the study could also help with the development of strategies to alleviate the current shortage of adequately trained anatomists for medical degrees.


Assuntos
Anatomistas , Anatomia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Médicos , Estudantes de Medicina , Anatomia/educação , Cadáver , Dissecação , Docentes , Corpo Humano , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Adv Med Educ Pract ; 12: 441-451, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994822

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Senior medical students are variably prepared to begin surgical training; and a national curriculum was established through the American College of Surgeons to better prepare senior medical students for surgical training. The purpose of our course is to prepare senior medical students to more effectively enter surgical training programs. We recently enhanced our independently developed surgical training preparation course by increasing exposure to surgical anatomy, medical physiology, surgical skills, and point-of-care ultrasound. We evaluated the impact of our interprofessional training course to increase confidence and readiness among senior medical students entering surgical training. METHODS: The course focused on pre- and post-operative patient care, surgical anatomy, human physiology, and bedside ultrasound. Didactic lectures in anatomy, human physiology, and bedside ultrasound were provided prior to all hands-on simulated patient care sessions and mock surgical procedures. To evaluate our interprofessional curriculum, we administered pre- and post-course surveys, pre- and post-course knowledge tests, and a final surgical anatomy laboratory practical examination to 22 senior medical students who were enrolled in the course. All students created a final surgical anatomy presentation. RESULTS: The students demonstrated a 100% pass rate in surgical anatomy. The knowledge test, which included assessment of knowledge on perioperative surgical decision making, human physiology, and bedside ultrasound, demonstrated an average improvement of 10%. Statistically significant improvements in median confidence values were identified in 10 of 32 surveyed categories, including surgical skills (p < 0.05); 84% of student goals for the course were achieved. The medical students' surveys confirmed increased confidence related to the use of point-of-care ultrasound, teamwork experience, and basic surgical skills through small group interactive seminars and surgical simulation exercises. CONCLUSION: Our preparation for surgical training course resulted in high student satisfaction and demonstrated an increased sense of confidence to begin surgical training. The 10% improvement in medical student knowledge, as evaluated by a written examination, and the significant improvement in confidence level self-assessment scores confirms this surgery preparation course for senior medical students successfully achieved the desired goals of the course.

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