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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254174, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360213

RESUMO

Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis is a vine species native to Brazil that is considered an unconventional food plant and a medicinal species whose phenolic compounds exert antioxidant activity. Since the production of metabolites is determined by environmental factors and leaf maturity, it is important to track these changes in order to determine the best time to harvest. This study aimed to verify whether leaf phenology and seasonality cause variations in the amount of phenolic compounds and in the antioxidant activity of this species. The leaves were collected in different seasons between September 2018 and April 2019, and separated according to maturity: young, mature, and senescent. Daily atmospheric temperature and rainfall data were used to characterize the collection period. The total phenolic content (TPC), determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was significantly higher in the young leaves collected in winter, a season of lower temperatures. These leaves showed 54.4 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry matter (mg GAE 100 g-1DM). Other results averaged 25.6 mg GAE 100 g-1DM. The highest antioxidant activity, assessed via the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, regardless of leaf phenology, was observed in leaves harvested in autumn (73.7%) and winter (71.1%), seasons with lower rainfall. Leaves harvested in summer and spring had lower antioxidant action rates (54.3 e 37.5%, respectively). There was no significant correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Thus, the phenolic composition of A. cordifolia, and consequently its activity on free radicals, varies seasonally in response to temperature and rainfall, and may or may not interact with the age of the leaves.


Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis é uma trepadeira nativa do Brasil considerada uma planta alimentícia não convencional e uma espécie medicinal, cujos compostos fenólicos exercem ação antioxidante. Como a produção de metabólitos é determinada por fatores ambientais e pela maturidade das folhas, é importante acompanhar essas mudanças a fim de determinar a época de colheita. Neste estudo objetivou-se verificar se a fenologia foliar e a sazonalidade ocasionam variação na quantidade de compostos fenólicos e na ação antioxidante dessa espécie. As folhas foram coletadas em diferentes estações, entre setembro de 2018 e abril de 2019, e separadas conforme a maturidade: jovens, maduras e senescentes. Os dados diários de temperatura atmosférica e pluviosidade foram usados para caracterizar o período de coleta. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais (TPC), determinado pelo método Folin-Ciocalteu, foi significativamente maior nas folhas jovens coletadas no inverno, período caracterizado por temperaturas mais baixas. Estas folhas apresentaram 54,4 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico por 100 g de matéria seca (mg GAE 100 g-1DM) . A média dos outros resultados foi de 25,6 mg GAE 100 g-1DM. A maior ação antioxidante, avaliada pelo método do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), foi observada em folhas colhidas no outono (73,7%) e inverno (71,1%), independentemente da fenologia foliar. Nestes períodos a pluviosidade foi menor. Folhas colhidas no verão e na primavera apresentaram menores percentuais de ação antioxidante (54,3 e 37,5%, respectivamente). Não houve correlação significativa entre o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante. Conclui-se que a composição fenólica de A. cordifolia e, consequentemente, sua ação sobre radicais livres, varia sazonalmente em resposta à temperatura e pluviosidade, podendo ou não interagir com a idade das folhas.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Compostos Fenólicos , Antioxidantes
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) is botanically classified as a herbaceous biennial belonging to the Chenopodiaceae family and has several varieties with bulb colors ranging from yellow to red. Peroxidases are widely occurring in organisms including microorganisms, plants, and animals, and have been involved in various physiological and biochemical functions. OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of enzyme extracts from red beet leaves, root pulp, and peel. METHODOLOGY: The enzyme extraction involved the homogenization of the sample and filtrate in cold acetone and then the filtrate was homogenized in 0.1M sodium acetate buffer, pH 7. The protein content was determined using the Lowry assay using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a standard protein. Then, enzymatic activity was determined by peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and catalase assays. The antioxidant activities of the enzyme extract were conducted by using DPPH and hydrogen peroxide free radical scavenging activities. RESULTS: The result indicated that the Enzymatic activity of crude enzyme extract of red beet leaf, root pulp and peel indicated that significantly the highest total soluble protein (16.68mg/ml), peroxidase activity (PODA, 111.50U/ml), polyphenol oxidase activity (PPOA, 170.90U/ml), polyphenol oxidase specific activity (PPOspa, 10.25U/mg), catalase activity (CATA, 180.50U/ml) and catalase specific activity (CATspa, 10.82U/mg), were recorded for red beet leaf enzyme extract. The antioxidant activity of the enzyme extracts demonstrated that significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activity of leaf extract (59.16) and peel extract (61.92) were recorded. The Pearson correlation coefficient of enzyme activity parameters and free radical scavenging activities presented that protein content was significantly and positively correlated with CATA, PPOA, and PPOspa. Catalase-specific activity (CATspa) was significant and positively correlated only with HPSA. Peroxidase-specific activity (PODspa) was significant and positively correlated with PODA and DPPH. Based on the plot for principal component PC2 vs PC1 for D statistics DPPH, PODA, and PODspa have close PC1 and PC2 scores (with vector angle [90]^0) showing similar/correlated effects. CONCLUSION: In this study, B. vulgaris has shown promising peroxidase enzyme activity. Beetroot peel contained higher antioxidant compounds thus promising a more intense utilization of the peels in food and nutraceuticals.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708493

RESUMO

Selenium in the form of selenoproteins is formed through a unique translocation recoding pathway and plays a vital role in human metabolism. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) when synthesized using green synthesis from plant extract offer more advantages than physical and chemical methods. Previous studies have synthesized selenium nanoparticles from green tea and white tea; here, we report the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles from Camillia sinensis (L) Kuntze leaves (black tea) by green synthesis. Moreover, we have tested the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the plant extract, SeNPs, and combination of plant extract and SeNPs which have not been previously studied. The antimicrobial efficacy of SeNPs was tested against Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida albicans, and Staphylococcus aureus. They showed inhibitory effects against these organisms individually and in combination with Camellia sinensis leaf extract. The antioxidant properties of SeNPs were checked using FRAP and DPPH assays, where high radical scavenging activity was exhibited by SeNPs and in combination with the plant extract. Furthermore, synthesized SeNPs were examined for cytotoxicity tolerance against Vero cells and their IC50 values determine that plant-mediated SeNPs showed high cytotoxicity at minimal concentrations. If explored further, the reducing, capping, and stabilizing capabilities of SeNPs may demonstrate other inhibitory effects and could be explored for understanding the role of selenium in cellular metabolism.

4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ginger and its extracts have been frequently used in food processing and pharmaceuticals. However, the influence of ginger and its key compounds on benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) production in meat processing has not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of application of ginger and its important active ingredients on BaP formation and the mechanism of inhibiting BaP formation in charcoal-grilled pork sausages. RESULTS: The DPPH scavenging (23.59-59.67%) activity and the inhibition rate of BaP (42.1-68.9%) were significantly increased ( P < 0.05) with increasing ginger addition. The active components extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide from ginger were identified by GC-MS and 14 representative compounds (four terpenes, two alcohols, two aldehydes, four phenols, two other compounds and totaled 77.57% of the detected compounds) were selected. The phenolic compounds (eugenol, 6-gingerol, 6-paradol and 6-shogaol, account for 29.73% of the total composition) in ginger played key role and had the strongest inhibitory effect on BaP (61.2-68.2%), whereas other four kinds of compounds showed obviously feeble inhibitory activity (6.47%-17.9%). Charcoal-grilled sausages with phenolic substances had lower value of TBARS, carbonyl and diene (three classic indicators of lipid oxidation) ( P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Ginger and its key compounds could effectively inhibit the formation of BaP in charcoal-grilled pork sausages. Phenolic compounds have the strongest contribution to the inhibition of Bap formation, and the inhibitory mechanism was related to the inhibition of lipid oxidation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Food Chem ; 412: 135545, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708669

RESUMO

Mannans are polysaccharides whose physicochemical and biological properties render them commercialization in several products. Since these properties are strongly dependent on production conditions, the present study aims to assess the impact of different drying technologies - freeze (FDM) and spray drying (SDM) - on the structural, physicochemical, and biological properties of mannans from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Structural analysis was assessed by FT-IR, PXRD and SEM, whereas physicochemical properties were evaluated based on sugars, protein, ash and water contents, solubility, and molecular weight distribution. Thermal behaviour was analysed by DSC, and antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS assays. The parameters which revealed major differences, in terms of structural and physicochemical properties regarded morphology (SEM), physical appearance (colour), moisture (3.6 ± 0.1 % and 11.9 ± 0.6 % for FDM and SDM, respectively) and solubility (1 mg/mL for FDM and 25 mg/mL for SDM). Nevertheless, these differences were not translated into the antioxidant capacity.

6.
Mar Drugs ; 21(1)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662222

RESUMO

In this study, we studied the bioactive peptides produced by thermolysin hydrolysis of a water-soluble protein (WSP) from the red alga Gracilariopsis chorda, whose major components are phycobiliproteins and Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (RuBisCo). The results showed that WSP hydrolysate exhibited significantly higher ACE inhibitory activity (92% inhibition) compared to DPP-IV inhibitory activity and DPPH scavenging activity. The phycobiliproteins and RuBisCo of G. chorda contain a high proportion of hydrophobic (31.0-46.5%) and aromatic (5.1-46.5%) amino acid residues, which was considered suitable for the formation of peptides with strong ACE inhibitory activity. Therefore, we searched for peptides with strong ACE inhibitory activity and identified two novel peptides (IDHY and LVVER). Then, their interaction with human ACE was evaluated by molecular docking, and IDHY was found to be a promising inhibitor. In silico analysis was then performed on the structural factors affecting ACE inhibitory peptide release, using the predicted 3D structures of phycobiliproteins and RuBisCo. The results showed that most of the ACE inhibitory peptides are located in the highly solvent accessible α-helix. Therefore, it was suggested that G. chorda is a good source of bioactive peptides, especially ACE-inhibitory peptides.


Assuntos
Rodófitas , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Rodófitas/metabolismo , Ficobiliproteínas , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674926

RESUMO

The antioxidant activity and chemical stability of 6-amino-6-deoxy-L-ascorbic acid (D1) and N-methyl-6-amino-6-deoxy-L-ascorbic acid (D2) were examined with ABTS and DPPH assays and compared with the reference L-ascorbic acid (AA). In addition, the optimal storing conditions, as well as the pH at which the amino derivatives maintain stability, were determined using mass spectrometry. Comparable antioxidant activities were observed for NH-bioisosteres and AA. Moreover, D1 showed higher stability in an acidic medium than the parent AA. In addition, AA, D1, and D2 share the same docking profile, with wild-type human peroxiredoxin as a model system. Their docking scores are similar to those of dithiothreitol (DTT). This suggests a similar binding affinity to the human peroxiredoxin binding site.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Humanos , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
8.
Pharmaceutics ; 15(1)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678923

RESUMO

(1) Background: Eudraguard® Natural (EN) and Protect (EP) are polymers regulated for use in dietary supplements in the European Union and the United States to carry natural products, mask unpleasant smells and tastes, ameliorate product handling, and protect products from moisture, light, and oxidation. Moreover, EN and EP can control the release of encapsulated compounds. The aim of this work was the development, preparation, and control of Eudraguard® spray-drying microparticles to obtain powders with easy handling and a stable dietary supplement containing a polar functional extract (SOE) from Sorbus domestica L. leaves. (2) Methods: SOE was characterized using HPLC, NMR, FTIR, DSC, and SEM methods. Furthermore, the SOE's antioxidant/free radical scavenging activity, α-glucosidase inhibition, MTT assay effect on viability in normal cells, and shelf life were evaluated in both the extract and final formulations. (3) Results: The data suggested that SOE, rich in flavonoids, is a bioactive and safe extract; however, from a technological point of view, it was sticky, difficult to handle, and had low aqueous solubility. Despite the fact that EN and EP may undergo changes with spray-drying, they effectively produced easy-to-handle micro-powders with a controlled release profile. Although EN had a weaker capability to coat SOE than EP, EN acted as a substrate that was able to swell, drawing in water and improving the extract solubility and dissolution/release; however, EP was also able to carry the extract and provide SOE with controlled release. (4) Conclusion: Both Eudraguard® products were capable of carrying SOE and improving its antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities, as well as the extract stability and handling.

9.
Environ Res ; 221: 115237, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36632885

RESUMO

Pineapple peel waste (PPW) is obtained in huge quantities out of pineapple canning industries and it is found to be rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity and an opulent source of bromelain protein having commercial importance. To fulfil the purpose, microwave assisted extraction was considered. Three parameters varied were solvent to substrate ratio, microwave power and extraction time. The independent variables were solvent to substrate ratio (10:1 mL/g to 20:1 mL/g), microwave power (300 W-600 W) and extraction time (40 min-50 min). Optimization was done with three factors and three level Box- Behnken Design (BBD). Each of the experiment has been analysed for Total phenolic content (TPC), Total flavonoid content (TFC), Total tannin content (TTC) as well as for protein content. The Folin- Ciocalteu method was utilized for analysing TPC, TTC and the colorimetric method (AlCl3) was used for the analysis of TFC, protein content was analysed by lowry's method and antioxidant activity making use of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The p values were less than 0.05 which showed all the four models were significant. The experimental values and the predicted values were harmonious for the optimum conditions. The optimum condition obtained out of BBD were solvent to substrate ratio of 20:1 mL/g, microwave power of 600 W and extraction time 40 min. Antioxidant activity for the extract was found out by DPPH assay under the optimized conditions was 75% along with proteolytic activity of bromelain as 1647.612 GDUgconcentrate-1.

10.
Pharmacol Rep ; 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36719636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Necroptosis inhibitors, including necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), are attracting attention as potential therapeutic agents against various diseases, such as acute lung injury, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute kidney injury, nonalcoholic fatty liver, and neurodegenerative disease, where necroptosis is thought to act as a contributing factor. Nec-1 suppresses necroptosis by inhibiting receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1 kinase and can also reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms mediating ROS reduction remain unclear. METHODS: The antioxidant effects of necroptosis inhibitors, including Nec-1 and apoptosis inhibitors, were quantified by performing a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Nec-1-related compounds were subsequently assayed for cupric ion-reducing capacity and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. RESULTS: Considering all examined apoptosis and necroptosis inhibitors, Nec-1and Nec-1i exhibited antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging assay. In the cupric ion-reducing capacity assay, Nec-1i showed stronger antioxidant capacity than Nec-1. In the SOD-like activity assay, both Nec-1 and Nec-1i were found to have stronger antioxidant capacity than ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.6 ± 0.040 and 61 ± 0.54 µM, respectively). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Nec-1 and Nec-1i may exhibit direct radical scavenging ability against superoxide anions, independent of RIP1 inhibition.

11.
J Oleo Sci ; 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631100

RESUMO

Due to over worldwide use of frying oil, and due to its oxidation and deterioration after the usage for short time, huge oil amounts are wasted. So, most attempts are aimed to increase oil stability. Quercetin is a common name for the lipophobic strong natural phenolic antioxidant 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one. Thus, its solubility had been improved by converting it to a lipophilic compound via its appending to a fatty acid residue. So, regioselectively 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-3-[Hexadecanyl]oxychromen-4-one commonly named as (Quercetin-3-palmitate) was synthesized. The formed compound was confirmed based on its elemental analysis and spectral data (IR, 1H NMR and MS). The partition coefficient of Quercetin-3-palmitate in octanol/ water (k) was determined and compared to that of palmitic acid and quercetin individually to prove its solubility enhancement. Its radical scavenging activity was then tested. The effect of this new antioxidant compound on the oil stability was studied through the frying process. All physical and chemical parameters of this oil were considered before and after the frying process compared to another reference antioxidant (TBHQ) and control sample. The safety of this compound was determined by acute oral toxicity using albino mice. The liver and kidney functions of these mice were also examined. The results showed non-significant change. A sensory evaluation of the fried potato chips has been done. The results showed that the properties of the potato chips were improved by adding Quercetin-3-palmitate to the oil. Thus, good protection against frying oils oxidation was achieved via the addition of Quercetin-3-palmitate. The Quercetin-3-palmitate effectiveness is mainly attributed to its stability at high temperatures. Moreover, Quercetin-3-palmitate was found to be a safe compound according to an acute lethal toxicity test. Consequently, it can be used as a food additive.

12.
Chem Biodivers ; 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692091

RESUMO

Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng, known as the Indian borage or Mexican mint, is one of the most documented species in the family Lamiaceae for its therapeutic and pharmaceutical values. It is found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The leaf essential oil has immense medicinal benefits like treating illnesses of the skin and disorders like colds, asthma, constipation, headaches, coughs, and fevers. After analyzing earlier reports with regard to the quantity and quality of leaf oil yield, we discovered that the germplasm taken from Odisha is preferable to other germplasms.  The objective of the present work is to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and bactericidal effect of leaf essential oil (EO) of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng collected from the state of Odisha, India. The hydro distillation technique has been used for essential oil extraction. Upon GC/MS analysis, approximately 57 compounds were identified with Carvacrol as the major compound (peak area=20.25%), followed by p-thymol (peak area= 20.17%), o-cymene (peak area=19.41%) and carene (peak area= 15.89%). On evaluation of free radical scavenging activity, it was recorded that the best value of inhibitory concentration, was for DPPH with IC50 = 18.64 ppm and for H2O2 with IC50 = 9.35 ppm.  The EO showed efficient bactericidal effect against both gram positive (Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium) and gram negative (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria studied through well diffusion method. Fumigatory action of the essential oil was found against M. smegmatis, the model organism for tuberculosis study. Alamar Blue assay, gave a result with MIC value for M. smegmatis i.e., 0.12 µg/ml and the MBC value of 0.12 µg/ml. Hence, P. amboinicus found in Odisha can be suggested as an elite variety and should be further investigated for efficient administration in drug formulation.

13.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 12(1)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671023

RESUMO

Feralolide, a dihydroisocoumarin, was isolated from the methanolic extract of resin of Aloe&nbsp;vera. The present study aims to investigate the in vivo ability of feralolide to ameliorate memory impairment induced by scopolamine using a battery of in vitro assays, such as antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition, and in vivo animal models, including elevated plus maze, Morris water maze, passive avoidance, and novel object recognition tests. Feralolide caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of AChE and BuChE enzymes with IC50 values of 55 and 52 µg/mL, respectively, and antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) with IC50 values 170 and 220 µg/mL, respectively. Feralolide reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia as indicated by a dose-dependent decrease in escape latency, path length, and passing frequency in the Morris water maze test compared with the relevant control. The compound also significantly increased the discrimination index in a dose-dependent manner in NORT and decreased transfer latency in EPM, reflective of its memory-enhancing effect. Furthermore, feralolide also caused significant dose-dependent elevation in the step-down latency (SDL) in the passive avoidance test. The results indicated that feralolide might be a helpful memory restorative mediator in treating cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

14.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 12(1)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671036

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that salinity eustress enhances the nutritional and bioactive compounds and antiradical capacity (ARC) of vegetables and increases the food values for nourishing human diets. Amaranth is a salinity-resistant, rapidly grown C4 leafy vegetable with diverse variability and usage. It has a high possibility to enhance nutritional and bioactive compounds and ARC by the application of salinity eustress. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of sodium chloride stress response in a selected Lalshak (A. gangeticus) genotype on minerals, ascorbic acid (AsA), Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity, beta-carotene (BC), total flavonoids (TF), pigments, polyphenolic profiles, and ARC. A high-yield, high-ARC genotype (LS6) was grown under conditions of 0, 25, 50, and 100 mM sodium chloride in four replicates following a block design with complete randomization. We recognized nine copious polyphenolic compounds in this accession for the first time. Minerals, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity, AsA, BC, pigments, polyphenolic profiles, and ARC of Lalshak were augmented progressively in the order: 0 < 25 < 50 < 100 mM sodium chloride. At 50 mM and 100 mM salt concentrations, minerals, AsA, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity, BC, TF, pigments, polyphenolic profiles, and ARC of Lalshak were much greater than those of the control. Lalshak could be used as valuable food for human diets as a potent antioxidant. Sodium chloride-enriched Lalshak provided outstanding quality to the final product in terms of minerals, AsA, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity, BC, TF, pigments, polyphenolic profiles, and ARC. We can cultivate it as a promising alternative crop in salinity-prone areas of the world.

15.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 12(1)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671051

RESUMO

This study reports on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity as well as the phenolic compounds that are present in Calothamnus spp. (Red Bell), Agonis flexuosa (Coastal Peppermint), Corymbia calophylla (Marri) and Eucalyptus marginata (Jarrah) honeys from Western Australia. The honey's total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu assay, while their total antioxidant activity was determined using FRAP and DPPH assays. Phenolic constituents were identified using a High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HTPLC)-derived phenolic database, and the identified phenolic compounds were quantified using HPTLC. Finally, constituents that contribute to the honeys' antioxidant activity were identified using a DPPH-HPTLC bioautography assay. Based on the results, Calothamnus spp. honey (n = 8) was found to contain the highest (59.4 ± 7.91 mg GAE/100 g) TPC, followed by Eucalyptus marginata honey (50.58 ± 3.76 mg GAE/100 g), Agonis flexuosa honey (36.08 ± 4.2 mg GAE/100 g) and Corymbia calophylla honey (29.15 ± 5.46 mg GAE/100 g). In the FRAP assay, Calothamnus spp. honey also had the highest activity (9.24 ± 1.68 mmol Fe2+/kg), followed by Eucalyptus marginata honey (mmol Fe2+/kg), whereas Agonis flexuosa (5.45 ± 1.64 mmol Fe2+/kg) and Corymbia calophylla honeys (4.48 ± 0.82 mmol Fe2+/kg) had comparable FRAP activity. In the DPPH assay, when the mean values were compared, it was found that Calothamnus spp. honey again had the highest activity (3.88 ± 0.96 mmol TE/kg) while the mean DPPH antioxidant activity of Eucalyptus marginata, Agonis flexuosa, and Corymbia calophylla honeys were comparable. Kojic acid and epigallocatechin gallate were found in all honeys, whilst other constituents (e.g., m-coumaric acid, lumichrome, gallic acid, taxifolin, luteolin, epicatechin, hesperitin, eudesmic acid, syringic acid, protocatechuic acid, t-cinnamic acid, o-anisic acid) were only identified in some of the honeys. DPPH-HPTLC bioautography demonstrated that most of the identified compounds possess antioxidant activity, except for t-cinnamic acid, eudesmic acid, o-anisic acid, and lumichrome.

16.
J Food Sci Technol ; 60(1): 243-251, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36618040

RESUMO

This study is aimed to determine and compare the antioxidant activity of Orange Peel Powder (OPP) in ghee at different temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C and 60 °C) for divergent storage periods (0, 7, 14 and 21 days). To compare the antioxidant potentiality, synthetic antioxidant BHA (Butylated Hydroxy Anisole) is used. Twelve ghee samples were prepared where one was control, another one was BHA treated and the rest ten were admixing OPP in ghee at different ratios. After sensory evaluation three highest scored ghee samples (0.5%. 1.0% and 1.5%) were selected. Samples were analyzed for peroxide (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), free fatty acids (FFA) value and radical scavenging activity. Though storage temperature and storage period were increased OPP treated ghee samples peroxide, TBA and FFA values were lowered significantly compared to control samples. Moreover, 1.0% and 1.5% OPP treated ghee samples such values were lowered than BHA treated ghee samples and all these are on the favor of ghee quality. OPP treated ghee samples' DPPH quench potentiality is also stronger than BHA treated ghee samples. Therefore, OPP is a great source of antioxidants and this can be used in ghee as a natural source of antioxidants.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625947

RESUMO

The goal of the current study was to investigate the antioxidant, anti-ulcer, and analgesic properties of a metal-curcumin complex (MCC) utilizing different mouse and rat models. The antioxidant component of the analysis was completed in vitro, whereas the other activities were completed in vivo. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging test, the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay were used to measure the antioxidant activity. MCC demonstrated potent radical scavenging abilities. In all three experiments, Trolox served as the reference substance. When curcumin's radical scavenging abilities were compared, it became clear that MCC was a superior radical scavenger. Using the ethanol-induced technique on Sprague-Dawley rats, the anti-ulcerogenic effect was assessed. It shows that at an oral dosage of 100 mg/kg body weight, MCC might provide gastroprotection (b.w.). Additionally, we have examined MCC's potential as an analgesic. Swiss albino mice were used to measure the analgesic activity of MCC using the hot plate technique. At an oral dosage of 50 mg/kg b.w., MCC displayed analgesic efficacy. As a result, MCC could be useful in the management of inflammatory diseases.

18.
Food Sci Nutr ; 11(1): 137-147, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655088

RESUMO

Flaxseed polysaccharide gum (FPG) was extracted through the ultrasound-assisted process using water as a solvent with a yield ranging from 8.05 ± 0.32% to 12.23 ± 0.45% by changing different extraction variables. The extracted FPG was analyzed for its functional groups and antioxidant potential. The maximum DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity (≈100%) of FPG was noted at concentrations beyond ≈10 mg·ml-1. The maximum inhibition percentage through ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (72.4% ± 1.9%) was noted at 40 mg·ml-1, which was observed to be less when compared to DPPH at the same concentration. The total antioxidant potential of the FPG solution at a concentration of 10 mg·ml-1 was equivalent to 461 mg ascorbic acid, which tends to increase with concentration at a much lower scope. The in vivo trial suggested that the least weight gain was noted in experimental groups G2 and Gh2. A significant reduction in total cholesterol was noticed in G1 (-14.14%) and G2 (-17.72%) and in Gh1 (-22.02%) and Gh2 (-34.68%) after 60 days of the trial compared to the baseline values. The maximum reduction in total triglyceride was observed in Gh2 (-25.06%) and Gh1 (-22.01%) after 60 days of the trial. It was an increasing trend in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in different experimental groups G2 (10.51%) than G1 (5.35%) and Gh2 (48.96%) and Gh1 (31.11%), respectively, after 60 days of study interval. Reduction of -5.05% and - 9.45% was observed in G1 and G2, while similar results were observed in Gh1 and Gh2. Conclusively, results suggested a possible protective role of FPG against hyperlipidemia.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indole and its derivatives have a wide range of pharmacological effects, including analgesic, antimicrobial, antidepressant, anti-diabetic, anti-convulsant, anti-helminthic, and anti-inflammatory properties. They are crucial structural components of many of today's powerful antioxidant medications. OBJECTIVE: Using the Schotten-Baumann reaction, the indole ring was linked to other key heterocyclic moieties such as morpholine, imidazole, piperidine, and piperazine at the active 3rd position and then tested for antioxidant activity. METHOD: Synthesis of derivatives was accomplished under appropriate conditions and characterized by IR, NMR (1H and 13C), and mass spectrum. Using the Swiss ADME online application, ADME properties were also determined. In vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH method and Reducing power method was used. RESULTS: In the DPPH assay, compounds 5a (IC50=1.01±0.22 µg/mL), 5k (IC50=1.21±0.07µg/mL), whereas compounds 5a (EC50=23±1.00 µg/mL), 5h (EC50=26±2.42 µg/mL) in the reducing power assay were most potent as compared with standard Ascorbic acid. Compounds 5a, 5h, and 5k demonstrated maximal potency equivalent to standard. Lipinski's rule was followed in ADME outcomes. CONCLUSION: The synthesis and evaluation of indole derivatives to investigate their antioxidant action has received a lot of attention. These discoveries could lead to more effective antioxidant candidates being designed and developed.

20.
Ind Crops Prod ; 191: 115944, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405420

RESUMO

Due to the pandemics of COVID-19, herbal medicine has recently been explored for possible antiviral treatment and prevention via novel platform of microbial fuel cells. It was revealed that Coffea arabica leaves was very appropriate for anti-COVID-19 drug development. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory tests exhibited the most promising activities for C. arabica ethanol extracts and drying approaches were implemented on the leaf samples prior to ethanol extraction. Ethanol extracts of C. arabica leaves were applied to bioenergy evaluation via DC-MFCs, clearly revealing that air-dried leaves (CA-A-EtOH) exhibited the highest bioenergy-stimulating capabilities (ca. 2.72 fold of power amplification to the blank). Furthermore, molecular docking analysis was implemented to decipher the potential of C. arabica leaves metabolites. Chlorogenic acid (-6.5 kcal/mol) owned the highest binding affinity with RdRp of SARS-CoV-2, showing a much lower average RMSF value than an apoprotein. This study suggested C. arabica leaves as an encouraging medicinal herb against SARS-CoV-2.

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