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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116595

RESUMO

This study was meant to describe a Poloxamer hydrogel combining Chitosan-N-acetyl-L-cysteine (CNAC) nanoparticles to increase loading and sustained intravitreal administration of Avastin macromolecule. To increase the drug's efficacy and reduce the interfacial fluid pressure in a formulation, dexamethasone was used. To do so, CNAC was synthesized. Then, Avastin- loaded CNAC nanoparticles were prepared and optimized. The resulting hydrogel's sol-gel transition time and viscosity were determined using poloxamer and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). In vitro and in vivo investigations of Avastin-loaded CNAC nanoparticles and hydrogel comprising dexamethasone/Avastin-loaded CNAC nanoparticles were determined. In vitro, the drug release profile of optimized hydrogel containing Avastin-loaded CNAC nanoparticles was sustained and controlled over 256 h. The obtained results point to poloxamer/HPMC (18 %/0.5 %) as the best formulations for this hydrogel to develop a sol-gel transition. About 97 % of dexamethasone was released from the hydrogel within 18 h. In vivo results indicated that the optimized formulation compared with free Avastin could improve Diabetic retinopathy (DR). Consequently, we infer that this new drug delivery method may enhance Avastin intravitreal administration, lowering the frequency, danger, and expense of heavy intravitreal injections and resulting in improved treatment of posterior eye segment neovascularization and concomitant vitreoretinal disorders.

2.
Clin Exp Emerg Med ; 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116775

RESUMO

Objective: Steroids are used in cases of sepsis, especially in patients experiencing septic shock. However, clinical trials to date have reported contradictory results. Different patient endotypes and variations in the type and dose of steroid may be at fault for this discrepancy, and further investigation is warranted. In this paper, we propose a new DEXA-SEPSIS study design. Methods: We plan to conduct a multicenter, double-blinded randomized pilot study (DEXA-SEPSIS) investigating the feasibility and safety of early use of dexamethasone in sepsis. Participants will be high-risk septic patients presenting to the emergency department with a systolic blood pressure of <90 mmHg or serum lactate level of >2 mmol/L. Participants will be randomized to the following three groups: control, 0.1 mg/kg of dexamethasone, or 0.2 mg/kg of dexamethasone per day for 1 to 2 days. The primary outcome will be 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes will include time to septic shock, shock reversal, additional steroid administration, number of ventilator-free days, use of continuous renal-replacement therapy, length of stay in the intensive care unit and/or hospital, delta Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score on days 3 and 7, superinfection, gastrointestinal bleeding, hypernatremia, and hyperglycemia. Discussion: The DEXA-SEPSIS study will provide insight regarding the feasibility and safety of early use of dexamethasone in high-risk sepsis. The results could provide data to design a future phase III study. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT05136560.

3.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721221127159, 2022 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120856

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To report a successful application of dexamethasone implants in the treatment of a massive amount of persistent subretinal fluid (SRF) following a tractional retinal detachment (TRD) surgery. CASE REPORT: A 44-year-old woman was found to have SRF 1 week after a diabetic TRD surgery. The central macular thickness (CMT) reached up to 1.47 mm and remained high after a month's observation. For better restoration, 2 dexamethasone implants (Ozurdex) were applied at postoperative week 5 and 32 respectively and got good outcomes. The SRF decrease showed a close correlation with Ozurdex treatments: The CMT declined quickly in the next 16 weeks both after 2 times of Ozurdex applications (the linear regression slopes of CMT changes: -12.54 and -22.94, respectively). In contrast, in the interval of 2 injections, the CMT had few changes (the slope: -4.667) even if applying an anti-VEGF agent. Eventually, SRF was completely resolved 48 weeks after the surgery. DISCUSSION: Dexamethasone implant can be an option for effective treatment of persistent SRF after TRD repair, especially in some refractory cases. However, the mechanism remains unclear, and the treatment regimen needs to be explored based on more clinical trials.

4.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 249, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening disease caused by the induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the lungs. There is a dearth of drug applications that can be used to prevent cytokine storms in ARDS treatment. This study was designed to investigate the effects of tocilizumab and dexamethasone on oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and cytokine storms in acute lung injury caused by oleic acid in rats. METHODS: Adult male rats were divided into five groups: the CN (healthy rats, n = 6), OA (oleic acid administration, n = 6), OA + TCZ-2 (oleic acid and tocilizumab at 2 mg/kg, n = 6), OA + TCZ-4 (oleic acid and tocilizumab at 4 mg/kg, n = 6), and OA + DEX-10 (oleic acid and dexamethasone at 10 mg/kg, n = 6) groups. All animals were euthanized after treatment for histopathological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, PCR, and SEM analyses. RESULTS: Expressions of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8 cytokines in rats with acute lung injury induced by oleic acid were downregulated in the TCZ and DEX groups compared to the OA group (P < 0.05). The MDA level in lung tissues was statistically lower in the OA + TCZ-4 group compared to the OA group. It was further determined that SOD, GSH, and CAT levels were decreased in the OA group and increased in the TCZ and DEX groups (P < 0.05). Histopathological findings such as thickening of the alveoli, hyperemia, and peribronchial cell infiltration were found to be similar when lung tissues of the TCZ and DEX groups were compared to the control group. With SEM imaging of the lung tissues, it was found that the alveolar lining layer had become indistinct in the OA, OA + TCZ-2, and OA + TCZ-4 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this model of acute lung injury caused by oleic acid, tocilizumab and dexamethasone were effective in preventing cytokine storms by downregulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8. Against the downregulation of antioxidant parameters such as SOD and GSH in the lung tissues caused by oleic acid, tocilizumab and dexamethasone upregulated them and showed protective effects against cell damage.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Citocinas/farmacologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo , Interleucina-6 , Interleucina-8 , Pulmão , Masculino , Ácido Oleico/toxicidade , Ratos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/tratamento farmacológico , Superóxido Dismutase , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima
5.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 15(9): 1511-1519, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124196

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept with dexamethasone implant in the treatment of macular edema (ME) associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) or retinal vein occlusion (RVO). METHODS: A comprehensive search of studies comparing dexamethasone and aflibercept in patients with ME was conducted at PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from the beginning of library to April 16, 2021. Extracting the data including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), number of injections and serious adverse events (SAEs) from the final qualified articles. RevMan 5.3 software was used for Meta-analysis of the included studies. RESULTS: Totally 7 studies with 369 eyes were included. The causes of ME in the final screening study included RVO and DR. Compared with the aflibercept treatment group, the BCVA of the dexamethasone implant treatment group showed no significant difference in the follow-up for 3mo [mean difference (MD): -0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11, 0.02; P=0.17] and 12mo (MD: -0.01, 95%CI: -0.38, 0.37; P=0.98), but it was slightly worse than the aflibercept group at 6mo (MD: 0.12, 95%CI: 0.03, 0.21; P=0.008). In terms of CRT reduction, there was no significant difference between the two groups at 3mo (MD: -28.14, 95%CI: -79.95, 23.67; P=0.29), 6mo (MD: 27.67, 95%CI: -84.89, 140.24; P=0.63), and 12mo (MD: -59.00, 95%CI: -127.37, 9.37; P=0.09). However, dexamethasone implant had fewer injections, but more adverse events such as elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and cataract. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal injection of aflibercept and dexamethasone implant can both effectively increase BCVA and reduce CRT. Compared with aflibercept, dexamethasone implant is not inferior in improving vision and reducing CRT in the initial treatment period (3mo) and long-term treatment period (12mo). Besides, it has fewer injections and more likely to cause elevated IOP and cataract.

6.
Cancer Med ; 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127823

RESUMO

Previous studies showed antitumor activity for plitidepsin plus dexamethasone (DXM) in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (r/r MM), and in vitro synergism with bortezomib (BTZ) or DXM against MM cells. This phase I trial evaluated plitidepsin (3-h intravenous infusion Day 1 and 15), BTZ (subcutaneous bolus Day 1, 4, 8, and 11), and DXM (orally Day 1, 8, 15, and 22), every 4 weeks in 36 r/r MM patients. Twenty-two patients were treated using a standard dose escalation design (10 at the recommended dose [RD] cohort), and 14 additional patients were treated to expand the RD cohort. No dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) occurred during dose escalation. The highest dose level evaluated (plitidepsin 5.0 mg/m2 , BTZ 1.3 mg/m2 , DXM 40.0 mg) was the RD for phase II studies. Results shown herein are focused on this RD. Two patients had DLTs (grade 3 diarrhea, and grade 3 nausea/vomiting refractory to antiemetic therapy). Grade ≥ 3 hematological toxicity (thrombocytopenia 46%, anemia 33%, and neutropenia 17%) was manageable and did not result in treatment discontinuation. Transient and manageable grade 3 ALT increase (26%) was the most common biochemical abnormality. At the RD cohort, overall response rate was 22.2% (95%CI, 6.4%-47.6%), including one stringent complete response, one very good partial response, and two partial responses in r/r patients to BTZ and/or lenalidomide. The clinical benefit rate was 77.8% (95%CI, 52.4-93.6%). No major pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction was found. In conclusion, the triple combination of plitidepsin, BTZ, and DXM showed an acceptable safety profile and had moderate activity in adult patients with r/r MM.

7.
J Physiol Biochem ; 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125698

RESUMO

Prolonged dexamethasone (DEX) administration causes skeletal muscle atrophy through induction of both oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is a recognized antioxidant but its effect against DEX-induced muscle atrophy has not been studied yet. This study aimed to assess the potential ameliorating effect of LXA4 on DEX-induced muscle atrophy and investigate the possible involvement of the mitochondrial dynamics pathway and the redox state in this effect. Forty male rats were divided into four groups; normal control, LXA4-treated, DEX-treated, and LXA4 plus DEX-treated. At the end of the experiment, LXA4 counteracted the effect of DEX on different parameters including muscle weight, muscle strength, serum creatine kinase activity, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, Na/K-ATPase and citrate synthase activities, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, mitochondrial transcription factor (TFAM), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). These findings signify the promising therapeutic effect of LXA4 against DEX-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and indicate the possible involvement of LXA4-induced mitochondrial activation in addition to its well-known antioxidant effects.

8.
Eur J Cancer ; 174: 243-250, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is a heterogeneous disease in terms of progression to myeloma (MM), but its standard of care continues to be observation. METHODS: The QuiRedex phase 3 trial initiated in 2007 included 119 high-risk patients with SMM randomized to treatment or observation. Treatment consisted of nine 4-week induction cycles (lenalidomide [Rd], 25 mg on days 1-21 plus dexamethasone, 20 mg on days 1-4 and 12-15), followed by maintenance (R, 10 mg on days 1-21) for up to 2 years. The primary end-point was time to progression (TTP) to myeloma based on per protocol population. Secondary end-points were overall survival (OS), response rate, and safety. An update of the trial after a long-term follow-up is presented here. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00480363). FINDINGS: After a median follow-up time of 12.5 years (range: 10.4-13.6), the median TTP to MM was 2.1 years in the observation arm and 9.5 years in the Rd arm (HR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.18-0.44, p < 0.0001). The median OS was 8.5 years in the abstention arm and not reached in the Rd group (HR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34-0.95, p = 0.032). Patients who progressed received optimized treatments according to the standards of care, and the OS from progression was comparable in both arms (p = 0.96). INTERPRETATION: This analysis confirms that early treatment with Rd for high-risk SMM translates into a sustained benefit in both TTP and OS. FUNDING: Pethema (Spanish Program for the Treatment of Hematologic Diseases), Spain.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Mieloma Múltiplo Latente , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo Latente/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo Latente/etiologia , Tiamina
9.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 292, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109691

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To observe the effect of different antiemetic drugs for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after gynaecological day surgery under remimazolam general anesthesia. METHODS: One hundred ninety-two patients were selected for gynaecological day surgery and randomly divided into three groups: droperidol group (DD group), tropisetron group (DT group) and control group (DC group). Flurbiprofen axetil 50 mg and dexamethasone 5 mg were given intravenously before induction of anesthesia, and 2 min later droperidol 1 mg was given intravenously to the DD group, tropisetron 5 mg to the DT group and saline (5 ml) to the DC group. Induction of anesthesia: remimazolam 6 mg/kg/h was continuously infused until sleep, mivacurium 0.2 mg/kg and alfentanil 20ug/kg were slowly pushed, 3 min later intubation was performed to control breathing. Maintenance of anesthesia: 40ug/kg/h of alfentanil, 1 mg/kg/h of remimazolam continuous infusion. After awakening and extubation, the patient was transferred to the PACU. PONV were recorded in the PACU and an electronic questionnaire was pushed 24 h after surgery. RESULTS: The incidence of PONV within the PACU was significantly lower in the DD (14.5%)and DT(26.7%) groups than in the DC(50%) group (p < 0.01), there was no significantly difference between the DT and DD groups. There were no significant difference in the incidence of PONV in 24 h after surgery between the three groups(DD:DT:DC = 44.5%:45.1%:63.8%,p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Droperidol or tropisetron combined with dexamethasone is superior to dexamethasone alone for the prevention of PONV in the PACU after remimazolam combined with alfentanil anesthesia, with no significant difference in the incidence of PONV in 24 h after surgery.


Assuntos
Antieméticos , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios , Alfentanil , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Droperidol/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Mivacúrio , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/tratamento farmacológico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/epidemiologia , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Tropizetrona
10.
J Infect Chemother ; 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067911

RESUMO

We had a case of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) meningitis complicated with hypercytokinemia and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a healthy 22-month-old boy. He was admitted to our hospital with a fever, vomiting, mild consciousness disturbances, and extraocular muscle paralysis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral deep white matter lesions. After receiving ampicillin, meropenem, and gentamicin, his cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture results turned negative on the third day of hospitalization. However, the fever intermittently persisted, and it took approximately 40 days to completely resolve. During this period, various inflammatory cytokine levels, particularly neopterin, in the blood and CSF remained elevated. Therefore, long-term administration of corticosteroids in addition to antibiotics was required. The use of dexamethasone appeared to be effective for neurological disorders such as consciousness disturbance and extraocular muscle paralysis associated with abnormal brain MRI findings. LM meningitis may present with encephalopathy and persistent fever due to hypercytokinemia. In such cases, corticosteroid therapy should be considered.

11.
Cureus ; 14(8): e27865, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36110463

RESUMO

There are no acceptable worldwide recommendations regarding the use of dexamethasone in late-preterm newborns delivered either vaginally or via cesarean section and term gestation that are performed via cesarean section. The present study aims to compare the effectiveness of antenatal intramuscular dexamethasone versus placebo/no-treatment in reducing neonatal respiratory complications in high-risk for imminent preterm birth in late preterm pregnancies and term pregnancies undergoing elective cesarean section. The PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to assess the effectiveness of dexamethasone during late preterm and term gestation. The last literature search was performed on March 20th, 2022. Randomized controlled trials compared antenatal dexamethasone administration with placebo or no treatment. The outcomes of interest were: the incidence of Respiratory Distress Syndrome; Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admissions; and the need for ventilatory support or mechanical ventilation. A standardized data form and three independent investigators performed the data extraction. Ten RCTs fulfilled our inclusion criteria. No statistically significant difference was found regarding all of the outcomes in the 34th-36th gestational week group. In the >37th gestational week group, a statistically significant difference was found regarding the incidence of RDS [RR (95% CI); p-value: 0.56 (0.36, 0.87); 0.01], TTN [RR (95% CI); p-value: 0.54 (0.42, 0.71); <0.00001], need for ventilatory support [RR (95% CI); p-value: 0.71 (0.52, 0.96); 0.03] and need for mechanical ventilation [RR (95% CI); p-value: 0.56 (0.33, 0.95); 0.03]. To conclude, the antenatal administration of dexamethasone can be considered to prevent neonatal complications and reduce perinatal morbidity in term pregnancies.

12.
Cureus ; 14(8): e27910, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36110472

RESUMO

Drug-induced pancreatitis is a rare though important condition that remains a diagnostic challenge. Most of the evidence relies on case reports, and clinicians should consider a high suspicion of the diagnosis after ruling out other causes. In particular, steroids are frequently used drugs that have recently been associated with acute pancreatitis. The authors present the case of a 60-year-old female admitted to the emergency room with a fever and shortness of breath. The SARS-CoV-2 test was positive, and the chest radiography was suggestive of COVID-19 pneumonia. The patient started dexamethasone because of respiratory failure. On Day 7, she developed epigastric pain radiating to the back and the amylase level was greater than 10 times the upper reference limit (1354 U/L). A detailed evaluation of the medical history, along with the exclusion of other possible etiologies confirmed the diagnosis of steroid-induced pancreatitis. Supportive care and cessation of the offending drug led to the resolution of symptoms. As steroids are used as part of the treatment of most COVID-19 patients, this case suggests the need to consider this entity, as a delay in the diagnosis may result in complications and prolonged hospital stay.

13.
J Pharm Bioallied Sci ; 14(Suppl 1): S816-S819, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36110784

RESUMO

Background: Surgical excision of the problematic mandibular third molars causes substantial tissue damage and an inflammatory response. Discomfort and edema are common postoperative signs and symptoms caused by the latter. To find out whether dexamethasone may help with the edema and pain that come along with the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars, researchers have performed clinical studies. Methods: Twenty individuals with bilaterally affected mandibular third molars who were scheduled for extraction participated in a prospective trial. At two separate sessions, teeth were raised and cut after buccal ostectomy. Since the surgical operation on the left foot, both patients were administered a mixture of 4 mg dexamethasone submucosal injection and antibiotics for 3 days. On the 1st, 3rd, and 7th postoperative days, edema and pain were assessed. Results: At the 1st, 3rd, and 7th postoperative days, there was a clinically meaningful decrease in the level of edema and discomfort in both arms. Conclusions: The current report offers empirical proof that administering a 4 mg dexamethasone submucosal injection during surgery greatly reduced post-surgical edema and discomfort.

14.
Br J Haematol ; 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114009

RESUMO

The effect of prolonged pulse therapy with vincristine and dexamethasone (VD) during maintenance therapy on the outcome of paediatric patients with TCF3-PBX1 positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) remains uncertain. We conducted non-inferiority analysis of 263 newly diagnosed TCF3-PBX1 positive ALL children who were stratified and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive seven additional VD pulses (the control group) or not (the experimental group) in the CCCG-ALL-2015 clinical trial from January 2015 to December 2019 (ChiCTR-IPR-14005706). There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between the two groups. With a median follow-up of 4.2 years, the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and 5-year overall survival (OS) in the control group were 90.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 85.1-95.4) and 94.7% (95% CI, 90.9-98.6) comparable to those in the experimental group 89.2% (95% CI 84.1-94.7) and 95.6% (95% CI 91.8-99.6), respectively. Non-inferiority was established as a one-sided 95% upper confidence bound for the difference in probability of 5-year EFS was 0.003, and that for 5-year OS was 0.01 by as-treated analysis. Thus, omission of pulse therapy with VD beyond one year of treatment did not affect the outcome of children with TCF3-PBX1 positive ALL.

17.
Dermatol Ther ; : e15806, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070222

RESUMO

Extensive subtypes of alopecia areata (AA) (totalis, universalis, or multifocal) still have no approved and effective treatments in Europe, although Janus kinase inhibitors, such as baricitinib, are promising treatments that have been recently approved by the FDA. Nowadays, the higher costs and the lower experience with Janus kinase inhibitors, provide more difficulties in its accessibility. On the other hand, different corticosteroids regimens have been evaluated with conflicting results from decades. In 2016, a new regimen of mini pulse corticosteroid therapy with oral dexamethasone (MPCT-OD) 0.1mg/kg/day twice per week for adult patients with alopecia areata totalis or universalis, was reported to be effective with a lower rate of adverse effects. We performed a retrospective and multicentric study to collect data from patients with extensive forms of alopecia areata who had received MPCTOD (0.1 mg/kg/day twice weekly of dexamethasone) for at least 24 weeks. We included adult patients (≥18 years) with extensive forms of AA (SALT index ≥ 10) that did not respond to previous treatments. Variables including epidemiological and clinical data were recorded. Therapeutic response was assessed through the % change in SALT score (from 0 to 100%) and the changes in eyebrow and eyelash alopecia index (EBA, ELA) from baseline to 24 weeks after the beginning of the treatment. Dexamethasone dosage, duration of the treatment, time until response, time to relapse, adverse effects, and discontinuation were also recorded.

18.
Acta Otolaryngol ; : 1-6, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no report on acute sensorineural hearing loss with congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection in basic experiments. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory steroid, on acute sensorineural hearing loss in the mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection model mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sensorineural hearing loss model mice were divided into two groups, one with and one without intratympanic dexamethasone. Dexamethasone was injected into the tympanic cavity of only the right ear, and hearing ability was assessed at the ages of three, six, and eight weeks by auditory brainstem response measurement. RESULTS: Among the 23 mice intratympanically injected with dexamethasone (15 µg/mouse) at the age of three weeks, five (21.7%) had a hearing improvement of at least 10 dB and 18 (78.3%) had no improvement at the age of six weeks. Among the 19 mice that did not receive a dexamethasone injection, one (5.3%) showed improvement and 18 (94.7%) showed no improvement (p = 0.129). CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, transtympanic infusion of dexamethasone into the tympanic cavity was effective in some mice with sensorineural hearing loss, suggesting that, in addition to angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory activity might be a mechanism of treatment for hearing loss.

19.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is a self-limiting, inflammatory thyroid disease possibly caused by viral infection. In recent years, the incidence of SAT is increasing, especially during the pandemic of the COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and recovery time of capsular thyroid injection therapy under ultrasound guidance for SAT. METHODS: A total of 73 patients with SAT were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 48) received an ultrasound-guided capsular injection consisting of dexamethasone (DEX) and lidocaine in the thyroid lesion area, while patients in group B (n = 25) received oral prednisolone (PSL). The two groups were compared for pain relief and treatment duration, the recovery time of thyroid function, recurrence rates, hypothyroidism incidence, and drug-related side effects. RESULTS: The follow-up time was 1 year. In group A, the duration of pain relief, treatment, and recovery time of thyroid function were significantly shorter than that in group B (P < .05), and no statistically significant differences in recurrence rate or incidence of hypothyroidism were observed (P > .05). Weight gain was significantly higher in group A at the end of treatment (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with oral PSL treatment, ultrasound-guided local injection of DEX and lidocaine into the capsular thyroid is a safe and effective procedure that can significantly reduce the treatment time of SAT.

20.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 947659, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045926

RESUMO

Decreased light transmittance through the ocular lens, termed cataract, is a leading cause of low vision and blindness worldwide. Cataract causes significantly decreased quality of life, particularly in the elderly. Environmental risk factors, including aging, UV exposure, diabetes, smoking and some prescription drugs, are all contributors to cataract formation. In particular, drug-induced cataract represents a poorly-addressed source of cataract. To better understand the potential impact of prescription drugs on cataract, we analyzed publicly-available drug prescriptions data from the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. The data was analyzed for the 5-year period from July 2014 to June 2019. Analyses included the number of prescriptions for each drug, as well as the associated government and total prescription costs. The drugs chosen for analysis belonged to any of four broad categories-those with known, probable, possible or uncertain association with cataract in patients. The analyses revealed high prescription rates and costs for drugs in the Known category (e.g., steroids) and Possible category (e.g., psychotropic drugs). Collectively, these data provide valuable insights into specific prescription drugs that likely contribute to the increasing annual burden of new cataract cases. These data highlight the need-as well as new, stem cell-based opportunities-to elucidate molecular mechanisms of drug-induced cataract formation.

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