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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251410, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355887

RESUMO

Abstract Dietary habits of bandicoot rats (bandicota bengalensis) were investigated in the agricultural crops of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan by analysing stomach contents. The research activities were conducted in major field crops including wheat-groundnut and in the fallow lands during non-crop season at the field boundaries. The specimens were captured from the fields using kill/snap traps, and dissected to collect their stomach samples for laboratory analysis. Light microscopic slides of the plant material were recovered from stomach samples and the reference materials were collected from the field. Results revealed that the bandicoot rat predominantly fed upon cultivated crops during cropping season but consumed wild vegetation during non-cropping season. There was no significance difference between summer and winter diets. Most frequently consumed crop food items were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 28.57%), groundnut (Arachis hypogea; 11.26%), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; 10.17%), chickpea (Cicer arietinum; 9.52%), maize (Zea mays; 6.49%), millet (Pennisetum glaucum; 5.84%), barley (Hordeum vulgare; 4.98%) and mustard (Brassica campestris; 4.98%). Among wild vegetation were consumed khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7.79%), baron dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7.36%) and Prickly flower (Achyranthes aspera; 3.03%). The study concludes that, in addition to consuming wheat and groundnut crops, the Lesser bandicoot rat also subsists on grasses, weeds, and some fodder crops, as important component of its diet in agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau.


Resumo Os hábitos alimentares de ratos bandicoot (Bandicota bengalensis) foram investigados nas plantações agrícolas do planalto de Pothwar, Paquistão, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. As atividades da pesquisa foram conduzidas nas principais culturas de campo, incluindo trigo e amendoim, e em terras de pousio durante a estação não agrícola nos limites do campo. Os espécimes foram capturados dos campos usando armadilhas kill/snap e dissecados para coletar suas amostras de estômago para análise laboratorial. Lâminas de microscopia de luz do material vegetal foram recuperadas de amostras de estômago; os materiais de referência foram coletados no campo. Os resultados revelaram que o rato bandicoot alimentava-se predominantemente de culturas cultivadas durante a época de cultivo, mas consumia vegetação selvagem durante a época de não colheita. Não houve diferença significativa entre as dietas de verão e inverno. Os alimentos agrícolas mais frequentemente consumidos foram trigo (Triticum aestivum; 28,57%), amendoim (Arachis hypogea; 11,26%), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor; 10,17%), grão de bico (Cicer arietinum; 9,52%), milho (Zea mays; 6,49%), milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; 5,84%), cevada (Hordeum vulgare; 4,98%) e mostarda (Brassica campestris; 4,98%). Entre a vegetação silvestre foram consumidos khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7,79%), barão dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7,36%) e flor espinhosa (Achyranthes aspera; 3,03%). O estudo conclui que, além de consumir culturas de trigo e amendoim, o rato bandicoot pequeno também subsiste de gramíneas, ervas daninhas e algumas culturas forrageiras, componentes importantes de sua dieta no agroecossistema do planalto de Pothwar.


Assuntos
Animais , Ecossistema , Murinae , Paquistão , Produtos Agrícolas , Zea mays , Comportamento Alimentar
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248755, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350303

RESUMO

Abstract Consuming a high-fat diet causes a harmful accumulation of fat in the liver, which may not reverse even after switching to a healthier diet. Different reports dealt with the role of purslane as an extract against high-fat diet; meanwhile, it was necessary to study the potential role of fresh purslane as a hypolipidemic agent. This study is supposed to investigate further the potential mechanism in the hypolipidemic effect of fresh purslane, by measuring cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr). Rats were divided into two main groups: the first one is the normal control group (n=7 rats) and the second group (n=28 rats) received a high fat diet for 28 weeks to induce obesity. Then the high fat diet group was divided into equal four subgroups. As, the positive control group still fed on a high fat diet only. Meanwhile, the other three groups were received high-fat diet supplemented with a different percent of fresh purslane (25, 50 and 75%) respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and samples were collected for molecular, biochemical, and histological studies. Current study reported that, supplementation of fresh purslane especially at a concentration of 75% play an important role against harmful effects of high-fat diet at both cellular and organ level, by increasing CYP7A1 as well as Ldlr mRNA expression. Also, there were an improvement on the tested liver functions, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile. Fresh purslane plays the potential role as a hypolipidemic agent via modulation of both Ldlr and Cyp7A, which will point to use fresh purslane against harmful effects of obesity.


Resumo O consumo de uma dieta rica em gordura causa um acúmulo prejudicial de gordura no fígado, que pode não reverter mesmo após a mudança para uma dieta mais saudável. Diferentes relatórios trataram do papel da beldroega como um extrato contra uma dieta rica em gordura; entretanto, foi necessário estudar o papel potencial da beldroega fresca como agente hipolipemiante. Este estudo pretende investigar mais profundamente o mecanismo potencial no efeito hipolipidêmico da beldroega fresca, medindo o colesterol 7a-hidroxilase (CYP7A1) e o receptor de lipoproteína de baixa densidade (Ldlr). Os ratos foram divididos em dois grupos principais: o primeiro é o grupo controle normal (n = 7 ratos) e o segundo grupo (n = 28 ratos) recebeu dieta rica em gorduras por 28 semanas para induzir a obesidade. Em seguida, o grupo de dieta rica em gordura foi dividido em quatro subgrupos iguais. Como, o grupo de controle positivo ainda se alimentava apenas com dieta rica em gordura. Enquanto isso, os outros três grupos receberam dieta rica em gordura suplementada com diferentes porcentagens de beldroegas frescas (25%, 50% e 75%), respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras coletadas para estudos moleculares, bioquímica e histológicos. O estudo atual relatou que a suplementação de beldroegas frescas, especialmente a uma concentração de 75%, desempenha papel importante contra os efeitos prejudiciais da dieta rica em gordura em nível celular e orgânico, aumentando a expressão de CYP7A1 e Ldlr mRNA. Além disso, houve melhora nas funções hepáticas testadas, nos hormônios tireoidianos e no perfil lipídico. Beldroegas frescas desempenham papel potencial como agente hipolipemiante por meio da modulação de Ldlr e Cyp7A, o que apontará para o uso de beldroegas frescas contra os efeitos nocivos da obesidade.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Portulaca , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hipolipemiantes , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fígado
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252305, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339378

RESUMO

Abstract Galaxias maculatus aquaculture objectives is to produce millions of eggs. Wild females are small (2 g), have quick sexual maturity and low mean fecundity (500 eggs/female), requiring larger fishes with higher fecundity. This study aim is to evaluate experimentally the effect of the levels of protein, lipid and dietary energy on weight increases in adults. Five independent experiments were performed at different sequential time periods at the UCT hatchery, Chile. Specimens were obtained from a) Crystalline sea return specimen catches in the Tolten estuary (4 -6 cm, 0.3-0.4 g.). b) Hatchery cultured fish. Fish were fed by hand ad libitum. In experiments 1 to 4, pelleted diets were prepared with 3 to 5 levels of protein (treatments 27 up to 57%), crumble size, three 100 L fibre ponds replicates. In experiment 5 the effect of two lipid levels (8 and 21%) was evaluated with commercial extruded Salmon Nutra Starter isoproteic crumble 1 diet at 63%, replicated in 4 ponds. The results show: A tendency to increased weight in all sizes with an increased protein level in the pelleted diet.A maximal adult growth is obtained with a diet containing a minimum of 37% crude protein, with 40% the optimal value. A higher % protein in the diet or growth in weight lower feed conversion ratio. The feed conversion ratio in the extruded diet reaches up to 0.5 and in the pelleted vary from 0.7 to 1.5. Fish 0.6 g fed with 63% protein, extruded commercial diet with two different lipid levels (8 and 21%, 20.40 and 23.84 MJ kg-1, PE/TE 0.62 and 0.71) increased weight the first month 67 and 105% each. It has been established that high-energy diets with optimal levels of protein and lipid are a good short-term solution to obtain G. maculatus of higher weight.


Resumo O objetivo da aquicultura de Galaxias maculatus é produzir milhões de ovos. As fêmeas selvagens são pequenas (2 g) e têm maturidade sexual rápida e fecundidade média baixa (500 ovos/fêmea), necessitando de peixes maiores e com fecundidade superior. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar experimentalmente o efeito dos níveis de proteínas, lipídios e energia da dieta sobre o aumento de peso em adultos. Cinco experimentos independentes foram realizados em diferentes períodos sequenciais de tempo no incubatório UCT, Chile. Os espécimes foram obtidos a partir de: a) capturas de espécimes de retorno do mar cristalino no estuário de Tolten (4-6 cm, 0,3-0,4 g); b) peixes de cultura em incubatório. Os peixes foram alimentados à mão ad libitum. Nos experimentos de 1 a 4, dietas peletizadas foram preparadas com três a cinco níveis de proteína (tratamentos 27 a 57%), tamanho do crumble, três repetições de tanques de fibra de 100 L. No experimento 5, o efeito de dois níveis de lipídios (8 e 21%) foi avaliado com dieta comercial isoproteica crumble 1 de Salmon Nutra Starter extrusada a 63%, replicada em quatro tanques. Os resultados mostram: uma tendência ao aumento de peso em todos os tamanhos, com um aumento do nível de proteína na dieta peletizada; um crescimento adulto máximo com uma dieta contendo um mínimo de 37% de proteína bruta, com 40% do valor ideal; uma porcentagem maior de proteína na dieta ou crescimento em peso com menor taxa de conversão alimentar. A taxa de conversão alimentar na dieta extrusada chega a 0,5, e na peletizada varia de 0,7 a 1,5. Peixes de 0,6 g alimentados com 63% de proteína e dieta comercial extrusada com dois níveis lipídicos diferentes (8 e 21%; 20,40 e 23,84 MJ kg-1; PE / TE 0,62 e 0,71) aumentaram de peso no primeiro mês em 67 e 105% cada, respectivamente. Foi estabelecido que dietas de alta energia com níveis ótimos de proteínas e lipídios são uma boa solução de curto prazo para obter G. maculatus de peso mais alto.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Osmeriformes , Chile , Dieta/veterinária , Lipídeos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251198, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339350

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract on different tissues in terms of DNA damage, biochemical and antioxidant parameter values in rats with high-calorie diets. With this aim, Wistar albino male rats were divided into 4 groups containing 6 rats each and the study was completed over 12 weeks duration. At the end of the implementation process over the 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were obtained. Analyses were performed on blood and tissue samples. According to results for DNA damage (8-OHdG), in brain tissue the OG2 group was significantly reduced compared to the NC group. For MDA results in liver tissue, OG1 and OG2 groups were determined to increase by a significant degree compared to the control group, while the OG2 group was also increased significantly compared to the obese group. In terms of the other parameters, comparison between the groups linked to consumption of a high calorie diet (HCD) and administration of Gundelia tournefortii L. in terms of antioxidant activities and serum samples obtained statistically significant results. Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extracts had effects that may be counted as positive on antioxidant parameter activity and were especially identified to improve DNA damage and MDA levels in brain tissues. Additionally, consumption of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract in the diet may have antiobesity effects; thus, it should be evaluated for use as an effective weight-loss method and as a new therapeutic agent targeting obesity.


Resumo O presente estudo foi desenhado para investigar os efeitos do extrato da planta Gundelia tournefortii L. em diferentes tecidos em termos de danos ao DNA, valores de parâmetros bioquímicos e antioxidantes em ratos com dietas hipercalóricas. Com esse objetivo, ratos Wistar albinos machos foram divididos em 4 grupos contendo 6 ratos cada e o estudo foi concluído ao longo de 12 semanas de duração. No final desse processo de implementação, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras de sangue e tecido foram obtidas. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de sangue e tecido. De acordo com os resultados para danos ao DNA (8-OHdG), no tecido cerebral o grupo OG2 foi significativamente reduzido em comparação com o grupo NC. Para os resultados de MDA no tecido hepático, os grupos OG1 e OG2 aumentaram significativamente em comparação ao grupo controle, enquanto o grupo OG2 também aumentou significativamente em comparação ao grupo obeso. Quanto aos demais parâmetros, a comparação entre os grupos ligados ao consumo de dieta hipercalórica (DC) e à administração de Gundelia tournefortii L. em termos de atividades antioxidantes e amostras de soro obteve resultados estatisticamente significativos. Os extratos de plantas de Gundelia tournefortii L. tiveram efeitos que podem ser considerados positivos na atividade dos parâmetros antioxidantes e foram especialmente identificados para melhorar os danos ao DNA e os níveis de MDA nos tecidos cerebrais. Além disso, o consumo de extrato vegetal de Gundelia tournefortii L. na dieta pode ter efeitos antiobesidade; portanto, deve ser avaliado para uso como um método eficaz de perda de peso e como um novo agente terapêutico voltado para a obesidade.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Asteraceae , Antioxidantes , Dano ao DNA , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285628

RESUMO

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Coelhos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bacteroides , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Prevotella , Bacteroidetes , Ruminococcus , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disbiose , Inflamação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
6.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 96(6): 511-522, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650008

RESUMO

AIM: Ketogenic dietary therapies (KDT) produce anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects, reduce seizures and improve the cognitive state in patients with epilepsy. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of KDT in children with refractory epilepsy (effectiveness, side effects, impact on nutritional status and growth). METHODS: A retrospective and prospective observational descriptive study was conducted in a Spanish tertiary hospital (January 2000 to December 2018). One hundred sixty pediatric patients with epilepsy were treated with KDT (82 males; mean age 5 years 9 months). Seizures, anti-epileptic drugs, anthropometric measures, side effects, and laboratory assessment were monitored baseline and at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after the onset of KDT. RESULTS: In these time intervals, the seizure-free patients were: 13.7, 12.5, 14.4 and 10.6%, respectively, and a reduction of seizures ≥ 50% was achieved in 41.9, 37.5, 28.7 and 16.2%. Side effects were frequent, especially digestive disorders, hypercalciuria, hypoglycemia, hepatic dysfunction and dyslipidemia. Prealbumin, retinol binding protein, vitamin A and magnesium decreased significantly. Height was affected, especially in children below 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: KDT are effective for refractory epilepsy in children. However, adverse effects are frequent, and it may affect nutritional status and growth.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos , Epilepsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta Cetogênica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões
7.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(288): 7794-7803, maio.2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1372430

RESUMO

Objetivo- Descrever o perfil alimentar de pacientes pós transplante cardíaco (TC) tardio de um centro transplantador brasileiro. Método- Estudo observacional transversal com delineamento descritivo. O estudo ocorreu em uma instituição de ensino público de Minas Gerais. A coleta de dados ocorreu no período de 2017 a 2019. Resultados-. A amostra do estudo foi composta por 62 indivíduos transplantados entre os anos de 2006 a 2016. Aproximadamente 63% era do sexo masculino. A média de idade foi de 46,53 anos. O consumo de carboidratos e gorduras foi adequado em 46,77% e 59,68% da amostra, respectivamente. Já o consumo de proteínas foi acima do recomendado em 77,42% e o consumo de fibras abaixo do recomendado em 79,03%. Conclusão- Houve a predominância do sexo masculino. Os indivíduos apresentaram um consumo adequado somente de carboidratos e gorduras. Não houve na literatura estudos descrevendo a atuação do enfermeiro no processo de nutrição neste cenário(AU)


Objective- To describe the dietary profile of patients after late heart transplantation (HT) from a Brazilian transplant center. Method- Cross-sectional observational study with descriptive design. The study took place in a public education institution in Minas Gerais. Data collection took place from 2017 to 2019. Results-. The study sample consisted of 62 individuals transplanted between 2006 and 2016. Approximately 63% were male. The mean age was 46.53 years. The consumption of carbohydrates and fats was adequate in 46.77% and 59.68% of the sample, respectively. The consumption of proteins was above the recommended in 77.42% and the consumption of fibers below the recommended in 79.03%. Conclusion- There was a predominance of males. The individuals presented an adequate consumption of only carbohydrates and fats. There were no studies in the literature describing the role of nurses in the nutrition process in this scenario(AU)


Objetivo- Describir el perfil dietético de pacientes después de un trasplante cardíaco (TC) tardío de un centro de trasplante brasileño. Método- Estudio observacional transversal con diseño descriptivo. El estudio se llevó a cabo en una institución de educación pública en Minas Gerais. La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo de 2017 a 2019. Resultados-. La muestra del estudio estuvo compuesta por 62 individuos trasplantados entre 2006 y 2016. Aproximadamente el 63% eran hombres. La edad media fue de 46,53 años. El consumo de carbohidratos y grasas fue adecuado en el 46,77% y 59,68% de la muestra, respectivamente. El consumo de proteína estuvo por encima del nivel recomendado en un 77,42% y el consumo de fibra por debajo del nivel recomendado en un 79,03%. Conclusión- Hubo predominio del sexo masculino. Los individuos presentaron un consumo adecuado de solo carbohidratos y grasas. No hubo estudios en la literatura que describieran el papel del enfermero en el proceso de nutrición en este escenario.(AU)


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração , Enfermagem , Dieta , Necessidades Nutricionais
8.
Serv. soc. soc ; (143): 121-139, jan.-abr. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357435

RESUMO

Resumo: Este ensaio tem como objetivo refletir sobre o direito humano à alimentação adequada, de forma universal e permanente, ante a pobreza e a desigualdade social. Expressa a dificuldade das sociedades para eliminar o espectro da fome. Argumenta-se que o direito humano à alimentação adequada dificilmente será materializado sem a superação da fome, da pobreza e da desigualdade social, fenômenos interdependentes e que se inter-relacionam, inerentes e necessários à sociabilidade capitalista.


Abstract: This essay aims to reflect on the human right to proper food, in an universal and permanent way, in the face of poverty and social inequality. It expresses the difficulty of societies to eliminate the spectrum of starvation. It is argued that the human right to adequate food is unlikely to be materialized without overcoming hunger, poverty and social inequality, interdependent and interrelated phenomena, inherent and necessary to capitalist sociability.

9.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 15(2): e10224, abr./jun. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371386

RESUMO

Este estudo verificou os efeitos de uma ação educativa via rede social no consumo alimentar, conhecimento em alimentação e nutrição e nos fatores que facilitam e dificultam a adoção de uma alimentação saudável entre universitários de um Centro Universitário de São Paulo. Trata-se de estudo de intervenção, com aplicação de questionário antes e depois da ação educativa. Participaram 141 universitários entre 18 e 56 anos e classe socioeconômica B (46,81%). 39,72% estavam com excesso de peso, 76,60% foram classificados em "Atenção" referente ao consumo alimentar e mais de 50% tinham moderado conhecimento em nutrição. O principal dificultador para se ter uma alimentação saudável foi o custo elevado dos alimentos. Conclui-se que os efeitos da ação educativa foram positivos na redução do Índice de Massa Corporal, aumento na pontuação do consumo alimentar e do conhecimento em nutrição. Houve aumento de comportamento adequado para oito questões do consumo alimentar.


This study verified the effects of an educational action using social network on food consumption, knowledge of food and nutrition and factors that facilitate and hinder the adoption of healthy eating, among university students at a University Center in São Paulo. It is an intervention study, with the application of a questionnaire before and after the educational action. 141 university students between 18 and 56 years old and socioeconomic class B (46,81%) participated. 39.72% were overweight, 76.60% were classified as "Attention" regarding food consumption and more than 50% had moderate knowledge of nutrition. The main obstacle to healthy eating was the high cost of food. It is concluded that the effects of the educational action were positive in reducing the Body Mass Index, increasing the score of food consumption and knowledge in nutrition. There was an increase in appropriate behavior for eight issues of food consumption.

10.
Gac Med Mex ; 158(1): 41-47, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404919

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dietary fiber intake helps in the remission of ulcerative colitis (UC). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if there is an association between the amount of fiber in usual diet and disease activity in patients with UC. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of a cohort of patients with UC. Dietary fiber intake was calculated and compared with the recommended amount (14 g/1000 kcal) with Mann-Whitney's U-test. Using Spearman's correlation coefficient, the number of relapses and the amount of consumed fiber were analyzed, and the relationship of dietary fiber consumption with disease activity was established by logistic regression. RESULTS: The group without ongoing UC activity consumed a higher amount of dietary fiber (20 g, IQR = 18-26, p = 0.062), and 47% consumed more than the recommended amount; the logistic regression analysis showed that compliance with recommended fiber consumption was associated as a protective factor against UC current activity (OR = 0.227, p = 0.032). As for dietary fiber intake and the number of relapses within previous year, an inversely proportional correlation was observed (r = -0.399, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of the recommended dietary fiber amount in the general population had a protective effect against UC activity in Mexican patients.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La fibra dietética suplementada coadyuva en la remisión de la colitis ulcerosa crónica idiopática (CUCI). OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre la cantidad de fibra de la dieta habitual y la actividad de la enfermedad en pacientes con CUCI. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal de una de cohorte de pacientes con CUCI. Se calculó el consumo de fibra dietética y con U de Mann-Whitney se comparó con la cantidad recomendada (14 g/1000 kcal). Con coeficiente de correlación de Spearman se analizaron el número de recaídas y la cantidad de fibra consumida, y la relación de esta con la actividad de la enfermedad mediante regresión logística. RESULTADOS: El grupo sin actividad actual de CUCI consumió más fibra dietética (RIC = 18-26, p = 0.062) y 47 % consumió más de la cantidad recomendada; el análisis de regresión logística mostró que cumplir con esta se asoció como factor protector en contra de la actividad actual de la CUCI (RM = 0.227, p = 0.032). En la fibra y el número de recaídas en el último año se observó una correlación inversamente proporcional (r = −0.399, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONES: El consumo recomendado de fibra en la población general tuvo un efecto protector para la actividad actual de la CUCI en pacientes mexicanos.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Humanos , Recidiva
11.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 39(2): 69-78, abr.-jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-LC-223

RESUMO

Presentamos la adaptación española de las Guías Europeas de Prevención Cardiovascular 2021. En esta actualización además del abordaje individual, se pone mucho más énfasis en las políticas sanitarias como estrategia de prevención poblacional. Se recomienda el cálculo del riesgo vascular de manera sistemática a todas las personas adultas con algún factor de riesgo vascular. Los objetivos terapéuticos para el colesterol low density lipoprotein (LDL), la presión arterial y la glucemia no han cambiado respecto a las anteriores guías, pero se recomienda alcanzar estos objetivos de forma escalonada (etapas 1 y 2). Se recomienda llegar siempre hasta la etapa 2, y la intensificación del tratamiento dependerá del riesgo a los 10 años y de por vida, del beneficio del tratamiento, de las comorbilidades, de la fragilidad y de las preferencias de los pacientes. Las guías presentan por primera vez un nuevo modelo para calcular el riesgo Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation-2 (SCORE2) y Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation-2 Old person (SCORE2-OP) de morbimortalidad vascular en los próximos 10 años (infarto de miocardio, ictus y mortalidad vascular) en hombres y mujeres entre 40 y 89 años. Otra de las novedades sustanciales es el establecimiento de diferentes umbrales de riesgo dependiendo de la edad (< 50, 50-69 ≥ 70 años).Se presentan diferentes algoritmos de cálculo del riesgo vascular y tratamiento de los factores de riesgo vascular para personas aparentemente sanas, pacientes con diabetes y pacientes con enfermedad vascular aterosclerótica. Los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica se considerarán de riesgo alto o muy alto según la tasa del filtrado glomerular y el cociente albúmina/creatinina. Se incluyen innovaciones en las recomendaciones sobre los estilos de vida, adaptadas a las recomendaciones del Ministerio de Sanidad, así como aspectos novedosos relacionados con el control de los lípidos, la presión arterial, la diabetes y la insuficiencia renal crónica.


Statement of the Spanish Interdisciplinary Vascular Prevention Committee on the updated European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. We present the Spanish adaptation of the 2021 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) prevention in clinical practice. The current guidelines besides the individual approach greatly emphasize on the importance of population level approaches to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Systematic global CVD risk assessment is recommended in individuals with any major vascular risk factor. Regarding LDL-Cholesterol, blood pressure, and glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus, goals and targets remain as recommended in previous guidelines. However, it is proposed a new, stepwise approach (Step 1 and 2) to treatment intensification as a tool to help physicians and patients pursue these targets in a way that fits patient profile. After Step 1, considering proceeding to the intensified goals of Step 2 is mandatory, and this intensification will be based on 10-year CVD risk, lifetime CVD risk and treatment benefit, comorbidities and patient preferences. The updated SCORE algorithm—SCORE2, SCORE-OP— is recommended in these guidelines, which estimates an individual's 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal CVD events (myocardial infarction, stroke) in healthy men and women aged 40-89 years. Another new and important recommendation is the use of different categories of risk according different age groups (< 50, 50-69 ≥ 70 years). Different flow charts of CVD risk and risk factor treatment in apparently healthy persons, in patients with established atherosclerotic CVD, and in diabetic patients are recommended. Patients with chronic kidney disease are considered high risk or very high-risk patients according to the levels of glomerular filtration rate and albumin-to-creatinine ratio. [...]


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus , Pressão Arterial , Estilo de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Dieta Saudável , Hipertensão
12.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 79(2): 83-90, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468121

RESUMO

Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit with multifactorial etiology. Abnormal proliferation of keratinocytes, altered sebum production, inflammation of the sebaceous follicle, and colonization by Cutibacterium acnes have been traditionally implicated. However, the diet has also been highlighted in the pathogenesis because of its direct relation with some biochemical markers and the transcription of specific genes associated with sebaceous gland activity, inflammation, and bacterial proliferation, which together promote the development of the disease, affect the severity of the condition, and modify its response to treatment.


El acné es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de la unidad pilosebácea de etiología multifactorial, en la que clásicamente se han implicado la proliferación anormal de queratinocitos, la producción alterada de sebo, la inflamación del folículo sebáceo y la colonización por Cutibacterium acnes. Sin embargo, también destaca la dieta en la patogenia al relacionarse directamente con la alteración de algunos marcadores bioquímicos y transcripción de ciertos genes que se asocian con la actividad de la glándula sebácea, la inflamación y la proliferación bacteriana, que en conjunto promueven el desarrollo de la enfermedad, afectan la gravedad del cuadro y modifican su respuesta al tratamiento.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar , Acne Vulgar/microbiologia , Acne Vulgar/patologia , Dieta , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Propionibacterium acnes/fisiologia , Sebo
13.
Nutr Hosp ; 39(3): 537-546, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388704

RESUMO

Introduction: Objectives: to evaluate the effect of sodium reduction based on a modified DASH diet on blood pressure in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. Material and methods: sixty-one hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes were selected from the community and randomly allocated to a common salt group and low sodium salt group receiving the 8-week dietary intervention, in which weeks 1-2 was the dietary guidance phase, weeks 3-4 was the centralized feeding phase, and weeks 5-8 was the home medical care phase. Participants were followed up in the hospital once a week to collect information on outpatient blood pressure, salt, and drug use. Physical examinations were conducted at 4 weeks and the end of the intervention, as well as at baseline. Results: after the intervention, the blood pressure of both the low sodium group (SBP: -14.32 mmHg, p < 0.001; DBP: -6.32mmHg, p < 0.001) and the common salt group (SBP: -10.98 mmHg, p < 0.001; DBP: -5.24 mmHg, p = 0.001) decreased significantly with a more pronounced decrease in the low sodium group but no statistically significant differences between the two groups (SBP: -0.28 mmHg, p = 0.929; DBP: -3.32 mmHg, p = 0.093). At the end of the intervention, sodium intake was significantly decreased, but potassium intake was increased in the low sodium group (p < 0.05); however, the common salt group had no significant change. Conclusion: reducing sodium intake based on the modified DASH diet had a good effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. Sodium reduction based on the modified DASH diet is safe and effective, and can be used as a guide for healthy living in hypertensive patients.


Introducción: Objetivos: evaluar el efecto de la reducción de sodio basada en una dieta DASH modificada sobre la presión arterial en pacientes hipertensos con diabetes de tipo 2. Material y métodos: sesenta y un pacientes hipertensos con diabetes de tipo 2 fueron seleccionados de la comunidad y asignados aleatoriamente a un grupo de sal común y un grupo de sal baja en sodio, que recibieron una intervención dietética de 8 semanas en la que las semanas 1-2 fueron la fase de orientación dietética, las semanas 3-4 fueron la fase de alimentación centralizada, y las semanas 5-8 fueron la fase de atención médica domiciliaria. Los participantes fueron seguidos en el hospital una vez por semana para recopilar información sobre la presión arterial, la sal y el uso de drogas en pacientes ambulatorios. Los exámenes físicos se realizaron a las 4 semanas y al final de la intervención, así como al inicio del estudio. Resultados: después de la intervención, la presión arterial tanto del grupo bajo en sodio (PAS: -14,32 mmHg, p < 0,001; PAD: -6,32 mmHg, p < 0,001) como del grupo de sal común (PAS: -10,98 mmHg, p < 0,001; PAD: -5,24 mmHg, p = 0,001) disminuyó significativamente con una disminución más pronunciada en el grupo bajo en sodio pero sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los dos grupos (PAS: -0,28 mmHg, p = 0,929; PAD: -3,32 mmHg, p = 0,093). Al final de la intervención, la ingesta de sodio disminuyó significativamente, pero la ingesta de potasio aumentó en el grupo bajo en sodio (p < 0,05); sin embargo, el grupo de la sal común no tuvo cambios significativos. Conclusión: la reducción de la ingesta de sodio basada en la dieta DASH modificada tuvo un buen efecto sobre la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica en pacientes hipertensos con diabetes de tipo 2. La reducción de sodio basada en la dieta DASH modificada es segura y eficaz, por lo que puede utilizarse como guía para una vida saludable en pacientes hipertensos.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Abordagens Dietéticas para Conter a Hipertensão , Hipertensão , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Dieta Hipossódica , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta
14.
Nutr Hosp ; 39(3): 554-561, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485380

RESUMO

Introduction: Introduction: obesity is a disease that affects a high percentage of the world's population. Although its origin is multicausal and multifactorial, less attention has been paid to psychological and behavioral variables. Aim: to determine whether psychological variables (weight stigma, stress and depressive symptomatology) and behavioral variable (Mediterranean diet index) predict obesity according to body mass index (BMI), controlling for the effect of physiological variables (HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and blood pressure) and sociodemographic variables (sex, income, educational level). Methods: non-experimental, cross-sectional, correlational design. By means of a non-probabilistic convenience sampling, 344 persons were selected from the general Chilean population from the Araucanía region (Mage = 55.7 years; SD = 5.1 years; 55.8 % women). A blood sample, anthropometric measurement of weight and height, and self-report measures of psychological and behavioral variables were obtained. Results: a 5-block hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed. Sociodemographic covariates did not significantly predict BMI, however physiological covariates, the behavioral variable and weight stigma, were significantly associated with BMI, with weight stigma being the predictor that explained the most variance. Conclusions: the findings allow us to verify the role of psychological and behavioral variables in the multifactorial etiology of obesity. The findings are discussed in the light of the biopsychosocial approach, and a multidisciplinary approach to obesity is suggested.


Introducción: Introducción: la obesidad es una enfermedad que afecta a un alto porcentaje de la población mundial. Pese a que su origen es multicausal y multifactorial, menos atención se ha puesto en las variables psicológicas y conductuales. Objetivo: determinar si las variables psicológicas (estigma de peso, estrés y sintomatología depresiva) y la variable conductual (índice de dieta mediterránea) predicen la obesidad según el índice de masa corporal (IMC), controlando el efecto de variables fisiológicas (colesterol HDL, triglicéridos, glucosa y presión arterial) y sociodemográficas (sexo, ingresos, nivel de estudios). Método: diseño no experimental, transversal, correlacional. Por medio de un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia, se seleccionó a 344 personas de población general chilena de la región de la Araucanía (Medad = 55,7 años; DE = 5,1 años; 55,8 % de mujeres). Se obtuvo una muestra de sangre, medición antropométrica de peso y talla, y medidas de autorreporte de variables psicológicas y conductuales. Resultados: se realizó un análisis de regresión múltiple jerárquica de 5 bloques. Las covariables sociodemográficas no predijeron significativamente el IMC; sin embargo, las fisiológicas, la variable conductual y el estigma de peso, se asociaron significativamente con el IMC, siendo el estigma de peso el predictor que explicó mayor varianza. Conclusiones: los hallazgos permiten comprobar el rol de las variables psicológicas y conductuales en la etiología multifactorial de la obesidad. Se discute los hallazgos a la luz del enfoque biopsicosocial, y se sugiere un abordaje multidisciplinario de la obesidad.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Preconceito de Peso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações
15.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(2): e25155, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1368668

RESUMO

Introdução:A educação interprofissional vem se destacando Brasil devido ao reconhecimento da capacidade da abordagem em melhorar a qualidade dos serviços de saúde, comunicação e interação entre estudantes.Objetivo:Relatar uma experiência de acadêmicos doscursosde medicina e nutrição em uma atividadeeducativa interprofissionalem saúdepara promoção de uma alimentação adequada e saudável, para crianças em idade pré-escolar, realizada no segundo semestre do ano de 2019, em uma escola municipal,Anápolis,Goiás.Metodologia:Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, tipo relato de experiência, elaborado por estudantes da área da saúde após projeto realizado com crianças empré-escolaridade escolar. Resultados:A atividade educativa foi idealizada após análise referente às doenças crônicas do território da Unidade Básica de Saúde assistida em conjunto com a disciplina Medicina de Família e Comunidade e verificou-se a necessidade de trabalhar a conscientização acerca da alimentação com as crianças pré-escolarpor ser uma idade de descoberta e formação dos hábitos alimentares. Por meio da parceria entre os dois cursos, foram elaboradas atividades lúdicas e a diferenciação dos alimentos para fomentar a criação de hábitos alimentares saudáveis e assim evitar e/ou minimizar possíveis patologias no futuro. Conclusões:Conclui-se que a educação em saúde aliada a interprofissionalidadeé de suma importância para o aprendizado, tendo sido proporcionado um momento de troca de conhecimentos, tanto entre os acadêmicosde diferentes cursos e professores, quanto entre acadêmicos e crianças (AU).


Introduction:Interprofessional education has been standing out in Brazil due to the recognition of the approach's ability to improve the quality of health services, communication and interaction among students. Objective:To report an experience of medical and nutrition students in an interprofessional health education activity to promote adequate and healthy eating for preschool-age children, held in the second half of 2019, in a municipal school, Anápolis, Goiás.Methodology:This is a descriptive study, type of experience report, prepared by students in the health area after a project carried out with school-aged children of 4years. Results:The action was idealized after analysis regarding chronic diseases in the basic health Unitterritory'sassisted in conjunction with the Family and Community Medicine discipline. Therefore, there was a need to raise awareness about eating with 4-year-old children from a municipal school, as it is an age of discovery and formation of eating habits. Through the partnership between the medical course and the nutrition course, recreational activities were developed, in addition to the recognition of foods and the differentiation of fresh and processed foods, to promote the creation of healthy eating habits and thus avoid and/or minimize possible pathologies in the future. Conclusions:Under this point of view, it is concluded that Health Education combined with interdisciplinarity is extremely important for learning, having provided a moment of exchange of knowledge, both among students from different courses and teachers, as well as between academics and children (AU).


Introducción: La educación interprofesionalse ha destacado en Brasil por el reconocimiento de la capacidad del enfoque para mejorar la calidad de los servicios de salud, la comunicación y la interacción entre los estudiantes.Objetivo: Informar una experiencia de estudiantes de medicina y nutrición en una actividad interprofesional de educación en salud para promover una alimentación adecuada y saludable para niños en edad preescolar, realizada en el segundo semestre de 2019, en una escuela municipal, Anápolis, Goiás.Metodología: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, tipo de relato de experiencia, elaborado por estudiantes del ámbito de la salud a partir de un proyecto realizado con niños en edad escolar de 4 años.Resultados:La acción fue concebida luego de un análisis sobre enfermedades crónicas en el territoriode La Unidad básica de salud asistidaen conjunto con la disciplina de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria y existía la necesidad de sensibilizar sobre la alimentación a los niños de 4 años ya que es una época de descubrimiento y formación de hábitos alimenticios. A través de la alianza entre los dos cursos, se desarrollaron actividades lúdicas y diferenciación alimentaria para fomentar la creación de hábitos alimentarios saludables y así evitar y / o minimizar posibles patologías en el futuro.Conclusiones: Se concluye que la Educación para la Salud combinada con la interdisciplinariedad es de suma importancia para el aprendizaje, habiendo brindado un momento de intercambio de conocimientos, tanto entre estudiantes de diferentes cursos y docentes, como entre académicos y niños (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Educação em Saúde , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar , Educação Interprofissional , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Brasil/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Ciências da Nutrição , Dieta Saudável
16.
Hipertens Riesgo Vasc ; 39(2): 69-78, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331672

RESUMO

Statement of the Spanish Interdisciplinary Vascular Prevention Committee on the updated European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. We present the Spanish adaptation of the 2021 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) prevention in clinical practice. The current guidelines besides the individual approach greatly emphasize on the importance of population level approaches to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Systematic global CVD risk assessment is recommended in individuals with any major vascular risk factor. Regarding LDL-Cholesterol, blood pressure, and glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus, goals and targets remain as recommended in previous guidelines. However, it is proposed a new, stepwise approach (Step 1 and 2) to treatment intensification as a tool to help physicians and patients pursue these targets in a way that fits patient profile. After Step 1, considering proceeding to the intensified goals of Step 2 is mandatory, and this intensification will be based on 10-year CVD risk, lifetime CVD risk and treatment benefit, comorbidities and patient preferences. The updated SCORE algorithm-SCORE2, SCORE-OP- is recommended in these guidelines, which estimates an individual's 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal CVD events (myocardial infarction, stroke) in healthy men and women aged 40-89 years. Another new and important recommendation is the use of different categories of risk according different age groups (< 50, 50-69 ≥ 70 years). Different flow charts of CVD risk and risk factor treatment in apparently healthy persons, in patients with established atherosclerotic CVD, and in diabetic patients are recommended. Patients with chronic kidney disease are considered high risk or very high-risk patients according to the levels of glomerular filtration rate and albumin-to-creatinine ratio. New lifestyle recommendations adapted to the ones published by the Spanish Ministry of Health as well as recommendations focused on the management of lipids, blood pressure, diabetes and chronic renal failure are included.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
17.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 34(2): 57-67, mar.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-203150

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico cursa, en sus fases iniciales, con hipertrigliceridemia y acúmulo de lípidos en el hígado (esteatosis hepática). El ácido bempedoico es un inhibidor de la ATP:citrato liasa que promueve una inhibición dual de la síntesis de colesterol y ácidos grasos. Sin embargo, no se ha investigado su efecto en la prevención/tratamiento de la esteatosis hepática y la hipertrigliceridemia. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo ha sido elucidar si el ácido bempedoico, mediante un mecanismo diferente/alternativo a la inhibición de la ATP:citrato liasa, revierte estas alteraciones metabólicas. DISEÑO EXPERIMENTAL: El estudio se realizó con un modelo animal de rata Sprague-Dawley hembra alimentada, durante 3 meses, con una dieta rica en grasa saturada suplementada con fructosa al 10% (p/v) en el agua de bebida. Se administró, durante el último mes, ácido bempedoico (30mg/kg/día) a un grupo de animales. Se analizaron parámetros zoométricos, se realizaron valoraciones plasmáticas, de expresión génica y proteica en muestras de hígado y se determinó la actividad de unión PPAR-PPRE. RESULTADOS: Nuestro modelo de intervención dietética desarrolló esteatosis hepática e hipertrigliceridemia. A pesar de un aumento en la ingesta calórica total, no se observó un incremento de peso corporal de los animales. La administración de ácido bempedoico redujo significativamente la esteatosis hepática y promovió una marcada hipertrofia de los hepatocitos. Se observó un incremento del 66% en el peso del hígado de los animales tratados con el fármaco, que no se acompañó de modificaciones en los marcadores de inflamación, estrés oxidativo o estrés de retículo endoplasmático. El ácido bempedoico activó el receptor nuclear activado por proliferadores peroxisómicos (PPARα) y sus genes diana.


INTRODUCTION: In its initial stages, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease presents hypertriglyceridemia and accumulation of lipids in the liver (hepatic steatosis). Bempedoic acid is an ATP:citrate lyase inhibitor that promotes a dual inhibition of the synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids. However, its effect in the prevention / treatment of hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia has not been investigated. The aim of our work has been to elucidate whether bempedoic acid, through a mechanism other than ATP:citrate lyase inhibition, reverses these metabolic alterations. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The study was carried out in female Sprague-Dawley rats fed, for three months, with a high fat diet supplemented with fructose (10% w/v) in drinking water. During the last month, bempedoic acid (30mg/kg/day) was administered to a group of animals. Zoometric and plasmatic parameters were analyzed, gene and protein expression analysis were performed in liver samples and PPAR-PPRE binding activity was determined. RESULTS: Our interventional model developed hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. Despite an increase in total caloric intake, there was no increase in body weight of the animals. The administration of bempedoic acid significantly reduced hepatic steatosis and promoted a marked hepatocyte hypertrophy. There was a 66% increase in the liver weight of the animals treated with the drug that was not accompanied by modifications in the markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, or endoplasmic reticulum stress. Bempedoic acid activated the peroxisome proliferator activated nuclear receptor (PPARα) and its target genes.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Ciências da Saúde , Hipertrigliceridemia/prevenção & controle , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , PPAR alfa/farmacologia
18.
Nutr Hosp ; 39(3): 603-609, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296139

RESUMO

Introduction: Objective: the aim of the present study was to assess the level of physical activity and its association with Mediterranean dietary patterns in university students of health sciences at Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (Spain). Method: a cross-sectional study was performed through an online survey. The final sample consisted of 555 university students (78.2 % females). Adherence to Mediterranean diet was assessed using the 14-item Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). To measure physical activity, the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity Scale (RAPA) questionnaire was used. Results: according to physical activity, 2.5 % of the participants were considered active and 35.1 % did both strength and flexibility activities. A greater association was seen between intake of fruits (OR = 1.95; 95 % CI, 1.25-3.04), pulses (OR = 1.51; 95 % CI, 1.00-3.20), and nuts (OR = 1.99; 95 % CI, 1.33-2.99) in those considered sufficiently active. Similarly, we found a significant relationship between the intake of fruits (OR = 2.28; 95 % CI, 1.49-3.47), pulses (OR = 1.41; 95 % CI, 1.00-2.08), nuts (OR = 1.96; 95 % CI, 1.34-2.86), and fish/seafood (OR = 1.67; 95 % CI, 1.15-2.43) in those who engaged in both strength and flexibility activities. Conclusion: this study suggests that consumption of certain Mediterranean foods was associated with higher levels of physical activity in a sample of Spanish university students.


Introducción: Objetivo: el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el nivel de actividad física y su asociación con la dieta mediterránea en estudiantes universitarios de ciencias de la salud de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (España). Método: se realizó un estudio transversal a través de una encuesta online. La muestra final estuvo formada por 555 estudiantes universitarios (78,2 % mujeres). La adherencia a la dieta mediterránea se evaluó mediante el evaluador de adherencia a la dieta mediterránea de 14 ítems (MEDAS). Para medir la actividad física se utilizó el cuestionario Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity Scale (RAPA). Resultados: de acuerdo con la actividad física, el 2,5 % de los participantes se consideraron activos y el 35,1 % realizaban actividades tanto de fuerza como de flexibilidad. Se observó una mayor asociación entre la ingesta de frutas (OR = 1,95; IC 95 %, 1,25-3,04), legumbres (OR = 1,51; IC 95 %, 1,00-3,20) y frutos secos (OR = 1,99; IC 95 %, 1,33-2,99) en aquellos considerados suficientemente activos. Asimismo, encontramos una relación significativa entre la ingesta de frutas (OR = 2,28; IC 95 %, 1,49-3,47), legumbres (OR = 1,41; IC 95 %, 1,00-2,08), frutos secos (OR = 1,96; IC 95 %, 1,34-2,86) y pescado/marisco (OR = 1,67; IC 95 %, 1,15-2,43), en aquellos que participaron en actividades de fuerza y flexibilidad. Conclusión: este estudio sugiere que el consumo de determinados alimentos mediterráneos se asocia a mayores niveles de actividad física en la muestra de universitarios españoles analizada.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Estudantes , Universidades
19.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131122

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent hepatic disease globally. NAFLD patients are at an increased risk of both liver and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as well as all-cause death. NAFLD prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide and, thus, there is an urgent need for health policies to tackle its development and complications. Currently, since there is no drug therapy officially indicated for this disease, lifestyle interventions remain the first-line therapeutic option. In the present narrative review, we discuss the effects of certain dietary patterns on NAFLD incidence and progression. The Mediterranean diet is regarded as the diet of choice for the prevention/treatment of NAFLD and its complications, based on the available evidence. Other plant-based dietary patterns (poor in saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, red and processed meats) are also beneficial [i.e., Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and vegetarian/vegan diets], whereas more data are needed to establish the role of ketogenic, intermittent fasting and paleo diets in NAFLD. Nevertheless, there is no "one-size-fits-all" dietary intervention for NAFLD management. Clinicians should discuss with their patients and define the diet that each individual prefers and is able to implement in his/her daily life.

20.
Semergen ; 48(3): 186-194, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35153107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lifestyle interventions (LSI) are recommended as first-line treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), yet the strength of evidence underpinning LSIs effectiveness remains unclear. We systematically reviewed the literature on LSIs in PCOS, evaluated evidence quality and summarised recommendations for clinical practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL for all randomised trials evaluating any LSI in PCOS until April 2021. We extracted data on the LSIs' characteristics, dietary composition, duration, implementation, compliance assessment, and reported outcomes. We evaluated the evidence gap using a network-map of evaluated interventions. RESULTS: We screened 550 citations and included 79 trials (n=4659 women). Most trials were from high-income countries (57/79, 72%) over a decade ago (48/79, 61%) and enrolled obese/overweight women (57/77, 74%). BMI was the commonest reported outcome (58/79, 73%), followed by weight (49/79, 62%), and testosterone (45/79, 57%). More than half of the trials had high-risk of randomisation (51/79, 65%) and allocation bias (49/79, 62%). Only 27 were registered prospectively (27/79, 34%). Two-thirds evaluated a dietary intervention (70/79, 88%), most commonly a hypocaloric diet (32/70, 46%); nineteen evaluated a combined dietary with pharmacological intervention (19/79, 24%), six combined diet with physical or behavioural intervention (6/79, 8%), and only one trial included all four elements. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence on LSI in PCOS is of poor quality with high variations in trial design, comparisons, and outcome reporting. Hypocaloric diet is the most commonly recommended LSI intervention for primary care. Future trials are needed to evaluate pragmatic and simple LSIs in robust multicenter studies. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42020186571.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Dieta Redutora , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia
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