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1.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 24(1): 217, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative hyperglycemia is associated with morbidity and mortality in non-diabetic surgical patients. However, there is limited information on the extent and factors associated with postoperative hyperglycemia. This study assessed the magnitude and associated factors of postoperative hyperglycemia among non-diabetic adult patients who underwent elective surgery at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 412 adult patients who underwent elective surgery at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital from April 14 to June 30, 2022 All consecutive postoperative non-diabetic elective surgical patients who were admitted to PACU during the data collection period and who fulfilled inclusion criteria were included in the study until the intended minimum sample size was achieved. And data were collected through interviews using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Postoperative hyperglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level of ≥ 140 mg/dl. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify the association between postoperative hyperglycemia and independent variables. Variables with a p-value less than 0.05 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 405 patients' data were evaluated with a response rate of 98.3%. The median (IQR) age was 40 (28-52) years. The prevalence of postoperative hyperglycemia was 34.1% (95% CI: 29.4-39.0). Factors significantly associated with postoperative hyperglycemia included being overweight (AOR = 5.45, 95% CI: 2.46-12.0), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification II and III (AOR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.17-4.79), postoperative low body temperature (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.069-0.48), blood loss ≥ 500 ml (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.27-4.27), long duration of surgery, mild pain (AOR = 5.17, 95% CI: 1.32-20.4), and moderate pain (AOR = 7.63, 95% CI: 1.811-32.20). CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: One-third of the study participants had postoperative hyperglycemia. Weight, ASA classification, postoperative body temperature, duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative pain were identified as a modifiable risk factors. Maintaining normal body temperature throughout the procedure, treating postoperative pain, and monitoring and controlling blood glucose level in patients at risk of hyperglycemia is crucial.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Humanos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Hospitais Universitários , Prevalência , Glicemia/análise
2.
Res Sq ; 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38978573

RESUMO

Background: The Diabetes Telemedicine Mediterranean Diet (DiaTeleMed) Study is a fully remote randomized clinical trial evaluating personalized dietary management in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The study aims to test the efficacy of a personalized behavioral approach for dietary management of moderately-controlled T2D, versus a standardized behavioral intervention that uses one-size-fits-all dietary recommendations, versus a usual care control (UCC). The primary outcome will compare the impact of each intervention on the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE). Methods: Eligible participants are between 21 to 80 years of age diagnosed with moderately-controlled T2D (HbA1c: 6.0-8.0%), and managed on lifestyle alone or lifestyle plus metformin. Participants must be willing and able to attend virtual counseling sessions and log meals into a dietary tracking smartphone application (DayTwo), and wear a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) for up to 12 days. Participants are randomized with equal allocation (n = 255, n = 85 per arm) to one of three arms: 1) Personalized, 2) Standardized, or 3) UCC. Measurements occur at 0 (baseline), 3, and 6 months. All participants receive isocaloric energy and macronutrients targets to meet Mediterranean diet guidelines plus 14 intervention contacts over 6 months (4 weekly then 10 biweekly) to cover diabetes self-management education. The first 4 UCC intervention contacts are delivered via synchronous videoconferences followed by educational video links. Participants in Standardized receive the same education content as UCC on the same schedule. However, all intervention contacts are conducted via synchronous videoconferences, paired with Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)-based behavioral counseling, plus dietary self-monitoring of planned meals using a mobile app that provides real-time feedback on calories and macronutrients. Participants in the Personalized arm receive all elements of the Standardized intervention, plus real-time feedback on predicted post-prandial glycemic response (PPGR) to meals and snacks logged into the mobile app. Discussion: The DiaTeleMed study will address an important gap in the current landscape of precision nutrition by determining the contributions of behavioral counseling and personalized nutrition recommendations on glycemic control in individuals with T2D. The fully remote methodology of the study allows for scalability and innovative delivery of personalized dietary recommendations at a population level. Trial registration: The DiaTeleMed Study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT05046886).

3.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 36(1): 145, 2024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39012506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the relationship between dysglycemia - also known as pre-diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance- and cognitive abilities in an older population living Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and stratified by gender. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective study with data gathered from a large Italian clinical-based database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The evaluation of cognitive performances by the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised rating scale as tests of screening and a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation of several cognitive areas. RESULTS: The study comprised 682 subjects (445 F/237 M) with a mean age of 76.08 ± 9.03 (range: 66-93) years. In all population, subjects with dysglycemia 193 (28.3%) had significantly poorer performance in memory (p = 0.006) and logic reasoning (p = 0.007) when compared with subjects without dysglycemia. The linear regression analyses revealed significant differences in the correlates of cognitive domains between gender groups. Independent of multiple covariates, women with dysglycemia showed worse performances in attention and short-term memory domains as compared with men. Even in the absence of dysglycemia women were more likely to show lower score in screening test of general cognition and attention. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that dysglycemia in older individuals with MCI is associated with declines in specific cognitive domains, potentially influenced by gender. Implementing a comprehensive approach involving risk stratification and preventive strategies may be more effective in averting further cognitive decline in this high-risk population.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cognição/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores Sexuais , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia
4.
J Diabetes Metab Disord ; 23(1): 305-322, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38932824

RESUMO

Objectives: Emerging publications indicate that diabetes predisposes patients with COVID-19 to more severe complications, which is partly attributed to inflammatory condition. In the current review, we reviewed recent published literature to provide evidence on the role of insulin resistance (IR) in diabetes, the association between diabetes and COVID-19 severity and mortality, the impact of COVID-19 infection on incident new-onset diabetes, mechanisms responsible for IR in COVID-19 patients, and the predictive value of different surrogates of IR in COVID-19. Method: The literature search performs to find out studies that have assessed the association between IR surrogates and morbidity and mortality in patients with COVID-19. Results: We showed that there is a bulk of evidence in support of the fact that diabetes is a potent risk factor for enhanced morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients with diabetes are more prone to remarkable dysglycemia compared to those without diabetes, which is associated with an unfavourable prognosis. Furthermore, SARS-COV2 can make patients predispose to IR and diabetes via activating ISR, affecting RAAS signaling pathway, provoking inflammation, and changing the expression of PPARÉ£ and SREBP-1. Additionally, higher IR is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients and different surrogates of IR can be utilized as a prognostic biomarker for COVID-19 patients. Conclusion: Different surrogates of IR can be utilized as predictors of COVID-19 complications and death.

5.
Clin Med Insights Endocrinol Diabetes ; 17: 11795514241259740, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854748

RESUMO

We describe 2 families with 5 members from 2 generations whose clinical and laboratory characteristics over up to 15 years were consistent with dysglycemia/impaired glucose tolerance. In both families (2 probands and 3 family members), long-term follow-up excluded diabetes type 1 and type 2. Diabetes type 1 antibodies were persistently negative and C-peptide levels were normal. In Family 1, the proband, during a follow-up of 7 years (10.3-17.5 years of age), exhibited persistently high HbA1c (>5.7%) with fasting blood glucose levels mostly higher than 100 mg/dl and postprandial glucose levels up to 180 mg/dl. She eventually required oral anti-diabetics with an improvement in glycemic balance. The father and sister also had persistent mild hyperglycemia with borderline high HbA1c (mostly > 5.7%) levels over 15 and 6.2 years respectively. In Family 2, the proband exhibited borderline high fasting hyperglycemia (>100 mg/dl) at age 16.2 years with increasing HbA1c levels (from 5.6%-5.9%) and impaired glucose tolerance at age 18.3 years (2 h blood glucose 156 mg/dl after 75 g glucose). His sister also exhibited borderline hyperglycemia with borderline high HbA1c over 2 years (13.6-15.4 years). These subjects shared a unique phenotype. They are tall and slim with decreased BMI. Three subjects from Generation II failed to thrive during infancy. In view of the data from 2 generations suggesting maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) with autosomal dominant inheritance, we sought to analyze the MODY genes. In Family 1, the molecular analysis by the MODY panel including 11 genes and whole exome sequencing did not detect any mutation in the proband. In Family 2, the MODY panel was also negative in the proband's sister. These families may represent a hitherto unidentified syndrome. Unique features described in this report may help to reveal additional families with similar characteristics and to decipher the molecular basis of this syndrome. In selected cases, oral antidiabetics in adolescents may improve the glycemic balance.

6.
Clin Oral Investig ; 28(6): 339, 2024 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is important in individuals with metabolic syndrome components (MetS), and periodontitis may play an important role in this process. This study aims to evaluate the association between periodontitis and ASCVD in participants with the components of MetS, including obesity, dysglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study conducted followed the MOOSE reporting guidelines and the PRISMA 2020 guidelines. EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed and OpenGrey were searched for observational studies about the linkage of periodontitis to ASCVD in people with MetS components up to April 9, 2023. Cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies were included after study selection. Quality evaluation was carried out using the original and modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale as appropriate. Random-effects model was employed for meta-analysis. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were finally included in the quality analysis, and all of them were assessed as moderate to high quality. Meta-analyses among fifteen studies revealed that the participants with periodontitis were more likely to develop ASCVD in those who have dysglycemia (RR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.13-1.37; p < 0.05), obesity (RR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.02-1.24; p < 0.05), dyslipidemia (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.13-1.65; p < 0.05), or hypertension (1.20, 95% CI = 1.05-1.36; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Periodontitis promotes the development of ASCVD in participants with one MetS component (obesity, dysglycemia, hypertension or dyslipidemia). CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In people with MetS components, periodontitis may contribute to the ASCVD incidence.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Síndrome Metabólica , Periodontite , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Humanos , Periodontite/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Hipertensão/complicações , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares
7.
Curr Diabetes Rev ; 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571353

RESUMO

Prediabetes increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal disease, and cardiovascular disease in a person. In current practice, five alternative definitions of prediabetes are utilized, each based on different HbA1C, fasting glucose, and 2-hour glucose cut points. Prediabetes is a common condition that occurs between normal glycemia and diabetes. It is more common in elderly and obese people. The prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes can be influenced by a variety of individual, family, and societal variables. Additionally, as diabetes is the primary contributor to non-communicable diseases (NCD), it is crucial to identify the key temporal variables for diabetes early diagnosis. In turn, effective prediabetes and diabetes awareness, control, and preventive programs may be created by policymakers and public health professionals worldwide. Popular pathogenic pathways in prediabetes include insulin resistance, inflammation, and sensitivity to insulin. HBA1C, OGTT, and FPG are discussed as the diagnostic criteria in order of frequency. The most commonly researched therapies in the realm of prediabetes are metformin, exercise, and physical activity. Physiological markers including BMI, blood pressure, and waist circumference prompted relatively significant concern. Despite declining trends, the study demonstrates that prediabetes and diabetes are widely prevalent. In order to prevent non-communicable illnesses, the research suggests encouraging healthy lifestyles and regular screenings.

8.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 13: e49548, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe mental illnesses (SMIs), including schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, and major depressive disorder, are associated with an increased risk of physical health comorbidities and premature mortality from conditions including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Digital technologies such as electronic clinical decision support systems (eCDSSs) could play a crucial role in improving the clinician-led management of conditions such as dysglycemia (deranged blood sugar levels) and associated conditions such as diabetes in people with a diagnosis of SMI in mental health settings. OBJECTIVE: We have developed a real-time eCDSS using CogStack, an information retrieval and extraction platform, to automatically alert clinicians with National Health Service Trust-approved, guideline-based recommendations for dysglycemia monitoring and management in secondary mental health care. This novel system aims to improve the management of dysglycemia and associated conditions, such as diabetes, in SMI. This protocol describes a pilot study to explore the acceptability, feasibility, and evaluation of its implementation in a mental health inpatient setting. METHODS: This will be a pilot hybrid type 3 effectiveness-implementation randomized controlled cluster trial in inpatient mental health wards. A ward will be the unit of recruitment, where it will be randomly allocated to receive either access to the eCDSS plus usual care or usual care alone over a 4-month period. We will measure implementation outcomes, including the feasibility and acceptability of the eCDSS to clinicians, as primary outcomes, alongside secondary outcomes relating to the process of care measures such as dysglycemia screening rates. An evaluation of other implementation outcomes relating to the eCDSS will be conducted, identifying facilitators and barriers based on established implementation science frameworks. RESULTS: Enrollment of wards began in April 2022, after which clinical staff were recruited to take part in surveys and interviews. The intervention period of the trial began in February 2023, and subsequent data collection was completed in August 2023. Data are currently being analyzed, and results are expected to be available in June 2024. CONCLUSIONS: An eCDSS can have the potential to improve clinician-led management of dysglycemia in inpatient mental health settings. If found to be feasible and acceptable, then, in combination with the results of the implementation evaluation, the system can be refined and improved to support future successful implementation. A larger and more definitive effectiveness trial should then be conducted to assess its impact on clinical outcomes and to inform scalability and application to other conditions in wider mental health care settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04792268; https://clinicaltrials.gov/study/NCT04792268. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/49548.

9.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 37(2): 127-133, abr. 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231646

RESUMO

Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of antibiotics. Although they were initially well tolerated in randomized clinical trials, subsequent epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of threatening, severe, long-lasting, disabling and irreversible adverse effects (AEs), related to neurotoxicity and collagen degradation, such as tendonitis, Achilles tendon rupture, aortic aneurysm, and retinal detachment. This article reviews the main potentially threatening AEs, the alarms issued by regulatory agencies and therapeutic alternatives. (AU)


Las fluoroquinolonas son una de las clases de antibióticos más prescritas. Aunque inicialmente fueron bien toleradas en ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, estudios epidemiológicos posteriores han informado de un mayor riesgo de efectos adversos efectos adversos amenazantes, graves, duraderos, incapacitantes e irreversibles, relacionados con la neurotoxicidad y la degradación del colágeno, como tendinitis, rotura del tendón de Aquiles, aneurisma aórtico y desprendimiento de retina. Este artículo repasa los principales efectos adversos potencialmente amenazadores, las alarmas emitidas por las agencias reguladoras y las alternativas terapéuticas. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Fluoroquinolonas/efeitos adversos , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Descolamento Retiniano , Aneurisma Aórtico , Antibacterianos , Estudos Epidemiológicos
10.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38529497

RESUMO

Dopamine (DA) D2-like receptors in both the central nervous system (CNS) and the periphery are key modulators of metabolism. Moreover, disruption of D2-like receptor signaling is implicated in dysglycemia. Yet, the respective metabolic contributions of CNS versus peripheral D2-like receptors including D2 (D2R) and D3 (D3R) receptors remain poorly understood. To address this, we developed new pharmacological tools, D2-like receptor agonists with diminished and delayed blood-brain barrier capability, to selectively manipulate D2R/D3R signaling in the periphery. We designated bromocriptine methiodide (BrMeI), a quaternary methiodide analogue of D2/3R agonist and diabetes drug bromocriptine, as our lead compound based on preservation of D2R/D3R binding and functional efficacy. We then used BrMeI and unmodified bromocriptine to dissect relative contributions of CNS versus peripheral D2R/D3R signaling in treating dysglycemia. Systemic administration of bromocriptine, with unrestricted access to CNS and peripheral targets, significantly improved both insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in obese, dysglycemic mice in vivo. In contrast, metabolic improvements were attenuated when access to bromocriptine was restricted either to the CNS through intracerebroventricular administration or delayed access to the CNS via BrMeI. Our findings demonstrate that the coordinated actions of both CNS and peripheral D2-like receptors are required for correcting dysglycemia. Ultimately, the development of a first-generation of drugs designed to selectively target the periphery provides a blueprint for dissecting mechanisms of central versus peripheral DA signaling and paves the way for novel strategies to treat dysglycemia.

13.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 208: 111099, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38246510

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with adrenal incidentaloma (AI) are at increased risk of impaired glucose metabolism, which is known to be associated with pancreatosteatosis (PS). We aimed to investigate the risk of developing dysglycemia for patients with non-functioning AI (NFAI) versus those without, and whether the presence of PS predicts future dysglycemia in patients with NFAI. METHOD: In 80 patients with NFAI and 127 controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index, changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c) were evaluated at 2 years. PS was evaluated with data obtained from non-contrast abdominal computed tomography (CT) performed at the initial evaluation. RESULTS: Mean FPG levels increased significantly after 2 years in both groups (P < 0.001, for both), albeit significantly higher among patients than the controls (P = 0.002). The increases in HbA1c and FPG levels were significantly higher among patients with PS than without PS, in the adenoma group (p < 0.001, P = 0.00, respectively). The change in Hba1c levels was associated with the presence of PS in patients with NFAI (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the presence of PS may provide significant information in predicting newly developed dysglycemia in patients with NFAI.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/complicações , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Glucose , Glicemia
14.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 37(2): 127-133, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38140798

RESUMO

Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of antibiotics. Although they were initially well tolerated in randomized clinical trials, subsequent epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of threatening, severe, long-lasting, disabling and irreversible adverse effects (AEs), related to neurotoxicity and collagen degradation, such as tendonitis, Achilles tendon rupture, aortic aneurysm, and retinal detachment. This article reviews the main potentially threatening AEs, the alarms issued by regulatory agencies and therapeutic alternatives.


Assuntos
Fluoroquinolonas , Tendinopatia , Humanos , Fluoroquinolonas/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Tendinopatia/induzido quimicamente
15.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 206: 111010, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37956942

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which binds most of circulating testosterone in blood, has been linked to dysglycemia and cardiovascular disease but the relationship with heart failure remains unclear. AIM: To study the relation between SHBG and heart failure hospitalizations. METHODS: SHBG levels were analysed in dysglycemic participants at high cardiovascular risk (n = 8401) followed for a median of 6.2 years in the Outcome Reduction with an Initial Glargine Intervention trial. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) per one standard deviation increase for heart failure hospitalizations adjusted for age, comorbidities, biochemical data (including testosterone) and pharmacological treatment. RESULTS: 5553 men and 2848 women were included. Heart failure hospitalizations occurred in 349 (6.3 %) men and 123 (4.3 %) women. One standard deviation increase in SHBG was independently associated with an increased risk of heart failure hospitalizations in men (HR 1.15, 95 % CI 1.03-1.28; p = 0.011) but not in women (HR 1.15; 95 % CI 0.96-1.39; p = 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with dysglycemia and high cardiovascular risk, increasing SHBG was associated with greater risk of HF hospitalizations independent of testosterone concentrations in men but not in women, suggesting the effects could be mediated through androgen-independent pathways.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Testosterona
16.
J Diabetes Mellitus ; 13(2): 116-129, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37693693

RESUMO

Background/Purpose: Hispanic/Latinos in the US are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Data suggest that avocado intake is associated with better glycemic control, but whether this translates to protection from T2D has not been studied. The goal of the current analyses was to examine whether consuming avocados at baseline is associated with lower incident T2D over a six-year period, compared to not consuming avocados at baseline. Subjects/Methods: Using data from a large population of US adults with Hispanic ancestry, without known or unknown T2D at baseline (N=6,159), participants were classified as avocado consumers (N=983) or non-consumers (N=5,176) based on the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls. Cox proportional hazard models estimated the association of avocado consumption with incident T2D (N=656 cases) over a six-year follow-up period, in the population as a whole, and separately in those with normoglycemia vs. prediabetes at baseline. A set of three sequential models were run: the first controlling only for sociodemographic factors ("minimally adjusted" models), the second for these and health behaviors ("fully adjusted" models), and a third for both sets of covariates and also body mass index (BMI; "fully adjusted + BMI" models). Results: In the population as a whole, avocado intake at baseline was associated with reduced incident T2D in both the minimally adjusted (hazard ratio [HR] (+/- 95% confidence intervals [CIs]): 0.70 (0.52 - 0.94), P=.04) and the fully adjusted models (HR: 0.72 (0.54-0.97), P=.03). This association was observed in both those with prediabetes and with normoglycemia at baseline, but only reached significance in those with prediabetes (minimally adjusted model: HR: 0.68 (0.48-0.97), P=.03; fully adjusted model: HR: 0.69 (0.48-0.98), P=.04), not in those with normoglycemia (minimally adjusted model: HR: 0.86 (0.45-1.65), P=.65; fully adjusted model: HR: 0.80 (0.41-1.55), P=.50). In models which additionally controlled for BMI ("fully adjusted + BMI model"), the associations were slightly attenuated (overall population: HR: 0.79 (0.59-1.06), P=.60; normoglycemia: HR: 0.83 (0.42-1.64), P=.60; prediabetes: HR= 0.75 (0.54 - 1.05), P=0.09). Conclusions: In our longitudinal analyses, adults with Hispanic / Latino ancestry who consumed avocado were less likely to develop T2D than those who did not consume avocado at baseline, especially if they had prediabetes at baseline.

17.
J Clin Transl Endocrinol ; 33: 100322, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37663867

RESUMO

Objective: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are rare, but their incidence has risen significantly in recent years. Whereas diabetes mellitus (DM) is recognized in association with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, it has not been well-characterized concerning non-functioning (NF)-PNETs.Study aim: to determine whether NF-PNETs are associated with DM/ Pre-DM and characterize the features of this putative association. Methods: Retrospective study to evaluate rate of Pre-DM /DM in subjects with NF-PNETs. Results: Study cohort of 129 patients with histologically confirmed NF-PNETs, ∼60% were men (M/F: 77/52). Abnormal glucose metabolism that preceded any treatment was seen in 70% of this cohort: overt DM in 34% and Pre-DM in 36% of the subjects. However, during follow-up, the overall prevalence rose to 80.6%, owing exclusively to newly diagnosed DM in subjects who received treatment.Patients with DM/Pre-DM were older (65 ± 11; 54 ± 14; p < 0.0001), the tumor was more commonly localized in the pancreatic body and tail (76.5% vs. 23.5% p = 0.03), while BMI (27 ± 6 vs. 28 ± 5 kg/m2), and tumor size (2.4 ± 2 vs. 2.9 ± 3.2 cm) were similar. The relative prevalence of DM in our cohort of NF-PNETs was 1.6 higher than that in the age and gender-adjusted general Israeli population (95 %CI: 1.197-2.212p = 0.03). Conclusions: We found a high rate of impaired glucose metabolism, either DM or Pre-DM, in a large cohort of NF-PNETs. The high prevalence of diabetes/pre-diabetes was unrelated to obesity or tumor size. This observation should increase awareness of the presence of DM on presentation or during treatment of "NF"-PNETs.

18.
World J Diabetes ; 14(8): 1163-1177, 2023 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37664481

RESUMO

Disorders in glucose metabolism can be divided into three separate but interrelated domains, namely hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability. Intensive glycemic control in patients with diabetes might increase the risk of hypoglycemic incidents and glucose fluctuations. These three dysglycemic states occur not only amongst patients with diabetes, but are frequently present in other clinical settings, such as during critically ill. A growing body of evidence has focused on the relationships between these dysglycemic domains with cardiac arrhythmias, including supraventricular arrhythmias (primarily atrial fibrillation), ventricular arrhythmias (malignant ventricular arrhythmias and QT interval prolongation), and bradyarrhythmias (bradycardia and heart block). Different mechanisms by which these dysglycemic states might provoke cardiac arr-hythmias have been identified in experimental studies. A customized glycemic control strategy to minimize the risk of hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and glucose variability is of the utmost importance in order to mitigate the risk of cardiac arrhythmias.

19.
Psychiatry Res ; 328: 115472, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37722239

RESUMO

Antipsychotics (APs) are the cornerstone of treatment for schizophrenia (SCZ) spectrum disorders. Previous research suggests that there may be a positive association between AP-induced weight gain and/or dyslipidemia and improvement in psychiatric symptoms, often referred to as a "metabolic threshold". To determine whether a similar relationship exists for glucose parameters, we conducted a systematic search in six databases from inception to June 2022 for all longitudinal studies that directly examined the relationship between changes in glucose-related outcomes and changes in psychopathology among patients with SCZ treated with APs. We identified 10 relevant studies and one additional study that considered cognition. In most cases, we found that increased levels of fasting glucose and insulin following treatment were associated with clinical improvement. These findings contribute to existing literature that could suggest a common mechanism between AP action and metabolic side effects and support a need for additional work aimed at exploring the validity of a glucose-psychopathology relation in SCZ.

20.
J Nutr ; 153(10): 2797-2807, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37562669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avocado consumption is linked to better glucose homeostasis, but small associations suggest potential population heterogeneity. Metabolomic data capture the effects of food intake after digestion and metabolism, thus accounting for individual differences in these processes. OBJECTIVES: To identify metabolomic biomarkers of avocado intake and to examine their associations with glycemia. METHODS: Baseline data from 6224 multi-ethnic older adults (62% female) included self-reported avocado intake, fasting glucose and insulin, and untargeted plasma proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomic features (metabolomic data were available for a randomly selected subset; N = 3438). Subsequently, incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) was assessed over an ∼18 y follow-up period. A metabolome-wide association study of avocado consumption status (consumer compared with nonconsumer) was conducted, and the relationship of these features with glycemia via cross-sectional associations with fasting insulin and glucose and longitudinal associations with incident T2D was examined. RESULTS: Three highly-correlated spectral features were associated with avocado intake at metabolome-wide significance levels (P < 5.3 ∗ 10-7) and combined into a single biomarker. We did not find evidence that these features were additionally associated with overall dietary quality, nor with any of 47 other food groups (all P > 0.001), supporting their suitability as a biomarker of avocado intake. Avocado intake showed a modest association only with lower fasting insulin (ß = -0.07 +/- 0.03, P = 0.03), an association that was attenuated to nonsignificance when additionally controlling for body mass index (kg/m2). However, our biomarker of avocado intake was strongly associated with lower fasting glucose (ß = -0.22 +/- 0.02, P < 2.0 ∗ 10-16), lower fasting insulin (ß = -0.17 +/- 0.02, P < 2.0 ∗ 10-16), and a lower incidence of T2D (hazard ratio: 0.68; 0.63-074, P < 2.0 ∗ 10-16), even when adjusting for BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Highly significant associations between glycemia and avocado-related metabolomic features, which serve as biomarkers of the physiological impact of dietary intake after digestion and absorption, compared to modest relationships between glycemia and avocado consumption, highlights the importance of considering individual differences in metabolism when considering diet-health relationships.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Persea , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Transversais , Biomarcadores , Insulina , Glucose
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