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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252088, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345543

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia mangium is a pioneer species with fast growth and frequently used in the recovery of degraded areas. The objectives were to evaluate insects and spiders, their ecological indices and interactions on A. mangium saplings in a tropical degraded area in recovering process. The experimental design was completely randomized with 24 replications, with treatments represented by the first and second years after A. mangium seedling planted. Numbers of leaves/branch, branches/sapling, and ground cover by A. mangium saplings, Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. and Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula and Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. and Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. and Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; abundance, species richness of pollinating insects, tending ants, and the abundance of Sternorrhyncha predators were greatest in the second year after planting. Numbers of Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, tending ants, pollinating insects, Sternorrhyncha predators and species richness of tending ants were highest on A. mangium saplings with greatest numbers of leaves or branches. The increase in the population of arthropods with ground cover by A. mangium saplings age increase indicates the positive impact by this plant on the recovery process of degraded areas.


Resumo Acacia mangium é uma espécie pioneira, de rápido crescimento e utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas. Os objetivos foram avaliar insetos e aranhas, seus índices ecológicos e interações com plantas de A. mangium em área tropical degradada em processo de recuperação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 24 repetições, com os tratamentos representados pelos primeiro e segundo anos após a plantio de A. mangium. Os números de folhas/galhos, galhos/plantas e cobertura do solo por plantas de A. mangium, de Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. e Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula e Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. e Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. e Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; a abundância, riqueza de espécies de insetos polinizadores, formigas cuidadoras e a abundância de predadores de Sternorrhyncha foram maiores no segundo ano após o plantio. Os números de Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, formigas cuidadoras, insetos polinizadores, predadores de Sternorrhyncha e a riqueza de espécies de formigas cuidadoras foram maiores em plantas de A. mangium com maior altura e número de folhas ou galhos. O aumento populacional de artrópodes e da cobertura do solo com o processo de envelhecimento das plantas de A. mangium indicam impacto positivo dessa planta na recuperação de áreas degradadas.


Assuntos
Animais , Aranhas , Acacia , Insetos , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256916, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355874

RESUMO

Abstract Crotalaria (Fabaceae) occurs abundantly in tropical and subtropical regions and has about 600 known species. These plants are widely used in agriculture, mainly as cover plants and green manures, in addition to their use in the management of phytonematodes. A striking feature of these species is the production of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), secondary allelochemicals involved in plant defense against herbivores. In Crotalaria species, monocrotaline is the predominant PA, which has many biological activities reported, including cytotoxicity, tumorigenicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity, with a wide range of ecological interactions. Thus, studies have sought to elucidate the effects of this compound to promote an increase in flora and fauna (mainly insects and nematodes) associated with agroecosystems, favoring the natural biological control. This review summarizes information about the monocrotaline, showing such effects in these environments, both above and below ground, and their potential use in pest management programs.


Resumo Crotalaria (Linnaeus, 1753) (Fabaceae) ocorre abundantemente em regiões tropicais e subtropicais e tem cerca de 600 espécies conhecidas. Estas plantas são amplamente utilizadas na agricultura, principalmente como cobertura e adubos verdes, além da sua utilização no manejo de fitonematoides. Uma característica marcante destas espécies é a produção de alcalóides pirrolizidinicos (APs), aleloquímicos secundários envolvidos na defesa das plantas contra os herbívoros. Nas espécies de Crotalaria, a monocrotalina é a AP predominante, que tem muitas atividades biológicas relatadas, incluindo citotoxicidade, tumorigenicidade, hepatotoxicidade e neurotoxicidade, além de uma vasta gama de interações ecológicas. Assim, estudos têm procurado elucidar os efeitos desse composto para promover um incremento na flora e fauna (principalmente insetos e nematoides) associados aos agroecossistemas, favorecendo o controle biológico natural. Esta revisão compila informações sobre a monocrotalina, mostrando tais efeitos nesses ambientes, tanto acima como abaixo do solo e a sua potencial utilização em programas de manejo de pragas.


Assuntos
Animais , Artrópodes , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina , Crotalaria , Fabaceae , Monocrotalina/toxicidade
3.
New Phytol ; 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678712

RESUMO

Associational resistance to herbivore and pathogen attack is a well-documented ecological phenomenon, and if applied to agriculture, may reduce impact of pests and diseases on crop yields without recourse to pesticides. The value of associational resistance through intercropping, planting multiple crops alongside each other, as a sustainable control method remains unclear, due to variable outcomes in published literature. We performed a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of benefits of intercropping for target plant resistance to plant-parasitic nematodes and soil-borne diseases. We found intercropping reduced damage to focal crops from nematodes by 40% and disease incidence by 55%. Intercropping efficacy varied with biological variables, such as field fertilization status and intercrop family, and methodology, including whether studies were potted or in-field. Nematode control by intercropping was sufficient to offset reductions in focal crop yield from intercrop presence, making intercropping a viable agricultural tool. We identify key drivers underpinning success of intercropping and indicate areas for future research to improve efficacy. This study also highlights potential benefits of harnessing ecological knowledge on plant-enemy interactions for improving agricultural and landscape sustainability.

4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574993

RESUMO

Chemical communication via infochemicals plays a pivotal role in ecological interactions, allowing organisms to sense their environment, locate predators, food, habitats, or mates. A growing number of studies suggest that climate change-associated stressors can modify these chemically mediated interactions, causing info-disruption that scales up to the ecosystem level. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is scarce. Evidenced by a range of examples, we illustrate in this opinion piece that climate change affects different realms in similar patterns, from molecular to ecosystem-wide levels. We assess the importance of different stressors for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems and propose a systematic approach to address highlighted knowledge gaps and cross-disciplinary research avenues.

5.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 52: 100922, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490874

RESUMO

Cities are expanding worldwide and urbanisation is considered a global threat to biodiversity. Urban ecology has provided important insights on how urban environmental changes might affect individuals, populations, and species; however, we know little about how the ecological impacts of urbanisation alter species interactions. Species interactions are the backbone of ecological communities and play a crucial role in population and community dynamics and in the generation, maintenance and structure of biodiversity. Here, I review urban ecological studies to identify key mechanistic pathways through which urban environmental processes could alter antagonistic and mutualistic interactions among species. More specifically, I focus on insect predation, parasitoidism and herbivory, competition, insect host-pathogen interactions, and pollination. I furthermore identify important knowledge gaps that require additional research attention and I suggest future research directions that may help to shed light on the mechanisms that affect species interactions and structure insect communities and will thus aid conservation management in cities.

6.
Biol Lett ; 18(5): 20220021, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506242

RESUMO

Climate change has been implicated in an increased number of distributional shifts of marine species during the last century. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether earlier climatic fluctuations had similar impacts. We use ancient DNA to investigate the long-term spawning distribution of the Northeast Arctic cod (skrei) which performs yearly migrations from the Barents Sea towards spawning grounds along the Norwegian coast. The distribution of these spawning grounds has shifted northwards during the last century, which is thought to be associated with food availability and warming temperatures. We genetically identify skrei specimens from Ruskeneset in west Norway, an archaeological site located south of their current spawning range. Remarkably, 14C analyses date these specimens to the late Holocene, when temperatures were warmer than present-day conditions. Our results either suggest that temperature is not the only driver influencing the spawning distribution of Atlantic cod, or could be indicative of uncertainty in palaeoclimate reconstructions in this region. Regardless, our findings highlight the utility of aDNA to reconstruct the historical distribution of economically important fish populations and reveal the complexity of long-term ecological interactions in the marine environment.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , Gadus morhua , Animais , Mudança Climática , Peixes , Gadus morhua/genética , Temperatura
7.
J Anim Ecol ; 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388473

RESUMO

Individual decisions regarding how, why and when organisms interact with one another and with their environment scale up to shape patterns and processes in communities. Recent evidence has firmly established the prevalence of intraspecific variation in nature and its relevance in community ecology, yet challenges associated with collecting data on large numbers of individual conspecifics and heterospecifics have hampered integration of individual variation into community ecology. Nevertheless, recent technological and statistical advances in GPS-tracking, remote sensing and behavioural ecology offer a toolbox for integrating intraspecific variation into community processes. More than simply describing where organisms go, movement data provide unique information about interactions and environmental associations from which a true individual-to-community framework can be built. By linking the movement paths of both conspecifics and heterospecifics with environmental data, ecologists can now simultaneously quantify intraspecific and interspecific variation regarding the Eltonian (biotic interactions) and Grinnellian (environmental conditions) factors underpinning community assemblage and dynamics, yet substantial logistical and analytical challenges must be addressed for these approaches to realize their full potential. Across communities, empirical integration of Eltonian and Grinnellian factors can support conservation applications and reveal metacommunity dynamics via tracking-based dispersal data. As the logistical and analytical challenges associated with multi-species tracking are surmounted, we envision a future where individual movements and their ecological and environmental signatures will bring resolution to many enduring issues in community ecology.

8.
Oecologia ; 198(3): 721-731, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35292859

RESUMO

While network analyses have stimulated a renewed interest in understanding patterns and drivers of specialization within communities, few studies have explored specialization within populations. Thus, in plant populations, causes and consequences of individual variation in their interactions with mutualistic animals remain poorly understood. Studying a Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolia) population, we measured the extent of individual variation in interactions with seed dispersers and tested whether connectivity (number of seed dispersers) and specialization (exclusiveness of partners) are associated with phenotypic and phenological traits of individuals and their spatial context. We found that: (i) individuals varied broadly in their connectivity and specialization on seed dispersers; (ii) phenotypic traits and spatial context matter more than fruiting duration in determining how many and how exclusive are seed dispersers of an individual; (iii) the individual-based network was nested and indicated that the less connected individuals were shorter, occurred in neighborhoods with fewer fruits, and tended to interact with a subset of the partners of more generalist individuals which, in turn, were taller and inserted in higher fruit density neighborhoods; (iv) modularity indicated the existence of subsets of individuals that interacted disproportionately with distinct groups of partners, which may occur due to differences in bird habitat use across the landscape. Our study underlines a remarkable interindividual variation that is overlooked when interactions are compiled to describe species-level interactions. Traits and spatial contexts that define variation among individuals may have important implications not only for fitness but also for sampling and description of interactions at species level.


Assuntos
Plantas , Árvores , Animais , Aves , Ecossistema , Sementes
9.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35214833

RESUMO

Plant diversity is critical to the functioning of human societies, and evidence shows that plant conservation success is driven by integrative approaches that include social and biological factors. Plants have a unique capacity to reproduce asexually, and propagation practices can yield large numbers of plantlets. These plantlets can be used in several ways to fulfil conservation goals including the repopulation of regions with declining densities of threatened species that hold cultural meaning. However, the potential of in vitro technologies in the conservation of plants that hold cultural meaning is understudied. In this paper we focus upon the roles of in vitro technologies in the conservation of plants relevant to biocultural environments and provide an overview of potential knowledge gaps at the interface of in vitro and plants used traditionally, including those meaningful to Indigenous Peoples. We conclude that in vitro technologies can be powerful tools in biocultural conservation if they are deployed in a manner respectful of the socio-cultural context in which plants play a role, but that further research is needed in this regard. We suggest several epistemological points to facilitate future research.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(7)2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35135881

RESUMO

Observational studies reveal substantial variability in microbiome composition across individuals. Targeted studies in gnotobiotic animals underscore this variability by showing that some bacterial strains colonize deterministically, while others colonize stochastically. While some of this variability can be explained by external factors like environmental, dietary, and genetic differences between individuals, in this paper we show that for the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, interactions between bacteria can affect the microbiome assembly process, contributing to a baseline level of microbiome variability even among isogenic organisms that are identically reared, housed, and fed. In germ-free flies fed known combinations of bacterial species, we find that some species colonize more frequently than others even when fed at the same high concentration. We develop an ecological technique that infers the presence of interactions between bacterial species based on their colonization odds in different contexts, requiring only presence/absence data from two-species experiments. We use a progressive sequence of probabilistic models, in which the colonization of each bacterial species is treated as an independent stochastic process, to reproduce the empirical distributions of colonization outcomes across experiments. We find that incorporating context-dependent interactions substantially improves the performance of the models. Stochastic, context-dependent microbiome assembly underlies clinical therapies like fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotic administration and should inform the design of synthetic fecal transplants and dosing regimes.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia , Microbiota , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Especificidade da Espécie , Processos Estocásticos
11.
Evolution ; 76(3): 476-495, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816437

RESUMO

How biotic and abiotic factors act together to shape biological diversity is a major question in evolutionary biology. The recent availability of large datasets and development of new methodological approaches provide new tools to evaluate the predicted effects of ecological interactions and geography on lineage diversification and phenotypic evolution. Here, we use a near complete phylogenomic-scale phylogeny and a comprehensive morphological dataset comprising more than a thousand specimens to assess the role of biotic and abiotic processes in the diversification of monitor lizards (Varanidae). This charismatic group of lizards shows striking variation in species richness among its clades and multiple instances of endemic radiation in Indo-Australasia (i.e., the Indo-Australian Archipelago and Australia), one of Earth's most biogeographically complex regions. We found heterogeneity in diversification dynamics across the family. Idiosyncratic biotic and geographic conditions appear to have driven diversification and morphological evolution in three endemic Indo-Australasian radiations. Furthermore, incumbency effects partially explain patterns in the biotic exchange between Australia and New Guinea. Our results offer insight into the dynamic history of Indo-Australasia, the evolutionary significance of competition, and the long-term consequences of incumbency effects.

12.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 37(3): 211-222, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969536

RESUMO

Social-ecological networks (SENs) represent the complex relationships between ecological and social systems and are a useful tool for analyzing and managing ecosystem services. However, mainstreaming the application of SENs in ecosystem service research has been hindered by a lack of clarity about how to match research questions to ecosystem service conceptualizations in SEN (i.e., as nodes, links, attributes, or emergent properties). Building from different disciplines, we propose a typology to represent ecosystem service in SENs and identify opportunities and challenges of using SENs in ecosystem service research. Our typology provides guidance for this growing field to improve research design and increase the breadth of questions that can be addressed with SEN to understand human-nature interdependencies in a changing world.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Humanos
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 177: 113497, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245771

RESUMO

We conducted a short-term field sampling complemented with time integrating stable isotope analysis to holistically investigate status and ecological interactions in a remote NE Atlantic Zostera marina meadow. We found high nutrient water concentrations, large biomass of fast-growing, ephemeral macroalgae, low abundance, and biodiversity of epifauna and a food web with thornback ray (Raja clavata) as intermediate and cod (Gadus morhua) as top predator. We observed no variation with increasing depth (3.5-11 m) except for decreasing shoot density and biomass of Zostera and macroalgae. Our results indicate that the Finnøya Zostera ecosystem is eutrophicated. During the past three to four decades, nutrients from aquaculture have steadily increased to reach 75% of anthropogenic input while the coastal top predator cod has decreased by 50%. We conclude that bottom-up regulation is a predominant driver of change since top-down regulation is generally weak in low density and exposed Zostera ecosystems such as Finnøya.


Assuntos
Alga Marinha , Zosteraceae , Animais , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Zosteraceae/fisiologia
14.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(10): e10355, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693621

RESUMO

Understanding the principles of colonization resistance of the gut microbiome to the pathogen Clostridioides difficile will enable the design of defined bacterial therapeutics. We investigate the ecological principles of community resistance to C. difficile using a synthetic human gut microbiome. Using a dynamic computational model, we demonstrate that C. difficile receives the largest number and magnitude of incoming negative interactions. Our results show that C. difficile is in a unique class of species that display a strong negative dependence between growth and species richness. We identify molecular mechanisms of inhibition including acidification of the environment and competition over resources. We demonstrate that Clostridium hiranonis strongly inhibits C. difficile partially via resource competition. Increasing the initial density of C. difficile can increase its abundance in the assembled community, but community context determines the maximum achievable C. difficile abundance. Our work suggests that the C. difficile inhibitory potential of defined bacterial therapeutics can be optimized by designing communities featuring a combination of mechanisms including species richness, environment acidification, and resource competition.


Assuntos
Clostridioides difficile , Infecções por Clostridium , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bactérias , Clostridioides , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
15.
Ecol Evol ; 11(18): 12596-12604, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594523

RESUMO

Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) red palm weevils are often reported in association with different organisms including nematodes. The significance of this interaction and whether nematodes can influence their life-history traits is unclear. We collected Rhynchophorus ferrugineus red palm weevils at different developmental stages and locations in Tunisia, observed and dissected them in search for nematodes and other interacting organisms, established laboratory colonies and identified the nematodes associated with them, and conducted nematode-insect interaction assays to determine the capacity of the nematodes to influence their life-history traits. We observed Beauveria bassiana fungi in larvae, nymph, and adults; Centrouropoda and Uroobovella acari associated with the adults, and Teratorhabditis synpapillata nematodes associated with larvae and adults. Nematode-insect interaction bioassays revealed that T. synpapillata nematodes reduce the lifespan of the insect larvae in a population-dependent manner, but do not influence the lifespan of adults. Our study uncovers an important factor that may determine population dynamics of this important palm pests and provides evidence to conclude that these organisms establish a parasitic relationship, rather than a phoretic relationship.

16.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 700752, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646243

RESUMO

Microorganisms are a fundamental part of virtually every ecosystem on earth. Understanding how collectively they interact, assemble, and function as communities has become a prevalent topic both in fundamental and applied research. Owing to multiple advances in technology, answering questions at the microbial system or network level is now within our grasp. To map and characterize microbial interaction networks, numerous computational approaches have been developed; however, experimentally validating microbial interactions is no trivial task. Microbial interactions are context-dependent, and their complex nature can result in an array of outcomes, not only in terms of fitness or growth, but also in other relevant functions and phenotypes. Thus, approaches to experimentally capture microbial interactions involve a combination of culture methods and phenotypic or functional characterization methods. Here, through our perspective of food microbiologists, we highlight the breadth of innovative and promising experimental strategies for their potential to capture the different dimensions of microbial interactions and their high-throughput application to answer the question; are microbial interaction patterns or network architecture similar along different contextual scales? We further discuss the experimental approaches used to build various types of networks and study their architecture in the context of cell biology and how they translate at the level of microbial ecosystem.

17.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 190, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In parasitism arm race processes and red queen dynamics between host and parasites reciprocally mold many aspects of their genetics and evolution. We performed a parallel assessment of population genetics and demography of two species of pinworms with different degrees of host specificity (Trypanoxyuris multilabiatus, species-specific; and T. minutus, genus-specific) and their host, the mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata), based on mitochondrial DNA sequences and microsatellite loci (these only for the host). Given that pinworms and primates have a close co-evolutionary history, covariation in several genetic aspects of their populations is expected. RESULTS: Mitochondrial DNA revealed two genetic clusters (West and East) in both pinworm species and howler monkeys, although population structure and genetic differentiation were stronger in the host, while genetic diversity was higher in pinworms than howler populations. Co-divergence tests showed no congruence between host and parasite phylogenies; nonetheless, a significant correlation was found between both pinworms and A. palliata genetic pairwise distances suggesting that the parasites' gene flow is mediated by the host dispersal. Moreover, the parasite most infective and the host most susceptible haplotypes were also the most frequent, whereas the less divergent haplotypes tended to be either more infective (for pinworms) or more susceptible (for howlers). Finally, a positive correlation was found between pairwise p-distance of host haplotypes and that of their associated pinworm haplotypes. CONCLUSION: The genetic configuration of pinworm populations appears to be molded by their own demography and life history traits in conjunction with the biology and evolutionary history of their hosts, including host genetic variation, social interactions, dispersal and biogeography. Similarity in patterns of genetic structure, differentiation and diversity is higher between howler monkeys and T. multilabiatus in comparison with T. minutus, highlighting the role of host-specificity in coevolving processes. Trypanoxyuris minutus exhibits genetic specificity towards the most frequent host haplotype as well as geographic specificity. Results suggest signals of potential local adaptation in pinworms and further support the notion of correlated evolution between pinworms and their primate hosts.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Enterobíase , Oxyuroidea , Alouatta/genética , Animais , Enterobius
18.
Toxics ; 9(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437495

RESUMO

Pesticides released to the environment can indirectly affect target and non-target species in ways that are often contrary to their intended use. Such indirect effects are mediated through direct impacts on other species or the physical environment and depend on ecological mechanisms and species interactions. Typical mechanisms are the release of herbivores from predation and release from competition among species with similar niches. Application of insecticides to agriculture often results in subsequent pest outbreaks due to the elimination of natural enemies. The loss of floristic diversity and food resources that result from herbicide applications can reduce populations of pollinators and natural enemies of crop pests. In aquatic ecosystems, insecticides and fungicides often induce algae blooms as the chemicals reduce grazing by zooplankton and benthic herbivores. Increases in periphyton biomass typically result in the replacement of arthropods with more tolerant species such as snails, worms and tadpoles. Fungicides and systemic insecticides also reduce nutrient recycling by impairing the ability of detritivorous arthropods. Residues of herbicides can reduce the biomass of macrophytes in ponds and wetlands, indirectly affecting the protection and breeding of predatory insects in that environment. The direct impacts of pesticides in the environment are therefore either amplified or compensated by their indirect effects.

19.
Mol Ecol ; 30(22): 5844-5857, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437745

RESUMO

Habitat degradation is pervasive across the tropics and is particularly acute in Southeast Asia, with major implications for biodiversity. Much research has addressed the impact of degradation on species diversity; however, little is known about how ecological interactions are altered, including those that constitute important ecosystem functions such as consumption of herbivores. To examine how rainforest degradation alters trophic interaction networks, we applied DNA metabarcoding to construct interaction networks linking forest-dwelling insectivorous bat species and their prey, comparing old-growth forest and forest degraded by logging in Sabah, Borneo. Individual bats in logged rainforest consumed a lower richness of prey than those in old-growth forest. As a result, interaction networks in logged forests had a less nested structure. These network structures were associated with reduced network redundancy and thus increased vulnerability to perturbations in logged forests. Our results show how ecological interactions change between old-growth and logged forests, with potentially negative implications for ecosystem function and network stability.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Agricultura Florestal , Animais , Biodiversidade , Quirópteros/genética , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Árvores , Clima Tropical
20.
J Hazard Mater ; 417: 126104, 2021 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229393

RESUMO

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) has aroused widespread pollution in industrial wastewater. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) was proved powerful in organics degradation and simultaneous resource recovery during wastewater treatment. However, the TBBPA biotransformation potential, pathway and the related molecular mechanism remain poorly understood. In this study, the enhanced degradation and detoxification performance of TBBPA in MFC anode was confirmed, evidenced by the shorter degradation period (2.3 times shorter) and less generation of bisphenol A. UPLC-QTOF-MS analysis verified TBBPA metabolism went through reductive debromination, hydrolytic debromination, oxidative ring cleavage and o-methylation. Accompanied with those biochemical processes, the metabolites underwent dynamic changes. The distinctly decreased abundance and fewer interactions with other functional genera for the potential reductive dehalogenators (Pseudomonas, etc.) possibly led to the suppressed reductive debromination (5.1%) in the closed bioanode. Otherwise, the more abundant potential function bacteria with more collaborated interrelations, including hydrolytic dehalogenators (Acinetobacter, etc.), aromatics degrading bacteria (Geobacter, Holophaga, etc.) and electroactive bacteria (Geobacter, Desulfovibrio, etc.) made great sense to the enhanced hydrolytic debromination and detoxification of TBBPA. This study revealed that MFC anode was beneficial to TBBPA degradation and provided theoretical support for the decomposition and transformation of micro-pollutants in the municipal sewage treatment coupled with MFC process.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Bifenil Polibromatos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Águas Residuárias
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