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1.
Waste Manag Res ; 42(2): 158-166, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37313737

RESUMO

While incentive mechanisms have been proven to motivate residents to separate their waste, empirical research is still needed to determine whether this separation behaviour could be maintained over time. The main objective of this paper is to investigate waste separation management activities in the city of Dongying, China, as a case study to clarify how local community citizens' waste separation participation and recycling activities change over time cross-sectionally under the influence of an economic incentive mechanism - PS. This study used least square dummy variable analysis to investigate local waste separation behaviour in 98 communities over 22 months. Results showed that community resident waste participation and recycling behaviour tend to grow in the early stages and gradually show saturation without growth in the middle and late stages. This result implies limitations to the incentive mechanism, such that it could only motivate a part of residents to participate in waste separation; for those unaffected by financial incentives, it was suggested that educational or compulsory means be used to make them separate their waste.


Assuntos
Motivação , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Reciclagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , China , Análise de Dados
2.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 118-124, 2024.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-1005241

RESUMO

Organ transplantation has demonstrated its significant values by its excellent effectiveness in health reconstruction and life survival, where organ donation is a major component in promoting the development of organ transplantation in China. In recent years, an important progress has been made in organ transplantation in China with an annually increased organ donation rate. In spite of this, there is a serious fact confronted by us that the donated organ quantity is insufficient, which may be solved by further improvement of medical science and public health policy. According to the international experience, an incentive system may improve the organ donation rate effectively although the hidden ethic property of the incentive system itself may have an essentially conflict with the altruism contained in the organ donation. Therefore, in this article, the property of the incentive system, the interaction between organ donation and incentive system and the ethic justification of the system was reviewed, aiming to provide a reference for the further development of the organ donation and transplantation business in China.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293611

RESUMO

Towards the long-term sustainable development of the northern foothills of the Qilian Mountains, the design of migration motivation mechanisms is a key issue. Considering motivation perspectives and social exchange theories, a framework and measurement scale were constructed to analyze the influence of government incentives on Wuwei's relocated immigrants. ANOVA and generalized linear regression models were employed to analyze the differences among regions and groups, along with the influence of various incentives. The results of the study indicate: (1) In Wuwei City, non-economic incentive factors were rated higher than economic incentives. The overall evaluation value for the negative behavior of immigrants was 0.369, and the incentive effect score was 0.633, with significant regional variation. (2) Based on cultural types, Wuwei City was found to have a high percentage of hierarchists, egalitarians and individualists, comprising 39.22%, 23.85% and 21.54%, respectively. Among cultural types, motivation factors and the incentive effect of the government made no difference except for the index of communication and opportunistic behavior. (3) Immigrants' negative behavior was significantly affected by their cultural types. An economic incentive from the government increased the likelihood that immigrants would adopt negative behavior, whereas a participation incentive effectively eliminated those behaviors. (4) The government's economic incentives appear significantly better at promoting the incentive effect than non-economic incentives, but in dispelling the negative behavior of immigrants, non-economic incentives have played a significantly greater role than economic incentives. Incentives associated with relocation provide a new objective basis for determining a policy scheme for the relocation of migrants in the Qilian Mountains, and departments can formulate corresponding incentive models and support policies accordingly as a consequence.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Motivação , Humanos , Cidades , Coleta de Dados
5.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113328, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314961

RESUMO

This paper proposes a methodology to design the biomethane production chain from MSW at the regional level and to assess the environmental and economic performance of the chain. In the design phase, the following parameters are considered: number and production capacity of biomethane plants, localization of plants, waste flows among municipalities and plants. The model is adopted to design the biomethane chain in the Rome Metropolitan Area (Italy). Several structures of production chain are designed and their performances are assessed. The economic factors mostly able to affect the performance of the chain are waste disposal tariff, biomethane selling price, and the economic incentive provided to biomethane producers. Their impacts are discussed through sensitivity analyses. Results show that the structure maximizing the economic performance has the worst environmental performance and vice versa. Hence, a new structure of the economic incentive is proposed, aimed at re-aligning economic and environmental performance.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Plantas , Cidades , Itália , Metano/análise , Cidade de Roma
6.
J Environ Manage ; 290: 112367, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878632

RESUMO

Air pollution currently poses a serious threat to human health and sustainable development in China. In an attempt to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions which are the major anthropogenic contributors to air pollution, China initiated an electricity price subsidy (EPS) policy in November 2011 for incentivizing coal-fired power plants to install denitrification units. However, the effectiveness of the policy in the reduction of NOX emissions and its sustainability are yet to be investigated. This study attempts to examine the effects of the EPS policy on NOX emissions and NOX removal, based on a panel-data set covering 113 prefectural-level cities in China during 2008-2015. Using a difference-in-differences (DID) regression model, we find that for each additional power plant in cities, the EPS policy significantly reduces NOX emissions by 1.1% and increases NOX removal by 2.8%. Furthermore, the results reveal that the overall effect of the EPS policy shows a positive trend with time accompanied by an increase in price subsidy, indicating that the efficacy of the policy designed for the reduction of harmful air pollutants is sustainable. In particular, we confirm that compensating for the construction and operation costs of denitrification units is an effective mechanism which encourages the coal-fired power plants to invest more in such units. The findings of the study accentuate the significant implication that economic-incentive policies play a crucial role in combating air pollution and environmental degradation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Eletricidade , Humanos , Políticas , Centrais Elétricas
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(23): 29344-29356, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559077

RESUMO

Pollution control policies have achieved remarkable results in China. However, industrial firms still lack enthusiasm for technological innovation to reduce pollution and endogenous motivation for controlling pollution, which pose severe obstacles to industrial pollution control. The top-runner scheme can stimulate the pollution control behaviors of firms to a certain extent. Therefore, the top-runner scheme is combined with economic incentive policies to design an appropriate incentive scheme in this paper, theoretical research is conducted on the selection standards and incentive methods, and four industries mainly responsible for pollution in a developed province of China are investigated as case studies. The results show that (1) the selection standard that stipulates the rewarded quotas instead of the discharge amount achieved higher emission reduction efficiency; (2) tax cuts are the best incentive for top-runners, and (3) the top-runner incentive scheme achieves a greater reduction effect in high-pollution industries than low-pollution industries. Value-added tax exemption for the top-runner, as determined by the rewarded quotas, contributes to increasing the enthusiasm from firms to participate in and improve pollution control measures.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Motivação , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Indústrias , Invenções
8.
Vulnerable Child Youth Stud ; 15(3): 257-268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281920

RESUMO

Poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significant consequences for adolescents. Conditional economic incentives (CEI) is an approach that may help address this challenge. This study evaluated the safety and preliminary efficacy of a group-based CEI program for ART adherence improvement among a sample of adolescents living in Ghana. A total of 35 adolescents (mean age: 14.7 years) on ART, though still with detectable viral load, were recruited from an HIV clinic and divided into 5 balanced groups to participate in peer-led group-based CEI activities during routine clinic visits. Four assessments were conducted across four visits at baseline and 3-, 6-, and 9-month follow-up, respectively. Main outcomes were ART adherence and viral load. Linear mixed models and thematic analysis were used for data analyses. The majority (91.4%) of the participants attended all four intervention activities. Participants reported missing an average of 1.06, 0.50, 0.91, 0.55 doses of ART in the past 7 days at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 9-month assessments, respectively. Most viral loads were ≥5,000 copies/ml at both baseline (68.6%) and 6-month assessments (54.3%). The incentive was divided between individual compensation for attending clinic and completing the assessment ($5 each, $20 in total) and a group-based compensation valued at $40 that was distributed during the 9-month assessment according to average group attendance (A≥90%, B≥75%, C≥60%, D<60%) and group-average viral load (A=undetectable, B=50-499, C=500-4999, D≥5,000). The mean earnings for the participants was $46.70 (77.8% of possible earning). Qualitative data suggested that the CEI helped ART adherence through gaining personal and group benefits. Participants reported no teasing, bullying, or other undesirable behaviors from group members. They liked getting money for attending clinics/group meetings and obtaining undetectable viral load. We concluded that a group-based CEI was safe and had the potential to improve ART adherence and reduce viral load among Ghanaian adolescents.

9.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(3): 895-913, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552522

RESUMO

With the rapid economic growth of China, the increasingly serious environmental problems of haze pollution have become a large concern. Urban resident's PM2.5 reduction behavior contributes significantly to Chinese haze pollution control. Resident-level policy measures are beneficial for encouraging residents to engage in PM2.5 reduction behaviors. The current research aims to explore the long-term intervention effects of three types of policies (i.e., command and control policies, economic incentive policies and education-guided policies) on resident's PM2.5 reduction intention and actual behavior. Based on the agent-based modeling and simulation approach, a resident's PM2.5 reduction behavioral simulation model is developed, and data adopted from a questionnaire survey are analyzed. The simulation results show that resident's PM2.5 reduction intention is motivated by the interactions among resident agents, and it eventually stabilizes at a higher level (from 4.11 to 4.48). Moreover, the effects of the three types of policy measures on PM2.5 reduction behavior vary depending on the specific scenarios. With respect to single-policy scenarios, these policies all enhance the actual resident's PM2.5 reduction behavior over the long term. The effects of command and control policies (M = 3.42) and education-guided policies (M = 3.44) are much better than those of the economic incentive policies (M = 3.15). Regarding policy combination scenarios, a combination of economic incentive policies and education-guided policies (MII = 4.15) has a remarkable promotional effect over others for encouraging residents to conduct PM2.5 reduction behaviors. Based on the results, implications and suggestions for improving current resident-level PM2.5 reduction policies and encouraging resident's PM2.5 reduction behavior are provided.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Política Ambiental , Modelos Teóricos , Material Particulado , China , Cidades , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Environ Manage ; 244: 320-327, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129464

RESUMO

This paper examines the effectiveness of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations on the adoption intensity of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) among annual crop farmers in Chile. We use the farmers' attitude towards SAPs as a proxy of intrinsic motivation, while extrinsic motivation is represented by an economic incentive to promote the use of SAPs. The policy program we studied is administered by the Chilean Ministry of Agriculture under the name System of Incentives for the Agro-Environmental Sustainability of Degraded Soils (SIRSD-S. Sustainable behaviour was defined as the adoption of (1) minimum tillage, (2) improved fallow, (3) stubble incorporation, (4) use of manure, and (5) use of compost. A count model was estimated that showed that both sources of motivation, and the interaction between them, significantly predicted the adoption of SAPs. Farmers with low levels of intrinsic motivation depended largely on the SIRSD-S to adopt SAPs, while the incentive was ineffective for intrinsically motivated farmers who adopted more SAPs regardless the presence of extrinsic motivation. Finally, the perception of risk of soil erosion and perceived behavioural control of this risk were found to play a positive role in the adoption of SAPs.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Motivação , Agricultura , Chile , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 23(3): 219-227, oct.-nov. 2018. tab., graf.
Artigo em Espanhol | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1015642

RESUMO

Regulatory Decree 170/91 of Law 10436 created a legal framework designed to ensure the socio-economic protection of patients suffering from TB. It consisted of the monthly payment of a minimum salary for employees in the local public administration. The evaluation criteria employed by the health team assessed who could be included in the protection law, their social situation and permanent residence of at least two years in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The aim of our study was to analyze the differences in clinical and epidemiological data between patients included in the law and those not included, and whether the benefit was a factor in the outcome of the treatment. We describe a retrospective observational study that took place from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2016. People receiving the benefit showed a good outcome in 93.1% of the total cases, 91.1% in confirmed lung cases, 83.7% in the TB-HIV association / AIDS and 81.5% in MDR-TB. In patients not receiving the benefit the success rates were 74.4%, 73.9%, 53.6% and 58.9%, respectively. The differences were statistically significant between both groups. The economic protection law was essential in motivating the patients and in following those cases of difficult management, thus improving treatment adherence. Overcoming TB means not only improving the use of current tools and interventions but also considering the possibility of extending or approving similar laws in Argentina.


Mediante la aprobación del Decreto Reglamentario 170/91 de la Ley 10436, se crea un régimen de amparo, destinado a asegurar la protección socioeconómica del paciente afectado de tuberculosis (TB). Consiste en el pago mensual de un salario básico de la administración pública provincial. El equipo de salud es el que evalúa quiénes se encuentran en condiciones de ser incluidos en la ley de amparo. Los criterios de evaluación contemplan la situación social y una residencia permanente, como mínimo de dos años en la Provincia de Buenos Aires. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es analizar las diferencias de los datos clínicos y epidemiológicos entre pacientes con y sin inclusión en el régimen de amparo y si el subsidio fue factor de éxito en el tratamiento. Este es un estudio observacional retrospectivo, realizado entre el 1º de enero de 2004 al 31 de diciembre de 2016. Las personas con subsidio mostraron éxito en 93.1% en el total de los casos, 91.1% en los casos pulmonares confirmados, 83.7% en la asociación TB-VIH/SIDA y 81.5% en tuberculosis multirresistente (MDR-TB). Sin subsidio el éxito fue 74.4%, 73.9%, 53.6% y 58.9% respectivamente. Las diferencias fueron estadísticamente significativas entre ambos grupos. El régimen de amparo económico, fue primordial para motivar y retener los casos de difícil manejo, mejorando la adhesión al tratamiento. Poner fin a la TB, consistirá, en mejorar el uso de las herramientas e intervenciones actuales y considerar la posibilidad de extender o aprobar leyes similares en el ámbito de nuestro país.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose , Tuberculose/economia , Tuberculose/terapia , Financiamento Governamental , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento
12.
J Agromedicine ; 23(4): 381-392, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Certified Safe Farm (CSF) is a multimodal intervention composed of four components: safety, health, education, and economic incentive. North Carolina has conducted the largest implementation of CSF outside of the Midwestern United States where it was developed. This paper describes the Efficacy dimension of the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework for the implementation of CSF in North Carolina during 2009-2012 on 113 farms in a three-county, highly productive and diverse agricultural area. METHODS: Using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, correlational analyses, and logistic regression, quantitative data were examined from on-farm safety reviews, as well as primary operators' use of cost-share funds as an economic incentive (34% participation) to make identified safety and health improvements on the farm. RESULTS: Overall farm safety review scores were generally high (96% passing rate). Category scores revealed hazards in seven key categories: Chemical Storage; Tractors; Machine Shop, Repair Area; Gravity Flow, Auger, and Forage Wagons; Portable Augers; Dairy and Beef Structures; and Swine and Poultry Structures. The cost-share economic incentive component was utilized in addressing hazards in five of these categories, as well as in nine others. The average per farm cost-share reimbursement was $3,276, with a median of $1,615. In total, an investment of $255,307 (farmer investment plus incentive) was made in safety and health improvements on farms (n = 38). Correlation and logistic regression analyses revealed no significant relationships among scores, cost-share investments, and selected farm demographics. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest the 50% cost-share for safety and health improvements is a promising economic incentive model for CSF implementation.


Assuntos
Agricultura/organização & administração , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Fazendas , Humanos , Motivação , North Carolina , Saúde Ocupacional/economia , Gestão da Segurança/métodos
13.
Waste Manag ; 77: 522-531, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735360

RESUMO

China has experienced a rapid growth of solid waste over the years, household waste source-separation is becoming a nationwide strategy for promoting recycling economy and improving urban environmental sustainability. Waste separation, however, may end in failure due to the free-rider problem similarly existing in other pro-environmental collective actions. Along with the economic and sociological/social psychological logic respectively, this study tested the effects of economic incentive and social influence, which are theoretically considered as two general solutions to domestic waste separation dilemma. One hundred and eighty-eight residents in the three communities of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province were assigned to a control group or one of two experimental scenarios, where they were encouraged to participate in waste separation activities through either the economic rewards given on their performance, or door-stepping campaigns aimed at constructing a supportive social environment. Six-month intervention effects were analyzed and showed that economic inducement was more effective than social mobilization in promoting waste separation. Further mediation tests indicated that self-efficacy partially mediated the effects of both strategies, while personal norms were positively associated with two treatments instead of behavior demonstration. In addition, the moderating effects of several socio-demographic factors on psychological mechanisms were also explored. The findings, limitations and implications for future research and policy are discussed in the concluding section.


Assuntos
Reciclagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , China , Motivação , Resíduos Sólidos
14.
J Agromedicine ; 21(3): 269-83, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27096550

RESUMO

Certified Safe Farm (CSF) is a multimodal safety and health program developed and assessed through multiple controlled intervention studies in Iowa. Although developed with the intent to be broadly applicable to agriculture, CSF has not been widely implemented outside the midwestern United States. This article describes the CSF implementation process in North Carolina (NC), as piloted on a large-scale in three agriculturally diverse and productive counties of NC, and reports its effectiveness using the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Implementation involved (1) capacity building through safety and health training, (2) adaptation of components of Iowa's CSF model to NC agriculture, (3) marketing and recruitment, and (4) formative evaluation, including an online survey and focus group discussion. From 2009 to 2012, 113 farms participated in at least one component of the CSF intervention, representing a NC farm participation rate of 3.1% in the study area. A major adaptation of NC implementation was the utilization of NC Cooperative Extension as the local driver of implementation in contrast to local AgriSafe clinics in Iowa. The most innovative adaptation to CSF components was the development of a defined economic incentive in the form of a cost-share program. The RE-AIM framework was found to be useful and relevant to the field of agricultural health and safety translational research. This study provides effectiveness measures and implementation alternatives useful for those considering implementing CSF. It informs current efforts to move CSF from research to practice through the National Sustainable Model CSF Program initiative.


Assuntos
Fazendas , Saúde Ocupacional/normas , Agricultura/normas , Humanos , Iowa , Marketing , North Carolina , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Segurança/normas
15.
Prev Med ; 61: 20-5, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24440159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Economic incentives can positively influence social determinants to improve the health care of the uninsured and underserved populations. The aim of this study was to determine if free HPV4 vaccine would lead to on-time series completion in our safety net health care system in the US Midwest. METHODS: A nested retrospective cohort study of females receiving HPV4 vaccine between 2006 and 2009 was conducted. Patient characteristics and payor source for each of the three HPV4 doses were abstracted from electronic records. Logistic regression was used to predict on-time completion rates. RESULTS: The proportion of adolescent and adult females completing three on-time HPV4 doses was equal (21% (28/136) vs. 18% (66/358), respectively) from among the 494 females receiving 927 HPV4 doses in this study. No adolescent receiving free HPV4 vaccine completed three doses. Grant sponsorship of at least one HPV4 dose among adults did not predict three dose on-time completion (OR=1.56, 95%CI: 0.80, 3.06). Neither was adult grant sponsorship of HPV4 significant when analyzing exclusive payor sources vs. a combination of payor sources (OR=0.72, 95%CI: 0.10, 5.17). CONCLUSIONS: Free HPV4 vaccine does not influence the on-time completion rates among adults.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/economia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados de Saúde não Remunerados/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/etnologia , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Governo Estadual , Fatores de Tempo , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
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