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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256354, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364518

RESUMO

Termites are known as social insects worldwide. Presently in China 473 species, 44 genera and 4 families of termites have been reported. Of them, 111 Reticulitermes species are widely spread in different zones of China. The dispersion flight season of these Chinese Reticulitermes species are usually started from February to June, but in some regions different species are distributed, sharing their boundaries and having overlapping flight seasons. These reasons become important sources of hybridization between two different heterospecific populations of termites. It was confirmed that the fertilized eggs and unfertilized eggs of some Reticulitermes termites have the capacity of cleavage. While the unfertilized eggs of R. aculabialis, R. chinensis and R. labralis cleaved normally and the only R. aculabialis unfertilized eggs develop in embryos. While, the R. flaviceps and R. chinensis were observed with their abnormal embryonic development, and not hatching of eggs parthenogenetically. They were reported more threatening to Chinese resources as they propagate with parthenogenesis, hybridization and sexual reproduction. Eggshell and macrophiles of eggs play important roles in species identification and control. Although, they are severe pests and cause a wide range of damages to wooden structures and products in homes, buildings, building materials, trees, crops, and forests in China's Mainland.


Os cupins são conhecidos como insetos sociais em todo o mundo. Atualmente na China foram relatadas 473 espécies, 44 gêneros e 4 famílias de cupins. Destas, 111 espécies de Reticulitermes estão amplamente distribuídas em diferentes zonas da China. A temporada de voo de dispersão dessas espécies chinesas de Reticulitermes geralmente começa de fevereiro a junho, mas em algumas regiões diferentes espécies são distribuídas, compartilhando seus limites e tendo temporadas de voo sobrepostas. Essas razões tornam-se importantes fontes de hibridização entre duas populações heteroespecíficas de cupins. Foi confirmado que os ovos fertilizados e não fertilizados de alguns cupins Reticulitermes possuem capacidade de clivagem. Já os ovos não fertilizados de R. aculabialis, R. chinensis e R. labralis clivaram normalmente, e os únicos ovos não fertilizados de R. aculabialis se desenvolvem em embriões. R. flaviceps e R. chinensis foram observados com desenvolvimento embrionário anormal, e não eclosão de ovos por partenogênese. Eles foram relatados como mais ameaçadores para os recursos chineses à medida que se propagam com partenogênese, hibridização e reprodução sexual. Casca de ovo e macrófilos de ovos desempenham papéis importantes na identificação e controle de espécies, embora sejam pragas graves e causem uma ampla gama de danos a estruturas e produtos de madeira em residências, edifícios, materiais de construção, árvores, plantações e florestas na China continental.


Assuntos
Animais , Partenogênese , Reprodução , Isópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Hibridização Genética
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 252: 114572, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36706524

RESUMO

Triclocarban (TCC) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent used globally, and high concentrations of this harmful chemical exist in the environment. The human body is directly exposed to TCC through skin contact. Moreover, TCC is also absorbed through diet and inhaled through breathing, which results in its accumulation in the body. The safety profile of TCC and its potential impact on human health are still not completely clear; therefore, it becomes imperative to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of TCC. Here, we explored the effect of TCC on the early embryonic development of mice and its associated mechanisms. We found that acute exposure of TCC affected the early embryonic development of mice in a dose-dependent manner. Approximately 7600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained by sequencing the transcriptome of 2-cell mouse embryos; of these, 3157 genes were upregulated and 4443 genes were downregulated in the TCC-treated embryos. GO and KEGG analysis revealed that the enriched genes were mainly involved in redox processes, RNA synthesis, DNA damage, apoptosis, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, cytoskeleton, peroxisome, RNA polymerase, and other components or processes. Moreover, the Venn analysis showed that the zygotic genome activation (ZGA) was affected and the degradation of maternal effector genes was inhibited. TCC induced changes in the epigenetic modification of 2-cell embryos. The level of DNA methylation increased significantly. Further, the levels of H3K27ac, H3K9ac, and H3K27me3 histone modifications decreased significantly, whereas those of H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 modifications increased significantly. Additionally, TCC induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in the 2-cell embryos. In conclusion, acute exposure of TCC affected early embryo development, destroyed early embryo gene expression, interfered with ZGA and maternal gene degradation, induced changes in epigenetic modification of early embryos, and led to oxidative stress and DNA damage in mouse early embryos.

3.
J Anat ; 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708289

RESUMO

The normal stages of embryonic development for wild-type Xenopus laevis were established by Nieuwkoop and Faber in 1956, a milestone in the history of understanding embryonic development. However, this work lacked photographic images and staining for skeleton structures from the corresponding stages. Here, we provide high-quality images of embryonic morphology and skeleton development to facilitate studies on amphibian development. On the basis of the classical work, we selected the albino mutant of X. laevis as the observation material to restudy embryonic development in this species. The lower level of pigmentation makes it easier to interpret histochemical experiments. At 23°C, albino embryos develop at the same rate as wild-type embryos, which can be divided into 66 stages as they develop into adults in about 58 days. We described the complete embryonic development system for X. laevis, supplemented with pictures of limb and skeleton development that are missing from previous studies, and summarized the characteristics and laws of limb and skeleton development. Our study should aid research into the development of X. laevis and the evolution of amphibians.

4.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 14(1): 2, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597116

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, genetic selection and refined nutritional management have extensively been used to increase the growth rate and lean meat production of livestock. However, the rapid growth rates of modern breeds are often accompanied by a reduction in intramuscular fat deposition and increased occurrences of muscle abnormalities, impairing meat quality and processing functionality. Early stages of animal development set the long-term growth trajectory of offspring. However, due to the seasonal reproductive cycles of ruminant livestock, gestational nutrient deficiencies caused by seasonal variations, frequent droughts, and unfavorable geological locations negatively affect fetal development and their subsequent production efficiency and meat quality. Therefore, enrolling livestock in nutritional intervention strategies during gestation is effective for improving the body composition and meat quality of the offspring at harvest. These crucial early developmental stages include embryonic, fetal, and postnatal stages, which have stage-specific effects on subsequent offspring development, body composition, and meat quality. This review summarizes contemporary research in the embryonic, fetal, and neonatal development, and the impacts of maternal nutrition on the early development and programming effects on the long-term growth performance of livestock. Understanding the developmental and metabolic characteristics of skeletal muscle, adipose, and fibrotic tissues will facilitate the development of stage-specific nutritional management strategies to optimize production efficiency and meat quality.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(2): e2205371120, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595695

RESUMO

Development of multicellular organisms is orchestrated by persistent cell-cell communication between neighboring partners. Direct interaction between different cell types can induce molecular signals that dictate lineage specification and cell fate decisions. Current single-cell RNA-seq technology cannot adequately analyze cell-cell contact-dependent gene expression, mainly due to the loss of spatial information. To overcome this obstacle and resolve cell-cell contact-specific gene expression during embryogenesis, we performed RNA sequencing of physically interacting cells (PIC-seq) and assessed them alongside similar single-cell transcriptomes derived from developing mouse embryos between embryonic day (E) 7.5 and E9.5. Analysis of the PIC-seq data identified gene expression signatures that were dependent on the presence of specific neighboring cell types. Our computational predictions, validated experimentally, demonstrated that neural progenitor (NP) cells upregulate Lhx5 and Nkx2-1 genes, when exclusively interacting with definitive endoderm (DE) cells. Moreover, there was a reciprocal impact on the transcriptome of DE cells, as they tend to upregulate Rax and Gsc when in contact with NP cells. Using individual cell transcriptome data, we formulated a means of computationally predicting the impact of one cell type on the transcriptome of its neighboring cell types. We have further developed a distinctive spatial-t-distributed stochastic neighboring embedding to display the pseudospatial distribution of cells in a 2-dimensional space. In summary, we describe an innovative approach to study contact-specific gene regulation during embryogenesis.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Animais , Camundongos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Transcriptoma , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614188

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles represent a threat to biota and have been shown to cause harm through a number of mechanisms, using a wide range of bioassay endpoints. While nanoparticle concentration has been primarily considered, comparison of studies that have used differently sized nanoparticles indicate that nanoparticle diameter may be an important factor that impacts negative outcomes. In considering this, the aim of the present study was to determine if different sizes of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs; 10, 20, 40, 60 and 100 nm) give rise to similar effects during embryogenesis of Mediterranean sea urchins Arbacia lixula and Paracentrotus lividus, or if nanoparticle size is a parameter that can modulate embryotoxicity and spermiotoxicity in these species. Fertilised embryos were exposed to a range of AgNP concentrations (1-1000 µg L-1) and after 48 h larvae were scored. Embryos exposed to 1 and 10 µg L-1 AgNPs (for all tested sizes) showed no negative effect in both sea urchins. The smaller AgNPs (size 10 and 20 nm) caused a decrease in the percentage of normally developed A. lixula larvae at concentrations ≥50 µg L-1 (EC50: 49 and 75 µg L-1, respectively) and at ≥100 µg L-1 (EC50: 67 and 91 µg L-1, respectively) for P. lividus. AgNPs of 40 nm diameter was less harmful in both species ((EC50: 322 and 486 µg L-1, for P. lividus and A. lixula, respectively)). The largest AgNPs (60 and 100 nm) showed a dose-dependent response, with little effect at lower concentrations, while more than 50% of larvae were developmentally delayed at the highest tested concentrations of 500 and 1000 µg L-1 (EC50(100 nm); 662 and 529 µg L-1, for P. lividus and A. lixula, respectively. While AgNPs showed no effect on the fertilisation success of treated sperm, an increase in offspring developmental defects and arrested development was observed in A. lixula larvae for 10 nm AgNPs at concentrations ≥50 µg L-1, and for 20 and 40 nm AgNPs at concentrations >100 µg L-1. Overall, toxicity was mostly ascribed to more rapid oxidative dissolution of smaller nanoparticles, although, in cases, Ag+ ion concentrations alone could not explain high toxicity, indicating a nanoparticle-size effect.


Assuntos
Arbacia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Paracentrotus , Animais , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Sêmen , Desenvolvimento Embrionário
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672921

RESUMO

We reported a new member of the C2H2-zinc-finger BED-type (ZBED) protein family found in zebrafish (Danio rerio). It was previously assigned as an uncharacterized protein LOC569044 encoded by the Zgc:161969 gene, the transcripts of which were highly expressed in the CNS after the spinal cord injury of zebrafish. As such, this novel gene deserves a more detailed investigation. The 2.79-kb Zgc:161969 gene contains one intron located on Chromosome 6 at 16,468,776-16,475,879 in the zebrafish genome encoding a 630-aa protein LOC569044. This protein is composed of a DNA-binding BED domain, which is highly conserved among the ZBED protein family, and a catalytic domain consisting of an α-helix structure and an hAT dimerization region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the LOC569044 protein to be clustered into the monophyletic clade of the ZBED protein family of golden fish. Specifically, the LOC569044 protein was classified as closely related to the monophyletic clades of zebrafish ZBED4-like isoforms and ZBED isoform 2. Furthermore, Zgc:161969 transcripts represented maternal inheritance, expressed in the brain and eyes at early developmental stages and in the telencephalon ventricular zone at late developmental stages. After characterizing the LOC569044 protein encoded by the Zgc:161969 gene, it was identified as a new member of the zebrafish ZBED protein family, named the ZBEDX protein.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Dedos de Zinco/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Genômica
8.
Development ; 150(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645372

RESUMO

Hox genes encode evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that are essential for the proper development of bilaterian organisms. Hox genes are unique because they are spatially and temporally regulated during development in a manner that is dictated by their tightly linked genomic organization. Although their genetic function during embryonic development has been interrogated, less is known about how these transcription factors regulate downstream genes to direct morphogenetic events. Moreover, the continued expression and function of Hox genes at postnatal and adult stages highlights crucial roles for these genes throughout the life of an organism. Here, we provide an overview of Hox genes, highlighting their evolutionary history, their unique genomic organization and how this impacts the regulation of their expression, what is known about their protein structure, and their deployment in development and beyond.


Assuntos
Genes Homeobox , Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes Homeobox/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Morfogênese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais
9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 116: 109741, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36709593

RESUMO

Our dream of defeating the processes of organ damage and aging remains a challenge scientists pursued for hundreds of years. Although the goal is to successfully treat the body as a whole, steps towards regenerating individual organs are even considered significant. Since initial approaches utilizing only progenitor cells appear limited, we propose interconnecting our collective knowledge regarding aging and embryonic development may lead to the discovery of molecules which provide alternatives to effectively reverse cellular damage. In this review, we introduce and summarize our results regarding Thymosin beta-4 (TB4) to support our hypothesis using the heart as model system. Accordingly, we investigated the developmental expression of TB4 in mouse embryos and determined the impact of the molecule in adult animals by systemically injecting the peptide following acute cardiac infarction or with no injury. Our results proved, TB4 is expressed in the developing heart and promotes cardiac cell migration and survival. In adults, the peptide enhances myocyte survival and improves cardiac function after coronary artery ligation. Moreover, intravenous injections of TB4 alter the morphology of the adult epicardium, and the changes resemble the characteristics of the embryo. Reactivation of the embryonic program became equally reflected by the increased number of cardiac vessels and by the alteration of the gene expression profile typical of the embryonic state. Moreover, we discovered TB4 is capable of epicardial progenitor activation, and revealed the effect is independent of hypoxic injury. By observing the above results, we believe, further discoveries and consequential postnatal administration of developmentally relevant candidate molecules such as TB4 may likely result in reversing aging processes and accelerate organ regeneration in the human body.

10.
J Transl Med ; 21(1): 31, 2023 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650543

RESUMO

NOC2 like nucleolar associated transcriptional repressor (NOC2L) was recently identified as a novel inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase (INHAT). NOC2L is found to have two INHAT function domains and regulates histone acetylation in a histone deacetylases (HDAC) independent manner, which is distinct from other INHATs. In this review, we summarize the biological function of NOC2L in histone acetylation regulation, P53-mediated transcription, ribosome RNA processing, certain development events and carcinogenesis. We propose that NOC2L may be explored as a potential biomarker and a therapeutic target in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Histona Acetiltransferases , Histonas , Proteínas Repressoras , Acetilação , Histona Acetiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
11.
Insect Sci ; 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621956

RESUMO

In triatomines, blood-feeding triggers many physiological processes including post embryonic development and reproduction. Different feeding habits, such as hematophagy, can shape gene functions to meet the challenges of each type of diet. The gut of blood-sucking insects faces particular challenges after feeding due to the quantity and the quality of the food ingested. A comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data indicates that post transcriptional regulation of gene expression is crucial in the triatomine gut. It was proposed that eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit m (eIF3m) and eIF3e define 2 different eIF3 complexes with a distinct affinity for the different mRNAs, thus selecting the set of mRNAs to be translated and constituting a post transcriptional mode of regulation of gene expression. Because the eIF3m is mainly expressed in the gut, we evaluated its relevance in Rhodnius prolixus physiology through RNA interference-mediated gene silencing. The knockdown of eIF3m reduced the digestion rate, affecting the processes triggered by a blood meal. Its silencing inhibited molting and caused premature death in nymphs while impaired ovary development, oviposition and increased resistance to starvation in adult females. The survival of males after feeding (resistance to starvation) was not affected by eIF3m knockdown. The information regarding the eIF3m function in insects is scarce and the phenotypes observed in R. prolixus upon eIF3m silencing are different and more severe than those previously described in Drosophila melanogaster, indicating a pleiotropic role of this gene in triatomines.

12.
Diabetes Metab J ; 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631992

RESUMO

Diabetes is caused by insufficient insulin secretion due to ß-cell dysfunction and/or ß-cell loss. Therefore, the restoration of functional ß-cells by the induction of ß-cell differentiation from embryonic stem (ES) and induced-pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, or from somatic non-ß-cells, may be a promising curative therapy. To establish an efficient and feasible method for generating functional insulin-producing cells, comprehensive knowledge of pancreas development and ß-cell differentiation, including the mechanisms driving cell fate decisions and endocrine cell maturation is crucial. Recent advances in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies have opened a new era in pancreas development and diabetes research, leading to clarification of the detailed transcriptomes of individual insulin-producing cells. Such extensive high-resolution data enables the inference of developmental trajectories during cell transitions and gene regulatory networks. Additionally, advancements in stem cell research have not only enabled their immediate clinical application, but also has made it possible to observe the genetic dynamics of human cell development and maturation in a dish. In this review, we provide an overview of the heterogeneity of islet cells during embryogenesis and differentiation as demonstrated by scRNA-seq studies on the developing and adult pancreata, with implications for the future application of regenerative medicine for diabetes.

13.
Conserv Biol ; 37(1): e14044, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36661082

RESUMO

For sea turtles, like many oviparous species, increasing temperatures during development threaten to increase embryonic mortality, alter offspring quality, and potentially create suboptimal primary sex ratios. Various methods are being implemented to mitigate the effects of climate change on reproductive success, but these methods, such as breeding programs, translocations, and shading, are often invasive and expensive. Irrigation is an alternative strategy for cooling nests that, depending on location, can be implemented relatively quickly and cheaply. However, multiple factors, including ambient conditions, nest substrate, and species characteristics, can influence irrigation success. Additionally, irrigation can vary in duration, frequency, and the volume of water applied to nests, which influences the cooling achieved and embryonic survival. Thus, it is critical to understand how to maximize cooling and manage risks before implementing irrigation as a nest-cooling strategy. We reviewed the literature on nest irrigation to examine whether artificial irrigation is feasible as a population management tool. Key factors that affected cooling were the volume of water applied and the frequency of applications. Embryonic responses varied with species, ambient conditions, and the timing of irrigation during development. Nest inundation was the key risk to a successful irrigation regime. Future irrigation regimes must identify clear targets, either primary or adult sex ratios, that maximize population viability. Monitoring population responses and adjusting the irrigation regime in response to population characteristics will be critical. Most studies reported on the manipulation of only one or two variables, further research is required to understand how altering multiple factors in an irrigation regime influences the cooling achieved and embryonic responses.


Como sucede con muchas especies ovíparas, el incremento en las temperaturas durante el desarrollo embrionario puede aumentar la mortalidad embrionaria, alterar la calidad de la descendencia y tiene el potencial de crear proporciones sexuales primarias poco óptimas en las tortugas marinas. Se están implementando varios métodos para mitigar los efectos del cambio climático sobre el éxito reproductivo, aunque dichos métodos (p. ej.: los programas de reproducción, reubicaciones y sombreado) suelen ser invasivos y costosos. La irrigación es una estrategia alternativa para el enfriamiento de los nidos, la cual, según la ubicación, puede implementarse de manera rápida y económica. Sin embargo, factores como las condiciones ambientales, el sustrato de anidación y las características de la especie pueden influir sobre el éxito de la irrigación. Además, la duración, frecuencia y volumen del agua aplicada a los nidos durante la irrigación puede variar, lo que influye sobre el enfriamiento y la supervivencia embrionaria. Por todo esto, es importante entender cómo maximizar el enfriamiento y gestionar los riesgos antes de implementar la irrigación como estrategia de enfriamiento de nidos. Revisamos la literatura sobre la irrigación de nidos para analizar si la irrigación artificial es una herramienta viable de manejo poblacional. Los factores clave que afectaron el enfriamiento fueron el volumen aplicado de agua y la frecuencia de las aplicaciones. Las respuestas embrionarias variaron según la especie, condiciones ambientales y el momento de irrigación durante el desarrollo. El principal riesgo para un régimen exitoso de irrigación fue la inundación del nido. Los próximos regímenes de irrigación deben identificar objetivos claros, ya sean las proporciones sexuales adultas o primarias, que maximicen la viabilidad poblacional. Para esto, serán muy importantes el monitoreo de las respuestas poblacionales y el ajuste del régimen de irrigación en respuesta a las características de la población. La mayoría de los estudios reportaron la manipulación de una o dos variables, por lo que se requiere de mayores estudios para entender cómo la alteración de varios factores en el régimen de irrigación influye sobre el enfriamiento obtenido y las respuestas embrionarias.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Tartarugas , Animais , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Temperatura , Água , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia
14.
Insect Mol Biol ; 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36661853

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) plays a key role in many biological processes. However, the function and evolutionary relationship of m6A-related genes in insects remain largely unknown. Here we analysed the phylogeny of m6A-related genes among 207 insect species and found that m6A-related genes are evolutionarily conserved in insects. Subcellular localization experiments of m6A-related proteins in BmN cells confirmed that BmYTHDF3 was localized in the cytoplasm, BmMETTL3, BmMETTL14, and BmYTHDC were localized in the nucleus, and FL2D was localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We examined the expression patterns of m6A-related genes during the embryonic development of Bombyx mori. To elucidate the function of BmMETTL3 during the embryonic stage, RNA sequencing was performed to measure changes in gene expression in silkworm eggs after BmMETTL3 knockdown, as well as in BmN cells overexpressing BmMETTL3. The global transcriptional pattern showed that knockdown of BmMETTL3 affected multiple cellular processes, including oxidoreductase activity, transcription regulator activity, and the cation binding. In addition, transcriptomic data revealed that many observed DEGs were associated with fundamental metabolic processes, including carbon metabolism, purine metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, and the citrate cycle. Interestingly, we found that knockdown of BmMETTL3 significantly affected Wnt and Toll/Imd pathways in embryos. Taken together, these results suggest that BmMETTL3 plays an essential role in the embryonic development of B. mori, and deepen our understanding of the function of m6A-related genes in insects.

15.
Dev Dyn ; 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The chicken has been a representative model organism to study embryonic development in birds, however important differences exist among this class of species. As a representative of one of oldest existing clades of birds, the African ostrich (Struthio camelus), has the largest body among birds and has two toes. Our purpose is to establish the corresponding stages in ostrich embryo development that match the well-established HH system of the chicken to facilitate comparative studies between the ostrich and other birds to better understand differences in development. RESULTS: Here we describe in detail the middle period of embryonic development using microscopic images and skeletal staining. We found that clear morphological differentiation between the ostrich and the chicken begins at stage 26. Bird limb cartilage first form in stage 25, while the development of the limb skeletons differs after stage 31. Calcification of limb skeletons in the chicken was completed faster. The first and second toes of the ostrich disappear at stages 36 and 38, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study should greatly aid ostrich-related developmental and morphological research and provide a reference for studying the development and evolution of avian limb skeletons, including molecular research. Questions that can now be addressed include studies into the fusion of tarsometatarsal skeleton, ossification, and digit loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
Reprod Toxicol ; 116: 108339, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36702171

RESUMO

Phthalate exposure is associated with reproductive health, but the mechanism is unclear. This study used human chorionic trophoblast epithelial cells (HTR8/Svneo cells) and mouse embryos as objects aims to explore the effects of phthalate plasticizers on germ cells and fertility and the possible signalling pathways. In the present study, high concentrations of MEHP for 24 h significantly inhibited the proliferation and viability of HTR8/SVneo cells. Compared with the negative control (NC) group, the MEHP medium and high concentration groups promoted the apoptosis of HTR8/SVneo cells and inhibited the cell cycle, HTR8/SVneo cells were blocked in G1/G0 phase and could not enter S phase, and cell meiosis was inhibited. Western blot experiments showed that there was no difference in the protein expression of wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) and ß-catenin in HTR8/SVneo cells between the MEHP exposure groups and the NC groups. In vitro embryo culture experiments found that there was no difference in blastocyst formation rate among groups after exposure to DEHP for 2 h. Immunofluorescence showed that the expression of WIF1 decreased in the low concentration group, and there was no difference in the medium and high concentration groups, while the expression of ß-catenin was increased in both the low concentration group and the high concentration group. Our data suggest that exposure to phthalate plasticizers can affect the viability, cell cycle and apoptosis of trophoblast cells, resulting in abnormal expression of the embryonic WIF1/ß-catenin signalling pathway and impaired fertility.

17.
Biol Reprod ; 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625382

RESUMO

The contribution of sperm to embryogenesis is gaining attention with up to 50% of infertility cases being attributed to a paternal factor. The traditional methods used in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) for selecting and assessing sperm quality are mainly based on motility and viability parameters. However, other sperm characteristics, including DNA integrity, have major consequences for successful live birth. In natural reproduction, sperm navigate the male and female reproductive tract to reach and fertilize the egg. During transport, sperm encounter many obstacles that dramatically reduce the number arriving at the fertilization site. In humans, the number of sperm is reduced from tens of millions in the ejaculate to hundreds in the Fallopian tube (oviduct). Whether this sperm population has higher fertilization potential is not fully understood, but several studies in animals indicate that many defective sperm do not advance to the site of fertilization. Moreover, the oviduct plays a key role in fertility by modulating sperm transport, viability, and maturation, providing sperm that are ready to fertilize at the appropriate time. Here we present evidence of sperm selection by the oviduct with emphasis on the mechanisms of selection and the sperm characteristics selected. Considering the sperm parameters that are essential for healthy embryonic development, we discuss the use of novel in vitro sperm selection methods that mimic physiological conditions. We propose that insight gained from understanding how the oviduct selects sperm can be translated to ART to yield high fertilization, embryonic development, and pregnancy rates.

18.
Biomark Res ; 11(1): 5, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650570

RESUMO

YTHDF1 is a well-characterized m6A reader protein that is essential for protein translation, stem cell self-renewal, and embryonic development. YTHDF1 regulates target gene expression by diverse molecular mechanisms, such as promoting protein translation or modulating the stability of mRNA. The cellular levels of YTHDF1 are precisely regulated by a complicated transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational network. Very solid evidence supports the pivotal role of YTHDF1 in embryonic development and human cancer progression. In this review, we discuss how YTHDF1 influences both the physiological and pathological biology of the central nervous, reproductive and immune systems. Therefore we focus on some relevant aspects of the regulatory role played by YTHDF1 as gene expression, complex cell networking: stem cell self-renewal, embryonic development, and human cancers progression. We propose that YTHDF1 is a promising future cancer biomarker for detection, progression, and prognosis. Targeting YTHDF1 holds therapeutic potential, as the overexpression of YTHDF1 is associated with tumor resistance to chemotherapy and immunotherapy.

19.
Elife ; 122023 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598809

RESUMO

In Drosophila melanogaster embryos, somatic versus germline identity is the first cell fate decision. Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) orchestrates regionalized gene expression, imparting specific identity on somatic cells. ZGA begins with a minor wave that commences at nuclear cycle (NC)8 under the guidance of chromatin accessibility factors (Zelda, CLAMP, GAF), followed by the major wave during NC14. By contrast, primordial germ cell (PGC) specification requires maternally deposited and posteriorly anchored germline determinants. This is accomplished by a centrosome coordinated release and sequestration of germ plasm during the precocious cellularization of PGCs in NC10. Here, we report a novel requirement for Zelda and CLAMP during the establishment of the germline/soma distinction. When their activity is compromised, PGC determinants are not properly sequestered, and specification is disrupted. Conversely, the spreading of PGC determinants from the posterior pole adversely influences transcription in the neighboring somatic nuclei. These reciprocal aberrations can be correlated with defects in centrosome duplication/separation that are known to induce inappropriate transmission of the germ plasm. Interestingly, consistent with the ability of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling to influence specification of embryonic PGCs, reduction in the transcript levels of a BMP family ligand, decapentaplegic (dpp), is exacerbated at the posterior pole.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Zigoto/metabolismo , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 250: 114487, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587413

RESUMO

Atlantic salmon is an important species for Canadian culture and economy and its importance extends beyond Canada to Scandinavia and Western Europe. However, it is a vulnerable species facing decline due to habitat contamination and destruction. Existing and new Canadian pipeline projects pose a threat to salmonid habitat. The effects of diluted bitumen (dilbit), the main oil circulating in pipelines, are less studied than those of conventional oils, especially during the critical early embryonic developmental stage occurring in freshwater ecosystems. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of the Clearwater McMurray dilbit and the Lloydminster Heavy conventional oil on Atlantic salmon embryos exposed either from fertilization or from eyed stage. The dilbit contained the highest concentrations of low molecular weight (LMW) compounds (including BTEX and C6-C10), while the conventional oil contained the highest concentrations of PAHs. The Clearwater dilbit caused a higher percentage of mortality and malformations than the conventional oil at similar WAF concentrations. In addition, the embryos exposed from fertilization suffered a higher mortality rate, more developmental delays, and malformations than embryos exposed from the eyed stage, suggesting that early development is the most sensitive developmental stage to oil exposure. Gene expression and enzymatic activity of the detoxification phase I and II enzymes (CYP1A and GST) were measured. Data showed increases in both cyp1a expression and GST activity with increasing WAF concentrations, while gst expression was not affected by the exposures. Also, gene expression of proteins involved in the biotransformation of vitamin A and DNA damage repair were modified by the oil exposures. Overall, this study indicates that Atlantic salmon is mostly affected by oil exposure at the beginning of its development, during which embryos accumulate deformities that may impact their survival at later life stages.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Salmo salar , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Canadá , Ecossistema , Hidrocarbonetos/toxicidade , Água , Óleos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Petróleo/toxicidade
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