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BMC Emerg Med ; 23(1): 12, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721088


BACKGROUND: The incidence of heat emergencies, including heat stroke and heat exhaustion, have increased recently due to climate change. This has affected global health and has become an issue of consideration for human health and well-being. Due to overlapping clinical manifestations with other diseases, and most of these emergencies occurring in an elderly patient, patients with a comorbid condition, or patients on poly medicine, diagnosing and managing them in the emergency department can be challenging. This study assessed whether an educational training on heat emergencies, defined as heat intervention in our study, could improve the diagnosis and management practices of ED healthcare providers in the ED setting. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was conducted in the EDs of four hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Eight thousand two hundred three (8203) patients were enrolled at the ED triage based on symptoms of heat emergencies. The pre-intervention data were collected from May to July 2017, while the post-intervention data were collected from May to July 2018. The HEAT intervention, consisting of educational activities targeted toward ED healthcare providers, was implemented in April 2018. The outcomes assessed were improved recognition-measured by increased frequency of diagnosing heat emergencies and improved management-measured by increased temperature monitoring, external cooling measures, and intravenous fluids in the post-intervention period compared to pre-intervention. RESULTS: Four thousand one hundred eighty-two patients were enrolled in the pre-intervention period and 4022 in the post-intervention period, with at least one symptom falling under the criteria for diagnosis of a heat emergency. The diagnosis rate improved from 3% (n = 125/4181) to 7.5% (n = 7.5/4022) (p-value < 0.001), temperature monitoring improved from 0.9% (n = 41/4181) to 13% (n = 496/4022) (p-value < 0.001) and external cooling measure (water sponging) improved from 1.3% (n = 89/4181) to 3.4% (n = 210/4022) (p-value < 0.001) after the administration of the HEAT intervention. CONCLUSION: The HEAT intervention in our study improved ED healthcare providers' approach towards diagnosis and management practices of patients presenting with health emergencies (heat stroke or heat exhaustion) in the ED setting. The findings support the case of training ED healthcare providers to address emerging health issues due to rising temperatures/ climate change using standardized treatment algorithms.

Ann Glob Health ; 89(1): 1, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721434


Background: Most Emergency Departments (EDs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), particularly in Pakistan, are staffed by physicians not formally trained in Emergency Medicine (EM). As of January 2022, there were only 13 residency training programs in EM throughout all of Pakistan. Therefore, an intermediate solution-a one-year training program in EM-was developed to build capacity. Objective: To determine the impact of a novel training program in EM on clinical metrics and outcomes. Methods: The first cohort of a novel, one-year training program-the Certification Program in Emergency Medicine (CPEM)-completed the program in June 2019. The program consisted of two arms: CPEM-Clinical (CPEM-C), which included physicians from the Indus Hospital and Health Network (IHHN) ED; and CPEM-Didactic (CPEM-D), which included physicians from EDs across Karachi. Both groups participated in weekly conferences, such as didactics, small group discussions, workshops, and journal clubs. CPEM-C learners also received clinical mentorship from local and international faculty. Mortality, length of stay (LOS), and time-to-evaluation, as well as metrics in four key areas-patients at risk for cardiovascular disease/acute coronary syndrome, sepsis, respiratory illness, and intra-abdominal trauma-were assessed before and after the initial cohort at IHHN and compared with other groups in IHHN. Findings and Conclusions: More than 125,000 patients were seen from July to December 2017 (pre-CPEM) and July to December 2019 (post-CPEM). Overall, there were significant improvements in all clinical metrics and outcomes, with the exception of LOS and time-to-evaluation, and a trend toward improved mortality. In comparing CPEM graduates to other groups in IHHN ED, most metrics and outcomes significantly improved or trended toward improvement, including mortality. Implementation of a medium-duration, intensive EM training program can help improve patient care and the development of EM as a new specialty in lower-resource settings.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721987


BACKGROUND: Low-level exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) is a significant health concern but is difficult to diagnose. This main study aim was to establish the prevalence of low-level CO poisoning in Emergency Department (ED) patients. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study of patients with symptoms of CO exposure was conducted in four UK EDs between December 2018 and March 2020. Data on symptoms, a CO screening tool and carboxyhaemoglobin were collected. An investigation of participants' homes was undertaken to identify sources of CO exposure. RESULTS: Based on an ED assessment of 4175 participants, the prevalence of suspected CO exposure was 0.62% (95% CI; 0.41-0.91%). CO testing in homes confirmed 1 case of CO presence and 21 probable cases. Normal levels of carboxyhaemoglobin were found in 19 cases of probable exposure and in the confirmed case. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that ED patients with symptoms suggestive of CO poisoning but no history of CO exposure are at risk from CO poisoning. The findings suggest components of the CO screening tool may be an indicator of CO exposure over and above elevated COHb. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for CO exposure so that this important diagnosis is not missed.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722010


BACKGROUND: Untimely social interventions prolong hospitalizations, suggesting discharge planning should begin early. This study aimed to create a tool to identify, already in Emergency department, patients at risk of complex discharge for social reasons. METHODS: We developed the Risk Assessment of Complex Discharge Index (RACDI). In Emergency department, we administered RACDI to patients destined to hospitalization. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of RACDI in identifying patients who need a social intervention. RACDI was compared with simplified BRASS. A multivariable logistic regression explored social intervention predictors (P-value < 0.05). RESULTS: RACDI was administered to 296 patients. There were significant associations between classes of risk defined by RACDI or by simplified BRASS and social intervention. The sensitivity of RACDI and simplified BRASS was, respectively, 0.59 and 0.43; the specificity 0.81 and 0.83. Chances of social intervention were higher for patients at high risk with RACDI (adjOR:3.13, 95% CI: 1.23-8.00, P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: The reduced items and mostly dichotomous answers made RACDI a tool easy to be used in daily practice. RACDI helps in classifying patients needing discharge planning for social care and is a starting point to standardize the evaluation of social context early in hospitalization. Further work is needed to overcome limitations and assess additional outcomes.

Anaesth Intensive Care ; : 310057X221119824, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722019


A bag-valve-mask (BVM) is a portable handheld medical device commonly used in airway management and manual ventilation. Outside of the operating theatre, BVM devices are often used to pre-oxygenate spontaneously breathing patients before intubation to reduce the risk of hypoxaemia. Pre-oxygenation is considered adequate when the end-tidal expiratory fraction of oxygen is greater than 0.85. There are reports that some BVM devices fail to deliver a satisfactory inspired oxygen (FiO2) in spontaneously breathing patients due to variability in design. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oxygen delivery of a broad range of adult and paediatric BVM devices at increasing tidal volumes using a mechanical lung to simulate spontaneous ventilation. The secondary aim was to evaluate the effect of BVM design on performance.Forty BVM devices were evaluated in a laboratory setting as part of a safety assessment requested by HealthShare New South Wales. The oxygen inlet of each BVM device was primed with 100% oxygen (15 l/min) for two min. The BVM device was then attached to the mechanical lung and commenced spontaneous breathing at a fixed respiratory rate of 12 breaths/min with an inspiratory: expiratory ratio of 1:2. For each device FiO2 was measured after two min of spontaneous breathing. This process was repeated with small (250 ml), medium (500 ml) and large (750 ml) tidal volumes simulating adult breathing in adult BVM devices, and small (150 ml), medium (300 ml) and large (450 ml) tidal volumes simulating paediatric breathing in paediatric BVM devices. The test was repeated using up to five BVM devices of the same model (where supplied) at each tidal volume as a manufacturing quality control measure.Eight of the 40 devices tested failed to deliver a FiO2 above 0.85 for at least one tidal volume, and five models failed to achieve this at any measured tidal volume. Concerningly, three of these devices delivered a FiO2 below 0.55. Six of the eight poorly performing devices delivered reducing concentrations of inspired oxygen with increasing tidal volumes. Devices which performed the worst were those with a duckbill non-rebreather valve and without a dedicated expiratory valve.Several BVM devices available for clinical use in Australia did not deliver sufficient oxygen for reliable pre-oxygenation in a spontaneously breathing in vitro model. Devices with a duckbill non-rebreather valve and without a dedicated expiratory valve performed the worst. It is imperative that clinicians using BVM devices to deliver oxygen to spontaneously breathing patients are aware of the characteristics and limitations of the BVM devices, and that the standards for manufacture are updated to require safe performance in all clinical circumstances.

Anaesthesia ; 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723442


Pre-operative risk stratification is a key part of the care pathway for emergency bowel surgery, as it facilitates the identification of high-risk patients. Several novel risk scores have recently been published that are designed to identify patients who are frail or significantly unwell. They can also be calculated pre-operatively from routinely collected clinical data. This study aimed to investigate the ability of these scores to predict 30-day mortality after emergency bowel surgery. A single centre cohort study was performed using our local data from the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit database. Further data were extracted from electronic hospital records (n = 1508). The National Early Warning Score, Laboratory Decision Tree Early Warning Score and Hospital Frailty Risk Score were then calculated. The most abnormal National or Laboratory Decision Tree Early Warning Score in the 24 or 72 h before surgery was used in analysis. Individual scores were reasonable predictors of mortality (c-statistic 0.699-0.740) but all were poorly calibrated. A National Early Warning Score ≥ 4 was associated with a high overall mortality rate (> 10%). A logistic regression model was developed using age, National Early Warning Score, Laboratory Decision Tree Early Warning Score and Hospital Frailty Risk Score as predictor variables, and its performance compared with other established risk models. The model demonstrated good discrimination and calibration (c-statistic 0.827) but was marginally outperformed by the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit score (c-statistic 0.861). All other models compared performed less well (c-statistics 0.734-0.808). Pre-operative patient vital signs, blood tests and markers of frailty can be used to accurately predict the risk of 30-day mortality after emergency bowel surgery.

Surg Case Rep ; 9(1): 15, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723671


BACKGROUND: The finding of a vermiform appendix within the peritoneal sac of an inguinal hernia is called Amyand's hernia. The reported incidence of Amyand's hernia and femoral hernia is 1% and 3.8%, respectively. To our knowledge, no cases have been reported in the literature that associate these two entities. We present the first case of incarcerated left-sided Amyand's hernia and synchronous ipsilateral femoral hernia found during emergency surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: A 72-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department for a complicated left inguinal hernia. An inguinotomy was performed that detected a large direct hernial sac and a synchronous femoral hernia. The opening of the inguinal hernia showed the presence of the cecum and the appendix, both without signs of inflammation. The femoral space was evaluated transinguinally, identifying the larger omentum that had slipped into the femoral canal. The primary closure of the posterior wall defect was performed with the McVay technique due to its large size, and then the hernioplasty was completed with a polypropylene mesh. No postoperative complications were reported. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of an incarcerated Amyand's hernia, the decision to perform an appendectomy in addition to hernia repair with or without mesh will depend on intraoperative findings.

Fam Pract ; 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723907


BACKGROUND: Hospital-at-home (HaH) care has been proposed as an alternative to inpatient care for patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Previous reports were hospital-led and involved patients triaged at the hospitals. To reduce the burden on hospitals, we constructed a novel HaH care model organized by a team of local primary care clinics. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre retrospective cohort study of the COVID-19 patients who received our HaH care from 1 January to 31 March 2022. Patients who were not able to be triaged for the need for hospitalization by the Health Center solely responsible for the management of COVID-19 patients in Osaka city were included. The primary outcome was receiving medical care beyond the HaH care defined as a composite outcome of any medical consultation, hospitalization, or death within 30 days from the initial treatment. RESULTS: Of 382 eligible patients, 34 (9%) were triaged for hospitalization immediately after the initial visit. Of the remaining 348 patients followed up, 37 (11%) developed the primary outcome, while none died. Obesity, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms at baseline were independently associated with an increased risk of needing medical care beyond the HaH care. A further 129 (37%) patients were managed online alone without home visit, and 170 (50%) required only 1 home visit in addition to online treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The HaH care model with a team of primary care clinics was able to triage patients with COVID-19 who needed immediate hospitalization without involving hospitals, and treated most of the remaining patients at home.

JMIR Res Protoc ; 12: e40699, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723999


BACKGROUND: Early action by bystanders is particularly important for the survival of individuals in need of emergency care, especially those experiencing a cardiac arrest or an airway obstruction. However, only a few bystanders are willing to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The use of a live video during emergency calls appears to have a positive effect on the number of cardiopulmonary resuscitations performed by bystanders. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to propose and evaluate the relevance of a living lab methodology involving video calls in simulated life-threatening emergency situations. METHODS: The first study aimed at analyzing the process of dealing with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest at a dispatch center and identifying the needs of the dispatchers. The second study is a pretest of a living lab. The third study focuses on a living lab in which 16 situations of cardiac arrest and airway obstruction are simulated. The simulation includes both a live video and transmission of a video demonstration of emergency procedures. The measures focus on 3 areas: the impact of video tools, development of collaboration within the community, and evaluation of the method. RESULTS: The results of the first study show that dispatchers have an interest in visualizing the scene with live video and in broadcasting a live demonstration video when possible. The initial results also show that collaboration within the community is enhanced by the shared simulation and debriefing experiences, clarifying regulation procedures, and improving communication. Finally, an iterative development based on the lessons learned, expectations, and constraints of each previous study promotes the existence of a living lab that aims to determine the place of live video tools in the sequence of care performed by dispatchers. CONCLUSIONS: Living labs offer the opportunity to grasp previously undetected insights and refine the use of the applications while potentially developing a sense of community among the stakeholders. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/40699.

Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 35(1): 6-14, feb. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-213764


bjetivo. Identificar el perfil epidemiológico, clínico y toxicológico de los pacientes consumidores de ketamina en el contexto de una intoxicación aguda por drogas recreativas.Método. Estudio observacional retrospectivo en pacientes atendidos en varios servicios de urgencias (SU) en Baleares por intoxicaciones agudas por drogas recreativas con exposición a ketamina confirmada analíticamente, entre enero de 2016 y diciembre de 2020. El análisis toxicológico en muestras de orina se realizó mediante inmunoensayo y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas.Resultados. Se incluyeron 122 pacientes. La edad media fue de 26,7 (DE 6,5) años. La mayoría eran hombres (77,9%) y no residentes en las Islas Baleares (74,6%). Los casos se detectaron mayoritariamente en verano y en Ibiza (84,4%). El uso de ketamina solo fue declarado por el paciente o fue clínicamente sospechado por el médico en el 40,2%. Los signos clínicos más frecuentes fueron taquicardia (43,4%), hipertensión (28,7%), midriasis (27,0%), disminución de la consciencia (25,4%), agitación/agresividad (25,4%) e hipotermia (21,3%). Siete pacientes (5,7%) requirieron ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI). La cocaína (93,4%) y la 3,4-metilendioximetanfetamina (MDMA) (78,7%) fueron las drogas más detectadas junto con la ketamina. El policonsumo fue habitual (98,4%), combinando ketamina, cocaína y MDMA, en algunos casos asociado a otras sustancias.Conclusiones. La detección de ketamina en intoxicaciones por drogas recreativas se asocia a consumidores con un perfil característico (varones jóvenes, no residentes, asistentes a eventos de música electrónica y policonsumo) y un alto porcentaje desconocen de este consumo. (AU)

Objective. To describe the epidemiologic, clinical, and toxicologic profiles of patients who used recreational ketamine and experienced acute poisoning. Methods. Retrospective observational study of patients attended by several emergency medical services in the Balearic Islands for analytically confirmed acute poisoning after using ketamine between January 2016 and December 2020. Urine samples were analyzed by immunoassay and combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results. One hundred twenty-two patients were studied. The mean (SD) age was 26.7 (6.5) years. The majority were men (77.9%) and not residents of the Balearic Islands (74.6%). Poisoning cases occurred mainly in the summer and in the island of Ibiza (84.4%). Ketamine use was declared by the patient or clinically suspected in 40.2%. The most common clinical signs were tachycardia (43.4%), hypertension (28.7%), mydriasis (27.0%), altered consciousness (25.4%), agitation/aggressiveness (25.4%), and hypothermia (21.3%). Seven patients (5.73%) required admission to the intensive care unit. The drugs most often detected along with ketamine were cocaine, in 93.4%, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), in 78.7%. Multiple-drug use combining ketamine, cocaine, and MDMA, or on occasion additional substances, was detected in 98.4%. Conclusions. Detection of ketamine in urine samples from patients poisoned by recreational drugs is associated with a characteristic profile: young men who are not residents of the Balearic Islands, who attend electronic music. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Ketamina/toxicidade , Drogas Ilícitas , Intoxicação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Estudos Retrospectivos
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 35(1): 15-24, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-213765


Objetivo. Validación de un indicador de mortalidad derivado durante los primeros meses de la pandemia de la COVID-19 en pacientes con COVID-19 atendidos durante la sexta ola epidémica en un servicio de urgencias hospitalario (SUH). Método. Estudio observacional prospectivo no intervencionista. Se incluyeron pacientes > 18 años diagnosticados de casos confirmados de COVID-19 (1 diciembre 2021-28 febrero 2022). Se calculó el indicador para cada paciente: edad $ 50 años (2 puntos), índice de Barthel < 90 puntos (1 punto), alteración de consciencia (1 punto), índice de SaO2/FIO2 < 400 (1 punto), auscultación respiratoria patológica (1 punto), plaquetas < 100 x 109/L (1 punto), proteína C reactiva $ 5 mg/dL (1 punto) y filtrado glomerular < 45 mL/min (1 punto). El rendimiento del indicador se valoró con el análisis del área bajo la curva de la característica operativa del receptor (ABC-COR). Resultados. De los 1.156 pacientes incluidos en el estudio, 790 (68%) habían recibido como mínimo una dosis de vacuna. La probabilidad de supervivencia a los 30 días de la serie fue del 96%. El indicador de riesgo se pudo calcular en 609 pacientes. Cuatrocientos diecisiete pacientes se clasificaron como de riesgo bajo, 182 de riesgo intermedio y 10 de riesgo alto. La probabilidad de mortalidad a los 30 días fue de 1%, 13% y 50%, respectivamente. La sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos positivo y negativo para un punto de corte menor o igual a 3 puntos fue 88%, 72%, 19%, 99%, respectivamente. El ABC-COR para el indicador fue de 0,87. Conclusión. Un valor del indicador de bajo riesgo permite dar de alta con seguridad a los pacientes con COVID-19 que se atienden en un SUH de un centro de tercer nivel. (AU)

Objective. To validate risk factors for mortality in patients treated for COVID-19 in a hospital emergency department during the sixth wave of the pandemic. Method. Prospective observational noninterventional study. We included patients over the age of 18 years with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 between December 1, 2021, and February 28, 2022. For each patient we calculated a risk score based on age 50 years or older (2 points) plus 1 point each for the presence of the following predictors: Barthel index less than 90 points, altered level of consciousness, ratio of arterial oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen less than 400, abnormal breath sounds, platelet concentration less than 100 × 109 /L, C-reactive protein level of 5 mg/dL or more, and glomerular filtration rate less than 45 mL/min. The model was assessed with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results. Of the 1156 patients included, 790 (68%) had received at least 2 vaccine doses. The probability of 30-day survival was 96%. A risk score was calculated for 609 patients. Four hundred seventeen patients were at low risk of death, 180 were at intermediate risk, and 10 were at high risk. The probability of death within 30 days was 1%, 13%, and 50% for patients in the 3 risk groups, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of a risk score of 3 points or less were 88%, 72%, 19%, 99%, respectively.The AUC for the model was 0.87. Conclusion. The risk model identified low risk of mortality and allowed us to safely discharge patients treated for COVID-19 in our tertiary-care hospital emergency department. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pandemias , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Vacinação em Massa , Vírus da SARS , Estudos Prospectivos
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 35(1): 31-38, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-213767


Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de una iniciativa de mejora realizada en los servicios de urgencias (SU) de una comunidad autónoma para reducir el uso de fármacos no recomendados en lactantes con bronquiolitis aguda (BA).Método. Estudio cuasi-experimental analítico del tipo “antes y después de una intervención”. Se incluyeron de forma retrospectiva todas las BA en niños # 12 meses atendidas en los SU de 24 hospitales públicos durante el mes de diciembre de dos periodos epidémicos: 2018 (preintervención) y 2019 (postintervención). Se recogieron variables epidemiológicas, clínicas, asistenciales y evolutivas. La intervención consistió en difundir material informativo y realizar actividades formativas previas al periodo epidémico.Resultados. Se incluyeron 7.717 episodios (2018: 4.007 y 2019: 3.710). No existieron diferencias en las características epidemiológicas y clínicas. El empleo de salbutamol en los SU descendió del 29,4% [intervalo de confianza de 95% (IC 95%): 28,8-30,8] en 2018 al 10,6% (IC 95%: 9,6-11,6) en 2019 (p < 0,001), el de adrenalina del 6,0% (IC 95%: 5,3-6,8) al 0,9% (IC 95%: 0,7-1,3) y el de suero salino hipertónico del 8,2% (IC 95%: 7,3-9,1) al 2,1% (IC 95%: 1,7-2,6) (p < 0,001). La prescripción al alta de salbutamol se redujo del 38,7% (IC 95%: 36,9-40,4) al 10,6% (IC 95%: 9,6-11,6) (p < 0,001). La tasa de ingreso y la tasa de readmisión no cambiaron y la mediana de tiempo de estancia en los SU se redujo 81 minutos [rango intercuartil (RIC) 44-138] a 66 (RIQ: 37-127) (p < 0,001).Conclusiones. La iniciativa de mejora ha conseguido disminuir la tasa de intervenciones terapéuticas no indicadas en BA. Sin embargo, existe una gran variabilidad entre los diferentes SU por lo que la estrategia y la medición de su impacto deben mantenerse en el tiempo. (AU)

Objective. To evaluate the impact of a quality-of-care improvement program implemented in emergency departments (EDs) in a Spanish autonomous community with the aim of reducing the use of unrecommended drugs when treating infants for acute bronchiolitis. Methods. Before-after quasi-experimental intervention study. We retrospectively included infants aged 12 months or less who were treated for acute bronchiolitis in 24 Spanish national health system hospital EDs in December during 2 epidemic periods: in 2018, before implementing the program, and in 2019, after implementation. Data collected included epidemiologic information, clinical and care details, and clinical course. The program consisted of providing informative material and training sessions before the epidemic period started. Results. A total of 7717 episodes (4007 in 2018 and 2710 in 2019) were identified. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics did not differ between the 2 periods. ED use of the following treatments decreased between the 2 periods: salbutamol, from 29.4% (95% CI, 28.8%-30.8%) in 2018 to 10.6% (95% CI, 9.6%-11.6%) in 2019; epinephrine from 6.0% (95% CI, 5.3%-6.8%) to 0.9% (95% CI, 0.7%-1.3%); and hypertonic saline solution fell from 8.2% (95% CI, 7.3%-9.1%) to 2.1% (95% CI, 1.7%-2.6%) (P<.001, all comparisons). Prescriptions for salbutamol on discharge fell from 38.7% (95% CI, 36.9%-40.4%) to 10.6% (95% CI, 9.6%-11.6%) (P<.001). Admissions and readmissions did not change, and the median time (interquartile range) spent in the ED fell from 81 (44-138) minutes to 66 (37-127) minutes (P<.001). Conclusions. The quality-of-care improvement initiative was able to decrease the number of unrecommended therapeutic interventions for acute bronchiolitis. However, we identified great variations between EDs, suggesting that training and assessment of impact should continue. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Bronquiolite/tratamento farmacológico , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Melhoria de Qualidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 35(1): 44-52, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-213769


La púrpura trombótica trombocitopénica adquirida o inmune (PTTi) es una microangiopatía trombótica (MAT) con una elevada mortalidad si no se instaura un tratamiento precoz. El inicio habitualmente brusco de la enfermedad hace que, en la mayoría de los pacientes, el diagnóstico inicial se haga en los servicios de urgencias hospitalarios (SUH), donde se debe sospechar esta entidad con la mayor inmediatez posible. Esta guía, elaborada por profesionales de Medicina de Urgencias y de Hematología, establece unas recomendaciones en cuanto al diagnóstico, derivación y tratamiento de los pacientes con sospecha de PTTi en los SUH. Se debe sospechar PTTi en todo paciente que presente una anemia hemolítica microangiopática, prueba de Coombs directo negativa y trombocitopenia pudiendo asociar, además, fiebre, alteraciones neurológicas y cardiacas. Si tras la aplicación de alguno de los algoritmos diagnósticos existentes, hay una alta probabilidad de que el paciente presente una PTTi, debería iniciarse tratamiento con recambio plasmático, inmunosupresores y valorar el inicio de caplacizumab. Además, debe gestionarse el traslado inmediato de los pacientes al Servicio de Hematología, bien del mismo centro o a uno de referencia. (AU)

Acquired or immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) are thrombotic microangiopathies associated with high mortality if treatment is not started early. Onset is usually sudden, meaning that the condition is often diagnosed in hospital emergency departments, where TTP must be suspected as early as possible. These guidelines were drafted by specialists in emergency medicine and hematology to cover the diagnosis, referral, and treatment of patients suspected of immune-mediated TTP who require emergency care. Immune TTP should be suspected whenever a patient presents with hemolytic microangiopathy and has a negative Coombs test, and thrombocytopenia, possibly in conjunction with fever and neurologic and cardiac alterations. If one of the existing diagnostic algorithms indicates there is a high probability that the patient has immune TTP, plasma exchange therapy should be started along with immunosuppressants. Treatment with caplacizumab should also be considered. The patient should be referred immediately to the hematology department within the same hospital or a referral hospital. (AU)

Humanos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/diagnóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/tratamento farmacológico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/etiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Sociedades Científicas , Consenso
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 35(1): 53-64, feb. 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-213770


En noviembre del año 2021, la Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) publicó una actualización de sus recomendaciones y directrices de 2016. Estas fueron recibidas con una enorme expectativa en todo el mundo, especialmente entre los médicos de urgencias y emergencias (MUE). Recientemente, en el marco del CIMU 2022 (33 Congreso Mundial de Medicina de Urgencias celebrado en marzo de 2022 en Guadalajara – México) se ha revisado y analizado, desde la perspectiva del MUE, la Guía SSC de 2021. Los expertos que realizaron esa tarea y también consensuaron algunos de los puntos clave que más interesan y preocupan a los MUE en la actualidad han elaborado este documento. Su objetivo principal es analizar de forma constructiva diez de los puntos clave y recomendaciones de la SSC 2021 para complementarlas con argumentos y propuestas desde la experiencia, evidencia y perspectiva del urgenciólogo. Además, de forma secundaria, pretende ser el punto de partida de la elaboración de las guías para detectar, prevenir la progresión y atender a los pacientes con infección grave y sepsis en urgencias, que supone la meta final de lo que desde la MUE ya se conoce como “la Declaración de Guadalajara”. (AU)

The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) published a 2021 update of its 2016 recommendations. The update was awaited with great anticipation the world over, especially by emergency physicians. Under the framework of the CIMU 2022 (33rd World Emergency Medicine Conference) in Guadalajara, Mexico in March, emergency physicians reviewed and analyzed the 2021 SSC guidelines from our specialty’s point of view. In this article, the expert reviewers present their consensus on certain key points of most interest in emergency settings at this time. The main aims of the review are to present constructive comments on 10 key points and/or recommendations in the SSC 2021 update and to offer emergency physicians’ experience- and evidence-based proposals. Secondarily, the review’s recommendations are a starting point for guidelines to detect severe sepsis in emergency department patients and prevent progression, which is ultimate goal of what has become known as the Guadalajara Declaration on sepsis. (AU)

Humanos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/mortalidade , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Choque Séptico , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Alerta Rápido
Actas urol. esp ; 47(1): 41-46, jan.- feb. 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214421


Introducción y objetivo Verificar el impacto en los resultados bioquímicos y clínicos de la demora en acudir al servicio de Urgencias (SU) ante un cólico renal agudo. Materiales y métodos Los datos se recogieron retrospectivamente en 3 instituciones de 2 países europeos, desde el 1 de enero hasta el 30 de abril del 2020. Se incluyó a los pacientes que acudieron a Urgencias con un cólico renal unilateral o bilateral causado por urolitiasis confirmada por imagen durante el periodo de estudio. La consulta en el SU después de 24 h desde el inicio de los síntomas se consideró tardía. Los pacientes que acudieron antes de las 24 h desde el inicio de los síntomas se incluyeron en el grupo A y los pacientes que se presentaron después de las 24 h se adjudicaron al grupo B. Se compararon los parámetros clínicos y bioquímicos, así como el manejo recibido por cada paciente. Resultados Se analizó a 397 pacientes que acudieron a Urgencias con urolitiasis confirmada (grupo A, n = 199; grupo B, n = 198). La mediana (RIC) de demora hasta la consulta fue de 2 días (1,5-4). En el momento de la consulta, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los 2 grupos de pacientes en cuanto a los síntomas como fiebre y dolor en el flanco, o la mediana de los niveles séricos de creatinina, proteína C reactiva y leucocitos. No se encontraron diferencias en cuanto al tratamiento conservador o quirúrgico. Conclusiones La demora > 24 h hasta acudir al SU no se asocia a un empeoramiento de los parámetros bioquímicos ni de los resultados clínicos. La mayoría de los pacientes con dolor lumbar agudo no siempre necesitan acudir de forma inmediata a urgencias, pudiendo ser tratados en consultas externas (AU)

Introduction and objective To verify the impact of delay on biochemical and clinical outcomes for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute renal colic. Materials and methods Data were retrospectively collected from 3 institutions of 2 European countries between 01 January and 30 April 2020. Patients who presented to the ED with unilateral or bilateral renal colic caused by urolithiasis confirmed by imaging tests during the study period were included. A presentation after 24 hours since the onset of symptoms was considered a delay. Patients presenting before 24 hours from the symptom onset were included in Group A, while the patients presenting after 24 hours in Group B. Clinical and biochemical parameters and management were compared. Results 397 patients who presented to ED with confirmed urolithiasis were analyzed (Group A, n = 199; Group B, n = 198. The median (IQR) delay in presentation was 2 days (1,5-4). At presentation, no statistically significant differences were found amongst the 2 groups of patients regarding presenting symptoms such as fever and flank pain, and the median serum levels of creatinine, C reactive protein and white blood cells. No differences were found in terms of conservative or operative management. Conclusions Delay in consultation >24 hours is not associated with worsening biochemical parameters and clinical outcomes. Most patients with acute loin pain do not necessarily need urgent attendance to the ED and may be managed in the outpatients (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Cólica Renal/diagnóstico , Cólica Renal/etiologia , Urolitíase/complicações , Urolitíase/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cólica Renal/terapia , Urolitíase/terapia , Doença Aguda
Am J Emerg Med ; 66: 53-60, 2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36706482


BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence for emergency department (ED)-initiated treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD). However, implementation is variable, and ED management of OUD may differ by clinical presentation. Our aim was to use mixed methods to explore variation in ED-based OUD care by patient clinical presentation and understand barriers and facilitators to ED implementation of OUD treatment across scenarios. METHODS: We analyzed treatment outcomes in OUD-related visits within three urban, academic EDs from 12/2018 to 7/2020 following the implementation of interventions to increase ED-initiated OUD treatment. We assessed differences in treatment with medications for OUD (MOUDs) by clinical presentation (overdose, withdrawal, others). These data were integrated with results from 5 focus groups conducted with 28 ED physicians and nurses January to April 2020 to provide a richer understanding of clinician perspectives on caring for ED patients with OUD. RESULTS: Of the 1339 total opioid-related visits, there were 265 (20%) visits for overdose, 123 (9%) for withdrawal, and 951 (71%) for other OUD-related conditions. 23% of patients received MOUDs during their visit or at discharge. Treatment with MOUDs was least common in overdose presentations (6%) and most common in withdrawal presentations (69%, p < 0.001). Buprenorphine was prescribed at discharge in 15% of visits, including 42% of withdrawal visits, 14% of other OUD-related visits, and 5% of overdose visits (p < 0.001). In focus groups, clinicians highlighted variation in ED presentations among patients with OUD. Clinicians also highlighted key aspects necessary for successful treatment initiation including perceived patient receptivity, provider confidence, and patient clinical readiness. CONCLUSIONS: ED-based treatment of OUD differed by clinical presentation. Clinician focus groups identified several areas where targeted guidance or novel approaches may improve current practices. These results highlight the need for tailored clinical guidance and can inform health system and policy interventions seeking to increase ED-initiated treatment for OUD.

J Card Fail ; 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36706976


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of seasonal flu vaccination with severity of decompensations and long-term outcomes of patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS: We analyzed 6,147 consecutively enrolled decompensated HF patients who presented to 33 Spanish emergency departments (EDs) during January and February, 2018 and 2019, grouped according to seasonal flu vaccination status. Severity of HF decompensation was assessed with the MEESSI scale, need of hospitalization, and in-hospital all-cause mortality. Long-term outcomes analyzed were 90-day post-discharge adverse events and 90-day all-cause death. Associations between vaccination, HF decompensation severity, and long-term outcomes were explored by unadjusted and adjusted logistic and Cox regressions using 14 covariables that could act as potential confounders. RESULTS: Overall median (IQR) age was 84 (IQR=77-89) years, 56% were women. Vaccinated patients (n=1,139, 19%) were older, with more comorbidities, and with worse baseline status assessed by NYHA class and Barthel index, than unvaccinated patients (n=5,008, 81%). Infection triggering decompensation was more frequent in vaccinated patients (50% versus 41%, p<0.001). In vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, high or very-high risk decompensation was seen in 21.9% and 21.1%, hospitalization occurred in 72.5% and 73.7%, in-hospital mortality was 7.4% and 7.0%, 90-day post-discharge adverse events were 57.4% and 53.2%, and 90-day mortality was 15.8% and 16.6%, respectively, with no significant differences between cohorts. After adjusting, vaccinated decompensated HF patients had a decreased odds for hospitalization (OR=0.823, 95%CI=0.709-0.955). CONCLUSION: In HF patients, seasonal flu vaccination is associated with less severe decompensations.

J Nutr Educ Behav ; 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707324


OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number, distribution, and predictors of food pantries across counties in the US in 2020. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis of geocoded food pantry locations and social, demographic, and economic characteristics at the county level. PARTICIPANTS: Publicly disclosed food pantry locations were collected from websites in all counties. Pantry locations were merged with data from the American Community Survey 2015-2019. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of food pantries per county. ANALYSIS: A negative binomial regression estimated the association between the number of pantries per county and community characteristics. RESULTS: We found 48,581 food pantries from publicly disclosed websites, covering 98% of counties. The mean and median number of pantries per county were 15.5 and 6, respectively. Selected characteristics positively associated with the number of pantries per county were income inequality, percentage of noncitizens, and percentage of single-parent households. Selected characteristics negatively associated with the number of pantries per county were percent with a high school education or less, percent of households in poverty, and rurality. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The US has an extensive network of food pantries. Future work could assess the potential causal pathways between pantry placement and county-level characteristics.