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1.
Ther Adv Urol ; 14: 17562872221086999, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35371295

RESUMO

Introduction: We carried out systematic review and network meta-analysis to investigate the role of stem cell therapy (SCT) in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED) secondary to cavernous nerve injury in rats and post-radical prostatectomy (RP) in humans. Patients and Methods: The protocol was registered with PROSPERO database. We searched studies analyzing the efficacy of SCT for ED due to bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) in rats using Healthcare Databases Advanced Search (HDAS) Export software (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus) from inception to September 2020. The outcome measurements, for 29 animal studies, were intracavernosal pressure (ICP), ICP/MAP (mean arterial pressure) ratio, and histological/molecular changes. All three available human trials evaluating SCT in post-RP ED were assessed for International Index for Erectile Function (IIEF) Score and Erection Hardness Score (EHS). Results: For ICP measurement, animal studies were divided into adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) subgroup and bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) subgroup. Pooled analysis of these studies showed a beneficial effect of SCT in improving erectile function in rats with BCNI using network meta-analysis (95% confidence interval, CI; p < 0.001). There was an increase in ICP/MAP ratio in stem cell groups (including co-intervention) compared with control BCNI group. Histological and molecular evaluation of penile tissue revealed an increase in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), smooth muscle content, and anti-apoptotic activity. Human trials revealed improved IIEF (70-150% from baseline at 6 months) and EHS (80-200% from baseline). Conclusion: Our results confirm that SCT does improve the erectile function in rats having cavernous nerve injury. Similarly, early human results have shown promising results. PROSPERO registration ID: CRD42020201343.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 81: 102251, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137424

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence of a causal link between Phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitor (PDE-5i) use and melanoma has caused concern in PDE-5i use and was even addressed in the 2018 American Urological Association guideline on erectile dysfunction (ED). Given that several studies have affirmed this low probability but statistically significant association, one might expect a shift in melanoma diagnoses since PDE-5is were introduced in 1998. We sought to determine if the introduction of PDE-5i drugs for ED treatment increased incidence of melanoma. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was used to compare the incidence of melanoma diagnosis in American men between 1973 and 2015, providing over a decade of data before and after PDE-5i introduction in 1998. Interrupted time-series and logistic regression were used to assess this relationship. RESULTS: Over 43 years, the SEER database has reported 292,166 cases of Melanoma, with males accounting for 53.7% of cases (Standard deviation [SD] 3%, Range 47.5-58.3%). After the introduction of PDE-5i, there was no proportional increase in melanoma diagnoses, in fact demonstrating a 2% lower incidence from prediction models (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our analysis of the SEER database demonstrates that the trend in incidence of melanoma has fallen in the era of PDE-5i use for ED. These findings may be of value in counseling patients anxious about the potential association between PDE-5i use and skin cancer; however, continued research analyzing individual-level risk are needed.

3.
Chemosphere ; 308(Pt 3): 136486, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150222

RESUMO

Decabromodiphenyl ether (mainly BDE-209) is a commonly used brominated flame retardant in various industrial products. Although its damage to the reproduction system has been established, its effect on erectile function remains unclear. The present study investigated whether BDE-209 induced erectile dysfunction in male SD rats and the underlying mechanisms. Pubertal male rats were exposed to BDE-209 orally (0, 5, 50, and 500 mg/kg/day) for 28 days and the ICP (intracavernous pressure) and MAP (mean arterial pressure) were measured. After the rats were euthanized, the fibrosis and apoptosis levels were evaluated. Additionally, the endothelial function of the rat vascular endothelium cells and the human umbilical vein endothelial cells were impaired after treatment with 50 µM and 100 µM BDE-209. Moreover, the bioinformatics based on CTD database and ChIP-X Enrichment Analysis, version 3 (ChEA3) and molecular docking analysis demonstrated that 5 transcription factors (NFKB1, NR3C1, E2F5, REL, IRF4) might regulate endothelial function by affecting the expression of interactive genes (BCL-2, CAP3, CAT, TNF, MAPK1, and MAPK3). In summary, the present study demonstrated that BDE-209 might affect downstream interactive genes by binding to transcription factors, leading to corpus cavernosum endothelial dysfunction, thus contributing to erectile dysfunction in rats.

4.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088432

RESUMO

Cryosurgery is a minimally invasive approach to the treatment of focal prostate cancer (PCa). A major complication is the cryoinjury to the cavernous nerve in the neurovascular bundle (NVB). This nerve cryoinjury halts conduction of action potentials (APs) and can eventually result in erectile dysfunction and therefore diminished quality of life for the patient. Here, we propose the application of cryoprotective agents (CPA) to the regions of the nerves in the NVB, prior to prostate cryosurgery, to minimize non-recoverable loss of AP conduction. We modeled a cryosurgical procedure based on data taken during a clinical case and applied ex-vivo porcine phrenic nerves and rat sciatic nerve with temperature profile of NVB. The APs were measured before and after the CPA exposures and during 3 h of recovery. Comparisons of AP amplitude recovery with various CPA compositions reveal that certain CPAs (e.g., 5% DMSO + 7.5% Trehalose and 5% M22 for porcine and rat nerves, respectively) showed little or no toxicity and effective cryoprotection from freezing (on average 48% and 30% of recovered AP, respectively). In summary, we demonstrate that neural conduction can be preserved after exposure to freezing conditions if CPAs are properly selected and deployed onto the nerve.

5.
Andrology ; 2022 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Penile prosthesis implantation (PPI) has been associated with overall good functional outcomes. Of relevance, some patients reported higher level of satisfaction and quality of life (QoL). AIM: We investigated the profile of the patients who may benefit the most from PPI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from a national multi-institutional registry of penile prostheses including patients treated from 2014 to 2017 in Italy (INSIST-ED) were analyzed. All data have been prospectively recorded by 45 surgeons on a dedicated website (www.registro.andrologiaitaliana.it) and revised by a single data manager. Patients' baseline characteristics were recorded. In order to simultaneously evaluate perceived penile prosthesis function and QoL, all patients were re-assessed at 1-yr follow-up using the validated questionnaire Quality of Life and Sexuality with Penile Prosthesis (QoLSPP). High QoL after surgery was defined as a score higher than the 75th percentile in each of the subdomains of the QoLSPP. Logistic regression analysis tested the association between clinical characteristics and high QoL after PPI. RESULTS: Follow-up data were available for 285 patients [median age 60 years (IQR: 56 - 67)] who underwent PPI. Erectile dysfunction (ED) etiology was organic in 40%(114), pelvic surgery/radiotherapy in 39%(111), and Peyronie's disease in 21%(60) of the cases. Patients showed good overall QoLSPP scores at 1-yr follow-up for Functional (F:22/25), Personal (P:13/15), Relational (R:17/20) and Social (S:13/15) domains. Overall, 27.0%(77) of patients achieved scores consistent with the high QoL definition. These patients did not differ in terms of median age (60 vs. 62); type of prosthesis (IPPs: 95% in both of the cases) and post-operative complications (10% vs. 14%) compared to those with lower QoL score (all p>0.1). At logistic regression analysis ED etiology was the only factor independently associated with high QoL at 1-year after surgery (p = 0.02). Patients treated for Peyronie's disease (OR = 2.62; p = 0.01;95%CI: 1.20-5.74) were more likely to report better outcomes after accounting for age, post-operative complications and surgical volume. CONCLUSION: PPI is associated with an overall good QoL. The subset of patients affected by ED secondary to Peyronie's disease seemed to benefit the most from PPI in terms of functional outcomes, relationship with their partners and the outside world and perceived self-image. The systematic use of validated questionnaires specifically addressed at evaluating QoL and satisfaction after PPI should be further implemented in future studies to better define the predictors of optimal satisfaction after PPI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141245

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and erectile dysfunction (ED) are chronic conditions that seriously affect middle-aged men. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the presence of these conditions after transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for OSA. This prospective observational study recruited 48 men with moderate-to-severe OSA (mean age 40.6 ± 8.1 years) who underwent TORS from October 2019 to November 2021 at a tertiary center. Baseline polysomnographic parameters, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and demographic characteristics were measured. The evaluations of LUTS and ED were based on self-administered International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaires, respectively, before TORS. The treatment outcomes were assessed three months postoperatively in the patients undergoing TORS due to moderate-to-severe OSA. There was significant Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) reduction from 53.10 ± 25.77 to 31.66 ± 20.34 three months after undergoing TORS (p < 0.001). There was also a significant decrease in the total IPSS score (5.06 ± 5.42 at baseline to 2.98 ± 2.71 at three months postoperatively, p = 0.001), the storage domain, and the voiding domain (p < 0.05). The ED also improved significantly, as seen in the IIEF score (20.98 ± 3.32 to 22.17± 3.60, p = 0.007). The reduction of AHI was associated with changes in body weight and the lowest oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels during sleep (rho = 0.395, p = 0.005; rho = 0.526, p < 0.001, respectively). However, the reduction in AHI was not significantly associated with improvement in IPSS or IIEF scores (p > 0.05). For men with moderate-to-severe OSA, TORS can significantly improve the polysomnography parameters, sleep-related questionnaire scores, and quality of life, and alleviate ED and LUTS. AHI reduction is not a crucial factor for ED and LUTS improvement after TORS for OSA, especially in ED.

7.
Andrologia ; : e14601, 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146889

RESUMO

Mean platelet volume (MPV) has been related to erectile dysfunction (ED). However, its value in predicting therapeutic response to phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors is not evaluated. This study aimed to investigate the value of MPV as a marker for the prediction of the response of the tadalafil treatment of ED. A retrospective analysis of patients who were admitted to the andrology outpatient clinic between 2020-2022 were performed. The inclusion criteria were, ≥40 years old male, International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain score < 26, not received any ED treatment before, have a stable heterosexual relationship, and prescribed 5 mg daily tadalafil for primary treatment of ED. A total of 116 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 53.7 ± 8.7 years. The response rate to 5 mg tadalafil treatment was 52.6% (Group-1; N = 61). An MPV value 3 10.05 fL was associated with 66% sensitivity and 75,4% specificity for no response to 5 mg daily tadalafil treatment (Area under curve = 76.9% [95% CI 68.2%-85.6%; p < 0.001]). Initial IIEF-EF score, fasting blood glucose, and MPV level was independently associated with the response to the tadalafil treatment. This is the only study to evaluate the value of MPV level on the therapeutic response of ED to tadalafil. Strict inclusion criteria were applied to the cohort. However, the diagnose of vascular ED has been made by clinical evaluation and retrospective design of the study were the limitations of the study. The results of our study suggest that MPV might be used to predict the result of 5 mg daily tadalafil treatment in selected ED patients as a fast and cost-effective test.

8.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 80: 104134, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045795

RESUMO

Background: Erectile Dysfunction (ED) is the most common sexual dysfunction worldwide. This study is the first reported from Somalia to the best of our knowledge. Objective: The current study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding erectile dysfunction disease and its medications among community pharmacy technicians in Mogadishu, Somalia. Method: The current is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among pharmacy technicians in Mogadishu to assess their KAP regarding erectile dysfunction disease and its medications. A convenient sampling technique was used. A structured questionnaire contained 45 questions, including; demographic characteristics (4 items), the knowledge of erectile dysfunction disease and its medications (18 items), attitudes (5 items), and practice (15 items) were assessed among technicians. A total of 200 respondents participated in the study. Results: Knowledge. 79 and 72.5% of technicians comprehended the condition of ED and whom it affects; however, about half did not know the underlying risk factors and complications associated with PDE5 inhibitors. Attitude: 77-85% of technicians believe medication requires prescriptions, medications may have complications, and quality medications are essential. Practice: 64% of technicians give ED medication with prescriptions, and 85% do not consult a physician. 64.5% of technicians always provide the same type of medication, and 63% do not give the same dose to each client. About half of the technicians also vend herbal medicines to clients, such as honey, fish, and sea urchins. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest pharmacy technicians have some knowledge, although not sufficient for understanding the risks and complications of medications. Technicians did not engage in good standard practices despite this knowledge and attitudes. These findings highlight the need for regulations to support good practice among pharmacy technicians and the quality, safety, and efficacy of medicines in Mogadishu by establishing the National Medicine Regulatory Authority.

9.
Andrologia ; : e14568, 2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054412

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the relationship between 25(OH) levels and erectile dysfunction (ED), particularly arteriogenic ED (A-ED). From September 2020 to January 2022, 150 patients diagnosed with ED by the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire were included. All patients were classified as organic ED and psychological ED by nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR) examination. Organic ED patients were divided into A-ED and NA-ED by penile doppler ultrasound (PDU) examination. Finally, 150 patients complaining of ED were enrolled in our study. 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in patients with organic ED (18.24 ± 6.04 ng/ml) than in patients with psychogenic ED (20.90 ± 8.79 ng/ml) (p = 0.032). In A-ED and NA-ED, the mean of peak systolic flow velocity (PSV) values was 18.94 ± 5.28 cm/s and 51.57 ± 15.42 cm/s (p < 0.001), and the mean of 25(OH)D was 15.66 ± 5.86 ng/ml and 20.48 ± 5.90 ng/ml, respectively (p < 0.001). The results showed that 25(OH)D levels were positively correlated with IIEF-5 scores and the PSV values in A-ED patients. The 25(OH)D cut-off value differentiating between A-ED and NA-ED was 15.05 ng/ml. Low 25(OH)D levels may be an independent risk factor for ED, especially A-ED. ED patients should routinely undergo serum 25(OH)D level measurement, and 25(OH)D replacement therapy is necessary for patients with low vitamin D levels.

10.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 29: 100986, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092973

RESUMO

Background: Inclusion of ethnic/racial minorities in clinical trials is essential to fully assess therapeutic efficacy. It is well-known that populations respond dissimilarly to interventions. Our objective is to analyze the inclusion of minority men in clinical trials for erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods: We searched ClinicalTrials.gov for the disease keyword: "Erectile Dysfunction" and used "Prostate Cancer" for comparison. Completed trials which reported demographic data were included for analysis. Literature was reviewed to determine the prevalence of ED and prostate cancer (PC) among Hispanic, Black, White, and Asian men. The proportion of individuals of each group that participated in trials is divided by the proportion of each group in the disease population to calculate the "Participation to Prevalence Ratio" (PPR). PPRs between 0.8 and 1.2 indicates adequate representation, <0.8 is under-representation and >1.2 is over-representation. Results: A total of 312 trials were assessed: 289 for prostate cancer and 23 for ED. Hispanic men comprised 11.8% of ED trial participants and 4.6% of prostate cancer trial participants, yet represented 18% of ED patients and 7.3% of PC patients. Black/African-American (AA) men accounted for 10.2% of ED trial participants and 9.4% of PC trial participants, but comprise 16% of ED patients, and 16.3% of PC patients. Hispanic and AA men are under-represented in trials for ED and Prostate Cancer (Hispanic ED PPR = 0.66; Hispanic PC PPR = 0.63; AA ED PPR = 0.64; AA PC PPR = 0.58). Conclusion: Our analysis shows that both Hispanic and AA men are underrepresented in both ED and PC clinical trials.

11.
Aging Male ; 25(1): 257-265, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the value of dual-energy computed tomography (DE-CT) angiography in diagnosis of arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) patients and feasibility of new scanning area that excludes the testis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-three patients suspected of suffering arterial ED and 40 health volunteers underwent penile duplex Doppler ultrasound and DE-CT angiography (DE-CTA). The scanning range of DE-CTA covered whole arterial system of pelvis and testis was excluded. Two blinded investigators independently evaluated the arterial system that supplies the penis. RESULTS: Finally, 1596 segments were evaluated and 470 segments were judged to be abnormal. The distribution was: 2 (0.4%) in common iliac artery, 7 (1.5%) in internal iliac artery, 82 (17.5%) in internal pudendal artery, 89 (18.9%) in penile artery, 120 (25.5%) in dorsal artery, and 170 (36.2%) in cavernosal artery. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of DE-CTA in diagnostic were 86.02%, 87.50%, 94.12%, and 72.92%. Besides, the new scan area allowed for effective evaluation of the arteries while excluding the testis. CONCLUSION: DE-CTA can provide unbiased, safe evaluation of the vascular status of the penile bed in patients with ED.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil , Impotência Vasculogênica , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Disfunção Erétil/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Impotência Vasculogênica/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Tecnologia
12.
Cureus ; 14(8): e27642, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072219

RESUMO

Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are frequently used for erectile dysfunction (ED) as the first line of treatment. This medication was initially developed to treat muscle spasms and pulmonary hypertension. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved its usage for treating ED. Sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, and avanafil are PDE5 inhibitors. The decrease of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in smooth muscle cells caused by sildenafil causes smooth muscle relaxation and penile erection. Vasodilation of the blood vessels reduces perfusion and blood flow to the optic nerve and eye. Several incidences of non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) have been recorded in sildenafil users, among other ocular complications. The onset of NAION is usually sudden and painless, and it is associated with any pattern of visual field loss. Possible symptoms include poor visual acuity, diminished color vision, a visual field defect, or hemorrhages in the form of flames. Nevertheless, NAION pathogenesis is still a mystery. Most visual effects are reversible weeks after the medication is stopped, and NAION does not seem to cause a permanent blindness. A small cup-to-disc ratio (disc at risk) and underlying systemic illnesses, such as hypertension, increase the risk of developing NAION. An early indicator of cardiovascular disease is ED. NAION diagnosis is challenging due to a lack of confirmatory diagnostic evidences. Normal visual acuity does not exclude NAION from being a possibility. In order to evaluate visual outcomes in NAION, data on both visual acuity (VA) and the full peripheral visual field are needed. Treatment with steroids did not seem to improve visual results.

13.
World J Mens Health ; 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047071

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cavernous nerve injury induced erectile dysfunction (ED) is a refractory complication with high incidence in person under radical prostatectomy. Studies have shown that relaxin-2 (RLX-2) plays a vital role of endothelial protection, vasodilation, anti-fibrosis and neuroprotection in a variety of diseases. However, whether penile cavernous erection can benefit from RLX-2 remains unknown. The purpose of the experiment was to explore the effects of RLX-2 on ED in the rat suffering with bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats were divided into three groups: Sham group was underwent sham operation, BCNI+RLX group or BCNI group was underwent bilateral cavernous nerve crush and then randomly treated with RLX-2 (0.4 mg/kg/d) or saline by continuous administration using a subcutaneously implanted micro pump for 4 weeks respectively. Then, erectile function was evaluated by electrical stimulation of cavernous nerves. Cavernous nerves and penile tissues and were collected for histological evaluation. RESULTS: Erectile function of rats with BCNI was partially improved after RLX-2 treatment. The BCNI group had lower expression of relaxin family peptide receptor (RXFP) 1, p-AKT/AKT, p-eNOS/eNOS ratios than sham operation rats, but RLX-2 could partially reversed these changes. Histologically, the BCNI+RLX group had a significant effect on preservation of neurofilament, neuronal glial antigen 2 of penile tissue and nNOS of cavernous nerves when compared with BCNI group. RLX-2 could inhibited the lever of BCNI induced corporal fibrosis and apoptosis via regulating TGFß1-Smad2/3-CTGF pathway and the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase3. CONCLUSIONS: RLX-2 could improve erectile function of BCNI rats by protecting cavernous nerve and endothelial function and suppressing corporal fibrosis and apoptosis via RXFP1 and AKT/eNOS pathway. Our findings may provide a promising treatment for refractory BCNI induced ED.

14.
Andrologia ; : e14563, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073235

RESUMO

Although mRNA COVID-19 vaccines have proven to be safe and effective against SARS-CoV-2, vaccination rates have slowed, with some individuals citing impotence as a concern. Therefore, we conducted a survey of the US males to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on erectile function. We hypothesized that vaccinated men would not have a higher risk of ED compared to unvaccinated men. Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) was utilized to survey the US adult male population between August 26 and September 2, 2021. Survey participation was open to 1000 males over the age of 18 and currently living in the United States regardless of vaccination status or the past medical history of COVID-19. Selection criteria included respondents ≥45 years old, no history of physician-diagnosed ED, biologically born, and identify as male. Participants completed an anonymous 16-question survey that included a multidimensional scale used to evaluate ED, the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). Among vaccinated men, the median IIEF-5 score was 20 [16-24] compared to 22 [17.5-25] in the unvaccinated group (p = 0.195). The multivariable-adjusted analysis demonstrated that vaccination against COVID-19 was not associated with increased risk of ED. Overall, this cross-sectional survey showed that COVID-19 vaccination was not associated with an increased risk of erectile dysfunction in males 45 years and older.

15.
FASEB J ; 36(10): e22535, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070139

RESUMO

Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) display priapism. Clinical studies have shown a strong positive correlation between priapism and high levels of intravascular hemolysis in men with SCD. However, there are no experimental studies that show that intravascular hemolysis promotes alterations in erectile function. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxant function in a murine model that displays intravascular hemolysis induced by phenylhydrazine (PHZ), as well as the role of intravascular hemolysis in increasing the stress oxidative in the penis. Corpus cavernosum strips were dissected free and placed in organ baths. Acetylcholine and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced corpus cavernosum relaxations in vitro were obtained. Increased corpus cavernosum relaxant responses to acetylcholine and EFS were observed in the PHZ group. Protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 increased in the corpus cavernosum of the PHZ group, but PDE5 protein expression was not modified. Preincubation with the heme oxygenase inhibitor 1 J completely reversed the increased relaxant responses to acetylcholine and EFS in PHZ mice. Protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox, 3-nitrotyrosine, and 4-hydroxynonenal increased in the corpus cavernosum of the PHZ group, suggesting a state of oxidative stress. Basal cGMP production was lower in the PHZ group. Our results show that intravascular hemolysis promotes increased corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation associated with increased HO-1 expression, as well as increased oxidative stress associated with upregulation of gp91phox expression. Moreover, our study supports clinical studies that point to a strong positive correlation between priapism and high levels of intravascular hemolysis in men with SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Priapismo , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/metabolismo , Animais , Hemólise , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pênis , Priapismo/complicações
16.
Urology ; 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of botulinum toxin in treating erectile dysfunction as a novel treatment strategy avoiding morbid and irreversible surgeries. METHODS: A systematic review of literature was conducted from January 1990 through July 31, 2021. Search engines used included PubMed, Embase and Medline databases, to identify studies investigating botulinum toxin in erectile dysfunction, published in English. Seven studies in total were included in our review including two pre-clinical studies. A meta-analysis was performed on three outcomes included commonly in at least two studies. Among the different parameters assessed were, Erection Hardness Score (EHS), Peak Systolic Velocity in cavernosal artery (PSV) and the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score. RESULTS: A clear benefit was noted for intracavernosal injection (ICI) of botulinum toxin (BoNT-A) on PSV with a mean difference (MD) of 10.82 [4.99, 16.65] and a heterogeneity of I2=61%. EHS results favored BoNT-A as well over placebo with a MD of 0.7 [0.47, 0.93] and a heterogeneity of I2=94%. As for SHIM score, with a heterogeneity of I2=85%, no statistically significant difference was found (MD 0.58 [-0.03, 1.20]). CONCLUSION: Our review and meta-analysis have shown statistical significance for the benefit of BoNT-A in terms of EHS and PSV. However, this statistical significance should be interpreted in the light of the given limitations: small sample size, heterogeneity in data collection, patient selection bias, and clinical significance of the measured differences. ICI of BoNT-A should currently be limited to clinical studies to further elucidate its clinical benefit.

17.
Urology ; 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the accuracy of the four most commonly used online symptom checkers (OSCs) in diagnosing erectile dysfunction (ED), scrotal pain (SP), Peyronie's disease (PD), and low testosterone (LT). METHODS AND OUTCOMES: One-hundred and sixty artificial vignettes were created by de-identifying recent initial outpatient consults presenting to discuss ED (40), SP (40), PD (40), and LT (40). The vignettes were entered into the 4 most frequently used OSCs (WebMD, MedicineNet, EverydayHealth, and SutterHealth) as determined by web traffic analysis tools. The top 5 conditions listed in the OSC differential diagnosis were recorded and scored. RESULTS: WebMD's accuracy for ED, SP, PD, and LT vignettes was 0%, 22.5%, 0%, and 95%, respectively. EverydayHealth was only able to diagnose SP 20% of the time, and failed to diagnose ED, PD, or LT on all occasions. MedicineNet diagnosed ED, PD, SP, and LT in 100%, 98%, 27.5%, and 0% of vignettes, respectively. SutterHealth correctly diagnosed ED, SP, and LT in 100%, 20%, and 80% of patients, respectively. Cumulatively, the OSCs were most accurate in diagnosing ED and least accurate in diagnosing SP when using the Top 1 (37.5% vs. 6.9%) and Top 5 (50% vs. 24.5%) of the suggested conditions. CONCLUSIONS: No OSC could accurately diagnose all the conditions tested. The OSCs, on average, were poor at suggesting precise diagnoses for ED, PD, LT, SP. Patients and practitioners should be cautioned regarding the accuracy of OSCs.

18.
Urology ; 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical outcomes of Peyronie's disease (PD) patients who were treated by plaque incision and grafting either with tunica vaginalis (TV) or buccal mucosa (BM) grafts. METHODS: PD patients in BM (n=20) and TV group (n=20) were recruited between 2013 and 2020. Erectile dysfunction was assessed by short form of International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire (IIEF-5). Technical success was defined as residual curvature ≤15°. Penile Doppler ultrasound was performed at baseline evaluation, 3-, and 24 months. Peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistance index were measured in erect penis. Erect penile length and curvature angle were measured at baseline and at 3, 12, and 24 months. RESULTS: Mean age of the groups was comparable (47.2±10.8 years in TV vs 46.5±9.9 years in BM groups). Baseline mean penile curvature was 48.0±6.6° (TV) and 50.3±11.6° (BM) (p<0.001). Mean residual curvature at 24-months visits was 12.4±4.9° (TV) and 7.9±3.7° (BM), not significantly different. Technical success rate was 90% for both groups at 24 months. Surgery significantly increased erect penile length in both groups. Mean preoperative IIEF-5 scores were 18.4±2.5 and 17.5±2.2 in TV and BM groups, respectively. In both groups, IIEF-5 scores significantly improved after surgery with no intergroup IIEF-5 difference (20.6±2.6 in TV and 21.3±2.2 in BM). Mean postoperative PSV significantly increased, EDV significantly decreased in both groups, however, there was no significant intergroup difference. CONCLUSION: Both grafting materials provided similar beneficial effects regarding technical success, erectile dysfunction, and penile length.

19.
Andrology ; 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098277

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common andrological disorder that tends to afflict diabetic patients, among others. Pharmacological therapy of diabetes mellitus-induced ED (DMED) is ineffective, as it is linked with smooth muscle cell loss in the corpus cavernosum. Ferroptosis is a recently identified kind of cell death evoked by lipid peroxidation, and it is connected with a number of diabetic complications. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of ferroptosis in DMED. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established the rat model of DMED and conducted a combined analysis of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Next, DMED disease targets were determined by cross-referencing DEGs and DMED-related genes in the DisGeNET, GenCLiP3, and GeneCards databases. Additionally, these targets were analyzed using "clusterProfiler" in R utilizing Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of rat penile tissues was used to validate several targets. Notably, the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, Western blotting, oxidative stress (OS) level, and iron concentration were tested in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs) stimulated with high glucose (HG), and treated with Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1). RESULTS: Sixty-nine disease targets of DMED were identified. According to KEGG analysis, these targets were primarily enriched in the ferroptosis pathway. Additionally, IHC results revealed that the expression of GPX4, SLC7A11, and ACSL4 was deregulated in the DMED group compared to the control group. Significantly, HG decreased cell viability and increased OS and iron levels in CCSMCs, which could be reversed by Fer-1 treatment. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that ferroptosis may indeed exist in DMED. GPX4, SLC7A11, and ACSL4 all have a role in controlling the viability of CCSMCs, making them potential therapeutic targets.

20.
Sex Med ; 10(5): 100566, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063656

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medical providers may not be familiar with the genitourinary and sexual symptoms of transgender and non-binary (TGNB) individuals. This lack of familiarity may hinder a provider's ability to address these issues as patients may hesitate to report symptoms due to fear of stigma, misgendering, and being treated disrespectfully. AIM: To describe the array of genitourinary and sexual symptoms in transfeminine individuals. METHODS: Upon institutional review board approval, researchers used semi-structured interviews with 25 transfeminine individuals assigned male at birth to explore urinary and sexual symptoms on a sample of convenience. Participants were recruited and interviews were conducted until saturation was achieved. Two research assistants independently coded all de-identified transcripts and resolved discrepancies. OUTCOMES: Thematic codes pertaining to genitourinary and sexual symptoms were defined and assessed in this study. RESULTS: Some genitourinary symptoms unrelated to hormone therapy or genital gender-affirming surgery (GGAS) included frequency, urgency, nocturia, and incontinence, while those attributed to GGAS included slow stream, spraying, and retention. Sexual symptoms unrelated to hormone therapy or GGAS included sexually transmitted infections, erectile dysfunction, and low libido. Sexual symptoms related to GGAS included delayed ejaculation, penile pain, scar tissue pain, and pain with receptive vaginal penetration. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Increased provider awareness of and accountability for the treatment of genital and sexual symptoms of transfeminine individuals. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: Open-ended questions were used to generate a range of responses and perspectives through conversation instead of quantifiable data. Findings are not applicable to all TGNB people since participants were limited to transfeminine adults assigned male at birth only. Recruitment was limited by the sensitive nature of the topic and hard-to-reach populations and relied on convenience through flyers and a chain-referral sampling approach. CONCLUSION: Transfeminine individuals experience a wide array of genitourinary and sexual symptoms both similar and different to their cis gender counterparts. Chung PH, Swaminathan V, Spigner S, et al. Genitourinary and Sexual Symptoms and Treatments in Transfeminine Individuals: A Qualitative Exploration of Patients' Needs. Sex Med 2022;XX:XXXXXX.

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