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1.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(6)2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35741184

RESUMO

Anemia is a condition in which red blood cells and/or hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations are decreased below the normal range, resulting in a lack of oxygen being transported to tissues and organs. Those afflicted with this condition may feel lethargic and weak, which reduces their quality of life. The condition may be manifested in inherited blood disorders, such as thalassemia and sickle cell disease, whereas acquired disorders include aplastic anemia, chronic disease, drug toxicity, pregnancy, and nutritional deficiency. The augmentation of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) results in the reduction in clinical symptoms in beta-hemoglobinopathies. Several transcription factors as well as medications such as hydroxyurea may help red blood cells produce more HbF. HbF expression increases with the downregulation of three main quantitative trait loci, namely, the XMN1-HBG2, HBS1L-MYB, and BCL11A genes. These genes contain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that modulate the expression of HbF differently in various populations. Allele discrimination is important in SNP genotyping and is widely applied in many assays. In conclusion, the expression of HbF with a genetic modifier is crucial in determining the severity of anemic diseases, and genetic modification of HbF expression may offer clinical benefits in diagnosis and disease management.

2.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(6)2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35745672

RESUMO

A significant amount of attention has recently been devoted to the mechanisms involved in hemoglobin (Hb) switching, as it has previously been established that the induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production in significant amounts can reduce the severity of the clinical course in diseases such as ß-thalassemia and sickle cell disease (SCD). While the induction of HbF using lentiviral and genome-editing strategies has been made possible, they present limitations. Meanwhile, progress in the use of pharmacologic agents for HbF induction and the identification of novel HbF-inducing strategies has been made possible as a result of a better understanding of γ-globin regulation. In this review, we will provide an update on all current pharmacological inducer agents of HbF in ß-thalassemia and SCD in addition to the ongoing research into other novel, and potentially therapeutic, HbF-inducing agents.

3.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 44(6): 2569-2582, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735616

RESUMO

Recent studies have indicated that microRNA and VEGF are considered to be genetic modifiers and are associated with elevated levels of fetal haemoglobin HbF, and thus they reduce the clinical impact of sickle haemoglobin (HbS) patients. This cross-sectional study was performed on clinical confirmed subjects of SCD cases. miR-423-rs6505162 C>T and VEGF-2578 C>A genotyping was conducted by ARMS-PCR in SCD and healthy controls. A strong clinical significance was reported while comparing the association of miR-423 C>T genotypes between SCD patients and controls (p = 0.031). The microRNA-423 AA genotype was associated with an increased severity of SCD in codominant model with odd ratio (OR = 2.36, 95% CI, (1.15-4.84), p = 0.018) and similarly a significant association was observed in recessive inheritance model for microRNA-423 AA vs (CC+CA) genotypes (OR = 2.19, 95% CI, (1.32-3.62), p < 0.002). The A allele was associated with SCD severity (OR = 1.57, 95% CI, (1.13-2.19), p < 0.007). The distribution of VEGF-2578 C>A genotypes between SCD patients and healthy controls was significant (p < 0.013). Our results indicated that in the codominant model, the VEGF-2578-CA genotype was strongly associated with increased SCD severity with OR = 2.56, 95% CI, (1.36-4.82), p < 0.003. The higher expression of HbA1 (65.9%), HbA2 (4.40%), was reported in SCD patients carrying miR-423-AA genotype than miR-423 CA genotype in SCD patients carrying miR-423 CA genotype HbA1 (59.98%), HbA2 (3.74%) whereas SCD patients carrying miR-423 CA genotype has higher expression of HbF (0.98%) and HbS (38.1%) than in the patients carrying AA genotype HbF (0.60%), HbS (36.1%). ARMS-PCR has been proven to be rapid, inexpensive and is highly applicable to gene mutation screening in laboratories and clinical practices. This research highlights the significance of elucidating genetic determinants that play roles in the amelioration of the HbF levels that is used as an indicator of severity of clinical complications of the monogenic disease. Further well-designed studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to confirm our findings.

4.
Front Genet ; 13: 881937, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35656314

RESUMO

Reactivation of γ-globin expression is a promising therapeutic approach for ß-hemoglobinopathies. Here, we propose a novel Cas9/AAV6-mediated genome editing strategy for the treatment of ß-thalassemia: Natural HPFH mutations -113A > G, -114C > T, -117G>A, -175T > C, -195C > G, and -198T > C were introduced by homologous recombination following disruption of BCL11A binding sites in HBG1/HBG2 promoters. Precise on-target editing and significantly increased γ-globin expression during erythroid differentiation were observed in both HUDEP-2 cells and primary HSPCs from ß-thalassemia major patients. Moreover, edited HSPCs maintained the capacity for long-term hematopoietic reconstitution in B-NDG hTHPO mice. This study provides evidence of the effectiveness of introducing naturally occurring HPFH mutations as a genetic therapy for ß-thalassemia.

5.
Hemoglobin ; : 1-7, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506261

RESUMO

Hydroxyurea (HU) is an effective drug to increase fetal γ-globin gene (Hb F) expression, replacing the missing adult ß-globin gene. The mechanism of Hb F induction by HU and improvement in clinical symptoms are still poorly understood. The current study aimed to improve the molecular understanding of drug-induced alterations and reveals genes related to HU treatment responsiveness in ß-thalassemia (ß-thal). We analyzed the GSE109186 dataset using system biology and weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to identify and quantify gene expression changes reflected in the HU-treated human erythroblastic leukemia cells. The K562 cell line was treated in 50, 100, and 150 µM concentrations of HU for 24, 48, and 72 hours with three replications. The alteration of CA1, LIN28B and Hb F gene expression in HU-treated cells was evaluated using the real-time polymerase chain (real-time PCR) technique. The results showed that LIN28B has an increase of 4.27-fold on the first day of HU-treatment in 50 µM (p < 0.01). The CA1 expression showed a decrease at all times and doses of treatment, and the most decrease happened in 48 hours and 50 µM (p < 0.04). Hb F also showed the highest increase in 100 µM after 24 hours of treatment (5.18-fold). In summary, the data suggest that alteration of LIN28B and CA1 gene expression is associated with γ-globin increasing in HU-treated cells.

6.
Front Physiol ; 13: 828700, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514346

RESUMO

Human red blood cells (RBCs), or erythrocytes, are the most abundant blood cells responsible for gas exchange. RBC diseases affect hundreds of millions of people and impose enormous financial and personal burdens. One well-recognized, but poorly understood feature of RBC populations within the same individual are their phenotypic heterogeneity. The granular characterization of phenotypic RBC variation in normative and disease states may allow us to identify the genetic determinants of red cell diseases and reveal novel therapeutic approaches for their treatment. Previously, we discovered diverse RNA transcripts in RBCs that has allowed us to dissect the phenotypic heterogeneity and malaria resistance of sickle red cells. However, these analyses failed to capture the heterogeneity found in RBC sub-populations. To overcome this limitation, we have performed single cell RNA-Seq to analyze the transcriptional heterogeneity of RBCs from three adult healthy donors which have been stored in the blood bank conditions and assayed at day 1 and day 15. The expression pattern clearly separated RBCs into seven distinct clusters that include one RBC cluster that expresses HBG2 and a small population of RBCs that express fetal hemoglobin (HbF) that we annotated as F cells. Almost all HBG2-expessing cells also express HBB, suggesting bi-allelic expression in single RBC from the HBG2/HBB loci, and we annotated another cluster as reticulocytes based on canonical gene expression. Additional RBC clusters were also annotated based on the enriched expression of NIX, ACVR2B and HEMGN, previously shown to be involved in erythropoiesis. Finally, we found the storage of RBC was associated with an increase in the ACVR2B and F-cell clusters. Collectively, these data indicate the power of single RBC RNA-Seq to capture and discover known and unexpected heterogeneity of RBC population.

7.
Hemoglobin ; : 1-8, 2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35635444

RESUMO

In the already identified quantitative trait loci (QTL), modulating Hb F levels are cis-acting haplotypes of the ß-globin gene cluster itself, although the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) accounting more for the association, remain uncertain. In this study, the role in Hb F production of previously reported candidate SNPs within the ß-globin gene cluster was reexamined, along with a yet poorly studied variation in the BGLT3 gene. In a sample of ß-thalassemia (ß-thal) carriers, we succeeded in replicating the significant association between increased Hb F levels and rs7482144 (C>T) (HBG2 XmnI), which is the most well-established variation in the cluster influencing the trait. This SNP was found to be in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with a variation in the HBBP1 gene [rs10128556 (G>A)], which consistently revealed a similar association signal. Remarkably, much stronger than the latter associations were those involving both rs968857 (T allele) (3' HBBP1) and rs7924684 (G allele) (BGLT3), two SNPs that were also in strong LD. As the pattern of LD detected in the ß-globin gene cluster does not correlate with a tight linkage between markers, complex interactions between SNPs at the cluster seem to modulate Hb F. Seeing that no such associations were detected in normal subjects, the question can be raised on whether, under erythropoiesis stress, epigenetic mechanisms contribute to change the regulation of the entire ß-globin gene cluster. In conclusion, we provide statistical evidence for a new player within the ß-globin gene cluster, BGLT3, that in cooperation with other regions influences Hb F levels in ß-thal carriers.

8.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(5)2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35631651

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic hemolytic anemia affecting millions worldwide with acute and chronic clinical manifestations and early mortality. While hydroxyurea (HU) and other treatment strategies managed to ameliorate disease severity, high inter-individual variability in clinical response and a lack of an ability to predict those variations need to be addressed to maximize the clinical efficacy of HU. We developed pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) models to study the dosing, efficacy, toxicity, and clinical response of HU treatment in more than eighty children with SCD. The clinical PK parameters were used to model the HU plasma concentration for a 24 h period, and the estimated daily average HU plasma concentration was used as an input to our PD models with approximately 1 to 9 years of data connecting drug exposure with drug response. We modeled the biomarkers mean cell volume and fetal hemoglobin to study treatment efficacy. For myelosuppression, we modeled red blood cells and absolute neutrophil count. Our models provided excellent fits for individuals with known or correctly inferred adherence. Our models can be used to determine the optimal dosing regimens and study the effect of non-adherence on HU-treated individuals.

9.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 26(4): 347-359, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418266

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease and ß thalassemia are the principal ß hemoglobinopathies. The complex pathophysiology of sickle cell disease is initiated by sickle hemoglobin polymerization. In ß thalassemia, insufficient ß-globin synthesis results in excessive free α globin, ineffective erythropoiesis, and severe anemia. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) prevents sickle hemoglobin polymerization; in ß thalassemia HbF compensates for the deficit of normal hemoglobin. When HbF constitutes about a third of total cell hemoglobin, the complications of sickle cell disease are nearly totally prevented. Similarly, sufficient HbF in ß thalassemia diminishes or prevents ineffective erythropoiesis and hemolysis. AREAS COVERED: This article examines the pathophysiology of ß hemoglobinopathies, the physiology of HbF, intracellular distribution, and the regulation of HbF expression. Inducing high levels of HbF by targeting its regulatory pathways pharmacologically or with cell-based therapeutics provides major clinical benefit and perhaps a 'cure.' EXPERT OPINION: Erythrocytes must contain about 10 pg of HbF to 'cure' sickle cell disease. If HbF is the only hemoglobin present, much higher levels are needed to 'cure' ß thalassemia. These levels of HbF can be obtained by different iterations of gene therapy. Small molecule drugs that can achieve even modest pancellular HbF concentrations are a major unmet need.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Hemoglobinopatias , Talassemia beta , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Hemoglobina Fetal/genética , Hemoglobina Fetal/metabolismo , Hemoglobina Falciforme/metabolismo , Hemoglobina Falciforme/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobinopatias/terapia , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Talassemia beta/tratamento farmacológico , Talassemia beta/genética
10.
Curr Res Transl Med ; 70(3): 103335, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303690

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is a modifier of the clinical and hematologic phenotype of sickle cell anemia (SCA). Three quantitative trait loci (QTL) modulate HbF expression. The neurocognitive effects of variants in these QTL have yet to be explored. We evaluated the relation between 11 SNPs in the three HbF QTL: BCL11A, MYB, the HBB gene cluster, and full-scale intelligence (IQ) in SCA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The prospective longitudinal cohort study, Sickle Cell Clinical Research and Intervention Program, was used as a discovery cohort (n = 166). The genotypes for 11 SNPs were extracted through whole genome sequencing and were analyzed using an additive model. A polygenic score for HbF (PGSHbF) integrating the numbers of low HbF alleles from 11 SNPs was analyzed as a continuous variable. The Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (n = 156) and the Silent Cerebral Infarction Transfusion (n = 114) Trial were used as two independent replication cohorts. Benjamini and Hochberg approach was used to calculate false discovery rate adjusted p-value (pFDR). RESULTS: HbF was positively associated with IQ (minimum raw p = 0·0018) at pFDR<0·05. HbF mediated the relationship between two BCL11A SNPs, rs1427407 and rs7606173, HBS1L-MYB: rs9494142, and PGSHbF with IQ (minimum raw p = 0·0035) at pFDR<0·05. CONCLUSION: As the major modulator of the severity of SCA, HbF also influences neurocognition, which is done through mediation of its QTL. These findings have implications for early identification of neurocognitive risk and targeted intervention.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Hemoglobina Fetal , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Hemoglobina Fetal/análise , Hemoglobina Fetal/genética , Hemoglobina Fetal/metabolismo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
11.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 15(2): 107-116, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143361

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The hematological and clinical features vary markedly between the different genotypes of sickle cell disease. Even within the single genotype of homozygous sickle cell disease (HbSS), there is marked variability that is presumed to result from interacting genetic and environmental factors. AREAS COVERED: The classification of the different genotypes of sickle cell disease with approximate prevalence at birth in different communities and some of the major clinical and hematological differences. This assessment includes three potential genetic factors influencing hematology and clinical outcome in HbSS, the beta globin haplotype, alpha thalassemia, and persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). EXPERT OPINION: The author is a clinician with experience of sickle cell disease primarily in Jamaica but also in Greece, Uganda, Saudi Arabia, and India. It is therefore necessarily an account of clinical data and does not address current debates on molecular mechanisms. Most data derive from Jamaica where efforts have been made to reduce any symptomatic bias by long-term follow-up of patients all over the Island and further reduced by a cohort study based on newborn screening, which has been in operation for over 48 years.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Talassemia alfa , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Variação Biológica da População , Estudos de Coortes , Hemoglobina Fetal/genética , Haplótipos , Hemoglobina Falciforme/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Talassemia alfa/epidemiologia , Talassemia alfa/genética , Globinas beta/genética
12.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 15(2): 117-125, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143368

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease, one of the world's most prevalent Mendelian disorders, is a chronic hemolytic anemia punctuated by acute vasoocclusive events. Both hemolysis and vasoocclusion lead to irreversible organ damage and failure. Among the many sub-phenotypes of sickle cell disease is the acute chest syndrome (ACS) characterized by combinations of chest pain, cough, dyspnea, fever, abnormal lung examination, leukocytosis, hypoxia, and new radiographic opacities. ACS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. AREA COVERED: We briefly review the diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, and current treatments for ACS and focus on understanding and estimating the risks for developing this complication, how prognosis and outcomes might be improved, and the genetic elements that might impact the risk of ACS. EXPERT OPINION: The clinical heterogeneity of ACS has hindered our understanding of risk stratification. Lacking controlled clinical trials, most treatment is based on expert opinion. Fetal hemoglobin levels and coexistent α-thalassemia affect the incidence of ACS; other genetic associations are tenuous. Transfusions, whose use not innocuous, should be targeted to the severity and likelihood of ACS progression. Stable, non-hypoxic patients with favorable hematologic and radiographic findings usually do not need transfusion; severe progressive ACS is best managed with exchange transfusion.


Assuntos
Síndrome Torácica Aguda , Anemia Falciforme , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/etiologia , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/genética , Doença Aguda , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Transfusão de Sangue , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
13.
Hematology ; 27(1): 263-273, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reactivation of fetal γ-globin expression is an effective strategy for ameliorating the clinical symptoms of ß-hemoglobinopathies. However, the mechanism of globin switching, especially the roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in this process, remains elusive. METHODS: We compared the in vivo transcriptome profiles of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) isolated from the umbilical cord blood of preterm and full-term newborns. We collected 75 umbilical cord blood samples and performed qPCR of the candidate genes. RESULTS: In this study, we identified 7,166 differentially expressed protein-coding genes, 3,243 differentially expressed lncRNAs, and 79 differentially expressed microRNAs. Our data show that the Fanconi anemia pathway and the H19/let-7/LIN28B axis may be involved in γ- to ß-globin gene switching. Moreover, we constructed the hub gene network of the differentially expressed transcription factors. Based on qPCR, we found that BCL11A was differentially expressed based on biological sex. We also confirmed that H19 is differentially expressed and established the H19-related network to reveal the potential regulatory mechanisms. CONCLUSION: We present the profiles of the in vivo transcriptome differences of NRBCs between preterm and full-term neonates for the first time, and provide novel research targets for ß-hemoglobinopathies.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Gravidez
14.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 814194, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35223696

RESUMO

Repeated red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are thought to increase the risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), likely due to a critical fetal hemoglobin (HbF) reduction. In this study, we investigated if the postmenstrual age (PMA) of neonates at transfusion influences the risk for ROP. We estimated the cumulative transfusion-free survival (TFS) in a series of 100 preterm neonates receiving one or more RBC units. TFS was calculated by censoring patients at first transfusion and expressing the time between birth and transfusion as either PMA or postnatal day. Then, we investigated if TFS predicted the occurrence of severe ROP, defined as ROP stage 3 or higher. We found that neonates with severe ROP displayed a significantly shorter TFS expressed according to their PMA (p = 0.001), with similar TFS according to postnatal days. At receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, receiving an RBC unit before week 28 of PMA predicted severe ROP with a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 78%. In addition, receiving a second RBC unit before the PMA of 29 weeks predicted severe ROP with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 69%. At multivariate analysis, PMA at the second transfusion was even more informative than at first transfusion and outperformed all other variables in predicting severe ROP, with an odds ratio of 4.554 (95% CI 1.332-15.573, p = 0.016). Since HbF decrease is greater after multiple RBC transfusions, it is conceivable that neonates receiving more than one unit before the PMA of 29 weeks may be exposed to a greater disturbance of retinal vascularization. Any strategy aimed at preventing the critical HbF decrease at this low age might potentially reduce the risk for severe ROP.

15.
Elife ; 112022 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35147495

RESUMO

Naturally occurring point mutations in the HBG promoter switch hemoglobin synthesis from defective adult beta-globin to fetal gamma-globin in sickle cell patients with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) and ameliorate the clinical severity. Inspired by this natural phenomenon, we tiled the highly homologous HBG proximal promoters using adenine and cytosine base editors that avoid the generation of large deletions and identified novel regulatory regions including a cluster at the -123 region. Base editing at -123 and -124 bp of HBG promoter induced fetal hemoglobin (HbF) to a higher level than disruption of well-known BCL11A binding site in erythroblasts derived from human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). We further demonstrated in vitro that the introduction of -123T > C and -124T > C HPFH-like mutations drives gamma-globin expression by creating a de novo binding site for KLF1. Overall, our findings shed light on so far unknown regulatory elements within the HBG promoter and identified additional targets for therapeutic upregulation of fetal hemoglobin.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Hemoglobina Fetal/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Adenina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Citosina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutação Puntual , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Globinas beta/genética , Talassemia beta/genética , gama-Globinas/genética
16.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(3): 2359-2373, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822068

RESUMO

Beta-hemoglobinopathies exhibit a heterogeneous clinical picture with varying degrees of clinical severity. Pertaining to the limited treatment options available, where blood transfusion still remains the commonest mode of treatment, pharmacological induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) has been a lucrative therapeutic intervention. Till now more than 70 different HbF inducers have been identified. The practical usage of many pharmacological drugs has been limited due to safety concerns. Natural compounds, like Resveratrol, Ripamycin and Bergaptene, with limited cytotoxicity and high efficacy have started capturing the attention of researchers. In this review, we have summarized pharmacological drugs and bioactive compounds isolated from natural sources that have been shown to increase HbF significantly. It primarily discusses recently identified synthetic and natural compounds, their mechanism of action, and their suitable screening platforms, including high throughput drug screening technology and biosensors. It also delves into the topic of combinatorial therapy and drug repurposing for HbF induction. Overall, we aim to provide insights into where we stand in HbF induction strategies for treating ß-hemoglobinopathies.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Hemoglobinopatias , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobina Fetal , Hemoglobinopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
17.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 93: 102626, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856533

RESUMO

Induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression ameliorates the clinical severity and prolong survival in persons with sickle cell disease (SCD). Hydroxyurea (HU) is the only FDA-approved HbF inducer however, additional therapeutics that produce an additive effect in SCD are needed. To this end, development of potent Class I histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) for HbF induction represents a rational molecularly targeted approach. In studies here, we evaluated CT-101, a novel Class I-restricted HDACi, a Largazole derivative, for pharmacodynamics, cytotoxicity, and targeted epigenetic effects. In SCD-derived erythroid progenitors, CT-101 induced HbF expression with additive activity in combination with HU. CT-101 preferentially activated γ-globin gene transcription, increased acetylated histone H3 levels, and conferred an open chromatin conformation in the γ-globin promoter. These data indicate CT-101 represents a strong potential candidate as a molecularly targeted inducer of HbF.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , gama-Globinas , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Epigênese Genética , Células Eritroides/metabolismo , Hemoglobina Fetal/genética , Hemoglobina Fetal/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , gama-Globinas/genética
18.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 22(1): 52-68, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036918

RESUMO

Inherited beta-thalassemia is caused by irregular production of hemoglobin through reducing beta-globin chains. It has been observed that increasing fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production improves symptoms in the patients; thus, it has been an operative approach to treat patients with betathalassemia. This review represents compounds with biological activities and pharmacological properties that can be useful in promoting the HBF level in ß-thalassemia patients. Various natural products with different mechanisms of action can be helpful in this medication cure. Clinical trials were efficient in improving the signs of patients. Association of in vivo, and in vitro studies of HbF induction and γ-globin mRNA growth displays that in vitro experiments could be an indicator of the in vivo response. The current study resulted that; (a) HbF inducers can be grouped into several classes based on their chemical structures and mechanism of actions; (b) According to several clinical trials, wellknown drugs such as hydroxyurea and decitabine are useful HbF inducers. (c) The cellular biosensor K562 carrying genes under the control of the human γ-globin and ß-globin gene promoters were applied during the researches. (d) New natural products and lead compounds were found based on various studies as HbF inducers.


Assuntos
Hemoglobina Fetal , Talassemia beta , Hemoglobina Fetal/genética , Hemoglobina Fetal/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Talassemia beta/tratamento farmacológico , Talassemia beta/genética , gama-Globinas/genética , gama-Globinas/uso terapêutico
19.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 23: 507-523, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853798

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease and ß-thalassemia are common monogenic disorders that cause significant morbidity and mortality globally. The only curative treatment currently is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which is unavailable to many patients due to a lack of matched donors and carries risks including graft-versus-host disease. Genome editing therapies targeting either the BCL11A erythroid enhancer or the HBG promoter are already demonstrating success in reinducing fetal hemoglobin. However, where a single locus is targeted, reliably achieving levels high enough to deliver an effective cure remains a challenge. We investigated the application of a CRISPR/Cas9 multiplex genome editing approach, in which both the BCL11A erythroid enhancer and HBG promoter are disrupted within human hematopoietic stem cells. We demonstrate superior fetal hemoglobin reinduction with this dual-editing approach without compromising engraftment or lineage differentiation potential of edited cells post-xenotransplantation. However, multiplex editing consistently resulted in the generation of chromosomal rearrangement events that persisted in vivo following transplantation into immunodeficient mice. The risk of oncogenic events resulting from such translocations therefore currently prohibits its clinical translation, but it is anticipated that, in the future, alternative editing platforms will help alleviate this risk.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948226

RESUMO

ß-thalassemias are among the most common inherited hemoglobinopathies worldwide and are the result of autosomal mutations in the gene encoding ß-globin, causing an absence or low-level production of adult hemoglobin (HbA). Induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is considered to be of key importance for the development of therapeutic protocols for ß-thalassemia and novel HbF inducers need to be proposed for pre-clinical development. The main purpose on this study was to analyze Cinchona alkaloids (cinchonidine, quinidine and cinchonine) as natural HbF-inducing agents in human erythroid cells. The analytical methods employed were Reverse Transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) (for quantification of γ-globin mRNA) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) (for analysis of the hemoglobin pattern). After an initial analysis using the K562 cell line as an experimental model system, showing induction of hemoglobin and γ-globin mRNA, we verified whether the two more active compounds, cinchonidine and quinidine, were able to induce HbF in erythroid progenitor cells isolated from ß-thalassemia patients. The data obtained demonstrate that cinchonidine and quinidine are potent inducers of γ-globin mRNA and HbF in erythroid progenitor cells isolated from nine ß-thalassemia patients. In addition, both compounds were found to synergize with the HbF inducer sirolimus for maximal production of HbF. The data obtained strongly indicate that these compounds deserve consideration in the development of pre-clinical approaches for therapeutic protocols of ß-thalassemia.


Assuntos
Alcaloides de Cinchona/farmacologia , Células Precursoras Eritroides/metabolismo , Hemoglobina Fetal/biossíntese , Talassemia beta/metabolismo , Células Precursoras Eritroides/patologia , Humanos , Células K562 , Talassemia beta/tratamento farmacológico
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