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1.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36636965

RESUMO

Flavonoids represent a major group of polyphenolic compounds. Their capacity to inhibit tumor proliferation, cell cycle, angiogenesis, migration and invasion is substantially responsible for their chemotherapeutic activity against lung cancer. However, their clinical application is limited due to poor aqueous solubility, low permeability and quick blood clearance, which leads to their low bioavailability. Nanoengineered systems such as liposomes, nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers and nanotubes can considerably enhance the targeted action of the flavonoids with improved efficacy and pharmacokinetic properties, and flavonoids can be successfully translated from bench to bedside through various nanoengineering approaches. This review addresses the therapeutic potential of various flavonoids and highlights the cutting-edge progress in the nanoengineered systems that incorporate flavonoids for treating lung cancer.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614204

RESUMO

The three Schiff base ligands, derivatives of hesperetin, HHSB (N-[2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)chromen-4-ylidene]isonicotinohydrazide), HIN (N-[2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)chromen-4-ylidene]benzhydrazide) and HTSC (N-[2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)chromen-4-ylidene]thiosemicarbazide) and their copper complexes, CuHHSB, CuHIN, and CuHTSC were designed, synthesized and analyzed in terms of their spectral characterization and the genotoxic activity. Their structures were established using several methods: elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, EPR, and ESI-MS. Spectral data showed that in the acetate complexes the tested Schiff bases act as neutral tridentate ligand coordinating to the copper ion through two oxygen (or oxygen and sulphur) donor atoms and a nitrogen donor atom. EPR measurements indicate that in solution the complexes keep their structures with the ligands remaining bound to copper(II) in a tridentate fashion with (O-, N, Oket) or (O-, N, S) donor set. The genotoxic activity of the compounds was tested against model tumour (HeLa and Caco-2) and normal (LLC-PK1) cell lines. In HeLa cells the genotoxicity for all tested compounds was noticed, for HHSB and CuHHSB was the highest, for HTSC and CuHTSC-the lowest. Generally, Cu complexes displayed lower genotoxicity to HeLa cells than ligands. In the case of Caco-2 cell line HHSB and HTSC induced the strongest breaks to DNA. On the other side, CuHHSB and CuHTSC induced the highest DNA damage against LLC-PK1.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação , Cobre , Humanos , Cobre/farmacologia , Cobre/química , Bases de Schiff/farmacologia , Bases de Schiff/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Células HeLa , Células CACO-2 , Oxigênio , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Ligantes
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614303

RESUMO

Melanoma is deadly, physically impairing, and has ongoing treatment deficiencies. Current treatment regimens include surgery, targeted kinase inhibitors, immunotherapy, and combined approaches. Each of these treatments face pitfalls, with diminutive five-year survival in patients with advanced metastatic invasion of lymph and secondary organ tissues. Polyphenolic compounds, including cannabinoids, terpenoids, and flavonoids; both natural and synthetic, have emerging evidence of nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmacological potential, including specific anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and palliative utility. Cannabis sativa is a wellspring of medicinal compounds whose direct and adjunctive application may offer considerable relief for melanoma suffers worldwide. This review aims to address the diverse applications of C. sativa's biocompounds in the scope of melanoma and suggest it as a strong candidate for ongoing pharmacological evaluation.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Cannabis , Melanoma , Humanos , Cannabis/química , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico
4.
J Adv Res ; 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693567

RESUMO

***Introduction Dietary fiber and flavonoids are promising drugs reported in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it is unclear the interaction between dietary fiber and flavonoids in gut health. OBJECTIVE: The therapeutic effect of celery, kale, and red chicory powders on colitis mice using non-group feeding cages was investigated. Further, the efficacy of whole celery, celery soluble dietary fiber (CSDF), celery insoluble dietary fiber (CIDF), celery flavonoids (CF), CSDF+CF and CIDF+CF in IBD mice model was assessed to dissect protective effect to attribute to which component(s) in such complex matrix. METHODS: 3% Dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) was used to induce mice colitis model. Multiple molecular biological methods were employed to evaluate the severity of mice colitis and the gut microbial composition of mice. RESULTS: Administration of kale and red chicory significantly restored body weight, DAI score, and colon length in colonic mice, and celery showed the weakest effects. Administration of either CSDF or CF markedly improved the histological damage, increased colonic mucus expression, and reduced colonic MPO/iNOS activities, and IL-6/IL-1ß levels. However, CSDF+CF showed weaker improvement than CF or SDF in most physical and biochemical signs. Furthermore, CSDF and CF decreased intestinal g_Escherichia-Shihella and g_Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 induced by DSS administration. Interestingly, celery flavonoid promoted g_Akkermansia proliferation both in vivo and in vitro, and which can be inhibited by CSDF. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed for the first time that CSDF can suppress the protective effect of CF on intestinal health by inhibiting g_Akkermansia, and clarified that the decreased efficacy of celery whole food on colitis was mediated by an antagonism between CSDF and CF. Moreover, this study presents for the first time that interaction between soluble dietary fiber and flavonoids in vivo can ameliorate the efficacy of dietary fiber or flavonoids when administered alone suggestive for an antagonistic effect.

5.
Foods ; 12(2)2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673387

RESUMO

Bee pollen is considered a natural product, relevant for its nutritional and antioxidant properties. Its composition varies widely depending on its botanical and geographical origins. In this study, the botanical characteristics of 31 bee pollen samples from Galicia (Northwest Spain) were analyzed; samples have not been studied until now from this geographical area. The study focused on the evaluation of the influence of plant origin on total phenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity measured by radical scavenging methods. The multivariate statistical treatment showed the contribution of certain pollen types in the extract of bee pollen as to phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Specifically, the bee pollen samples with higher presence of Castanea, Erica, Lythrum and Campanula type indicated higher total phenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities according to the principal component analysis. On the contrary, Plantago and Taraxacum officinale type contributed a lower content of these compounds and radical scavenging activity. The cluster analysis classified the bee pollen samples into three groups with significant differences (p > 0.05) for the main pollen types, total phenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacities. These results demonstrate the richness and botanical diversity in the pollen spectrum of bee pollen and enhance the possible beneficial nutraceutical properties of this beekeeping product.

6.
Foods ; 12(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673414

RESUMO

The demand for ready-to-use functional foods is high, which encourages manufacturers to develop new, nutritionally valuable products. As an excellent source of biologically active compounds, beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) is considered to have highly beneficial effects on health. This research aimed to evaluate the impact of replacing spelt flour (SF) with 15%, 20% and 25% beetroot powder (BP). The physicochemical and functional properties of biscuits baked at different temperatures (150 and 170 °C) were followed at the beginning, and after 3 and 6 months of storage as standard conditions. Moisture content and water activity (aw) gave insight into the biscuits' shelf life. The value of aw from 0.35 to 0.56 indicated appropriate storability. Dietary fiber content in fresh biscuits ranged from 6.1% to 7.6%, protein from 9.2% to 8.9% and sugar from 30.6% to 35.9%. The content of betalain, total polyphenols and flavonoids, and antioxidant activity (DPPH, FRAP) increased with beetroot powder content incorporated. A slight decrease of all the mentioned parameters during the storage indicated satisfied retention of bioactive molecules. The content of prevalent phenolic compounds gallic and protocatechuic acid, identified by HPLC, decreased from 22.2-32.0 and 21.1-24.9 in fresh biscuits to 18.3-23.4 and 17.3-20.3 mg/100 g upon six months of storage, respectively. An increase of the L* and a* and a decrease of the b* coordinate values, compared with the control sample without beetroot values, was noticed as well as the expected level of their change during the storage. The obtained results indicated that biscuits enriched with beetroot powder showed a significantly improved functional, nutritional and antioxidant potential during storage.

7.
Foods ; 12(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673411

RESUMO

In recent years, research on the interaction between flavonoids and intestinal microbes have prompted a rash of food science, nutriology and biomedicine, complying with future research trends. The gut microbiota plays an essential role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and human health, but once the intestinal flora dysregulation occurs, it may contribute to various diseases. Flavonoids have shown a variety of physiological activities, and are metabolized or biotransformed by gut microbiota, thereby producing new metabolites that promote human health by modulating the composition and structure of intestinal flora. Herein, this review demonstrates the key notion of flavonoids as well as intestinal microbiota and dysbiosis, aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding about how flavonoids regulate the diseases by gut microbiota. Emphasis is placed on the microbiota-flavonoid bidirectional interaction that affects the metabolic fate of flavonoids and their metabolites, thereby influencing their metabolic mechanism, biotransformation, bioavailability and bioactivity. Potentially by focusing on the abundance and diversity of gut microbiota as well as their metabolites such as bile acids, we discuss the influence mechanism of flavonoids on intestinal microbiota by protecting the intestinal barrier function and immune system. Additionally, the microbiota-flavonoid bidirectional interaction plays a crucial role in regulating various diseases. We explain the underlying regulation mechanism of several typical diseases including gastrointestinal diseases, obesity, diabetes and cancer, aiming to provide a theoretical basis and guideline for the promotion of gastrointestinal health as well as the treatment of diseases.

8.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677639

RESUMO

Chrysanthemum extract possesses antioxidant potential and carbohydrate and fat digestive enzyme inhibitory in vitro. However, no evidence supporting chrysanthemum in modulation of postprandial lipemia and antioxidant status in humans presently exists. This study was to analyze the composition of Imperial Chrysanthemum (IC) extract and determine the effect on changes in postprandial glycemic and lipemic response and antioxidant status in adults after consumption of a high-fat (HF) meal. UHPLC-MS method was used to analyze the components of two kinds of IC extracts (IC-P/IC-E) and in vitro antioxidant activities were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and Hydroxyl radical (HR) radical scavenging assays. Following a randomized design, 37 healthy adults (age, 25.2 ± 2.6 years, and BMI, 20.9 ± 1.5 kg/m2) were assigned to two groups that consumed the HF meal, or HF meal supplemented by IC extract. Blood samples were collected at fasting state and then at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after the meal consumption. There were 12 compounds with relative content of more than 1% of the extracts, of which amino acid and derivatives, flavonoids, carboxylic acids and derivatives were the main components. Compared with IC-E, the contents of flavonoids in IC-P increased significantly (p < 0.05), and the cynaroside content exceeded 30%. In addition, IC-P showed strong free radical scavenging activity against DPPH, ABTS and HR radicals. Furthermore, according to repeated-measures ANOVA, significant differences were observed in the maximal changes for postprandial glucose, TG, T-AOC and MDA among the two groups. Postprandial glucose has significant difference between the two groups at 1 h after meal and the level in IC group was significantly lower than that in control group. No significant differences were observed in the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) among the two groups. IC significantly improved the serum antioxidant status, as characterized by increased postprandial serum T-AOC, SOD, GSH and decreased MDA. This finding suggests that IC can be used as a natural ingredient for reducing postprandial lipemia and improving the antioxidant status after consuming a HF meal.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Chrysanthemum , Humanos , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Antioxidantes/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Glucose
9.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677670

RESUMO

Cocrystallization is currently an attractive technique for tailoring the physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Flavonoids are a large class of natural products with a wide range of beneficial properties, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antioxidant properties, which makes them extensively studied. In order to improve the properties of flavonoids, such as solubility and bioavailability, the formation of cocrystals may be a feasible strategy. This review discusses in detail the possible hydrogen bond sites in the structure of APIs and the hydrogen bonding networks in the cocrystal structures, which will be beneficial for the targeted synthesis of flavonoid cocrystals. In addition, some successful studies that favorably alter the physicochemical properties of APIs through cocrystallization with coformers are also highlighted here. In addition to improving the solubility and bioavailability of flavonoids in most cases, flavonoid cocrystals may also alter their other properties, such as anti-inflammatory activity and photoluminescence properties.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica , Flavonoides , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cristalização , Disponibilidade Biológica , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Solubilidade
10.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677756

RESUMO

Edible insects have the potential to become one of the major future foods. In fact, they can be considered cheap, highly nutritious, and healthy food sources. International agencies, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), have focused their attention on the consumption of edible insects, in particular, regarding their nutritional value and possible biological, toxicological, and allergenic risks, wishing the development of analytical methods to verify the authenticity, quality, and safety of insect-based products. Edible insects are rich in proteins, fats, fiber, vitamins, and minerals but also seem to contain large amounts of polyphenols able to have a key role in specific bioactivities. Therefore, this review is an overview of the potential of edible insects as a source of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, that can be a function of diet but also related to insect chemical defense. Currently, insect phenolic compounds have mostly been assayed for their antioxidant bioactivity; however, they also exert other activities, such as anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity, antityrosinase, antigenotoxic, and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities.


Assuntos
Insetos Comestíveis , Animais , Vitaminas/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Insetos/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise
11.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677771

RESUMO

Thermal liquefaction at low temperature is very time consuming and microwaves or an ultrasonic bath can be used to accelerate the process of dissolving sugar crystals. Phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids or flavonoids, are an important group of secondary metabolites of plants and become honey from the nectar of blossoms. In this study, how the content of phenolic acids and flavones in honey were affected by liquefaction of honey using a microwave oven was studied. The concentration of tested compounds in untreated honey and in honey liquefied in a hot water bath, ultrasonic bath and microwave oven at four microwave power levels were determined by reversed phase liquid chromatography combined with multichannel electrochemical detection. A significant decrease in the content of all compounds was observed for all melting treatments. The phenolic compounds concentration decreased on average by 31.1-35.5% using microwave at intensities 270, 450 and 900 W and the time required for the sugar crystal melting was more than 20 times less than in the case of the 80 °C water bath. The temperature of samples after the end of microwave liquefaction was 76-89 °C. Significantly higher losses of phenolic compounds were observed during ultrasound treatment (48.5%), although the maximum temperature of honey was 45 °C, and at the lowest microwaves power (50.6%).


Assuntos
Mel , Mel/análise , Fenóis/análise , Água , Açúcares , Antioxidantes/química
12.
Iran J Basic Med Sci ; 26(1): 76-84, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594062

RESUMO

Objectives: Influenza A virus (IAV) is a contagious illness. Different species of Scutellaria genus are used as a traditional remedy to reduce influenza symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the anti-influenza capacity of several species of Iranian Scutellaria and identify active compounds of the most potent species for the first time. Materials and Methods: Some Iranian species of Scutellaria were collected from different regions of Iran, including S. pinnatifida with mucida, viridis, and alpina subspecies; S. tournefortii; S. tomentosa; S. persica. They were fractionated to chloroform and methanol. The total phenols and flavonoids of samples were examined by the folin-ciocalteau and aluminum-flavonoid complex methods, respectively. The 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) on MDCK cells and non-cytotoxic concentrations (NCTC) were determined by MTT assay. The percentage of cell protection against IAV and their effect on virus titer were investigated in pre-, post-, and co-penetration treatment groups. Phytochemicals of the most effective species were isolated by various chromatographic methods and identified by different spectroscopic methods. Results: Methanol fraction of S. pinnatifida subsp. viridis demonstrated the highest amounts of flavonoid content and best activity against influenza A virus in all combination treatments, which reduced the virus titer by 5 logs with no cytotoxicity. Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, apigenin-4'-methoxy-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, and luteolin-7-O-glucoside were purified and identified from this species. Conclusion: Scutellaria pinnatifida subsp. viridis can be introduced as a source of flavonoids with acceptable anti-influenza activity. S. tomentosa also showed potent antiviral effects and is a candidate for elucidation in further studies.

13.
Am J Chin Med ; : 1-17, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655684

RESUMO

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is identifiable by the excessive increase of mesenchyme paired with the loss of epithelium. Total flavonoids of Astragalus (TFA), the main biologically active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine, Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi), shows outstanding effects on treating pulmonary disorders, including COVID-19-associated pulmonary dysfunctions. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of TFA on treating pulmonary fibrosis and the possible mechanisms behind these effects. A549 cells were treated with TGF-[Formula: see text]1 and TFA to observe the potential effects of TFA on regulating alveolar epithelial cell proliferation, TGF-[Formula: see text]1-induced EMT, and the underlying mechanisms in vitro. Then, mouse pulmonary fibrosis was induced with a single intra-tracheal injection of bleomycin, and TFA was administrated by i.p. injection. Lung fibrosis was evaluated through histological and molecular analyses, and the possible mechanisms were explored using immunological methods. The results demonstrated that TFA could promote cell proliferation but inhibit TGF-[Formula: see text]1-induced EMT on A549 cells. TFA attenuated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by modulating inflammatory infiltration and M2 macrophage polarization; it furthermore modulated EMT through regulating the TGF-[Formula: see text]1/Smad pathway. In addition, TFA augmented the expression of the Wnt7b protein, which plays an important role in alveolar epithelium reparation. In conclusion, TFA alleviated bleomycin-induced mouse lung fibrosis by preventing the fibrotic response and increasing epithelium regeneration.

14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 44, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testa color is an important trait of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) which is closely related with the nutritional and commercial value. Pink and red are main color of peanut testa. However, the genetic mechanism of testa color regulation in peanut is not fully understood. To elucidate a clear picture of peanut testa regulatory model, samples of pink cultivar (Y9102), red cultivar (ZH12), and two RNA pools (bulk red and bulk pink) constructed from F4 lines of Y9102 x ZH12 were compared through a bulk RNA-seq approach. RESULTS: A total of 2992 differential expressed genes (DEGs) were identified among which 317 and 1334 were up-regulated and 225 and 1116 were down-regulated in the bulk red-vs-bulk pink RNA pools and Y9102-vs-ZH12, respectively. KEGG analysis indicates that these genes were divided into significantly enriched metabolic pathways including phenylpropanoid, flavonoid/anthocyanin, isoflavonoid and lignin biosynthetic pathways. Notably, the expression of the anthocyanin upstream regulatory genes PAL, CHS, and CHI was upregulated in pink and red testa peanuts, indicating that their regulation may occur before to the advent of testa pigmentation. However, the differential expression of down-stream regulatory genes including F3H, DFR, and ANS revealed that deepening of testa color not only depends on their gene expression bias, but also linked with FLS inhibition. In addition, the down-regulation of HCT, IFS, HID, 7-IOMT, and I2'H genes provided an alternative mechanism for promoting anthocyanin accumulation via perturbation of lignin and isoflavone pathways. Furthermore, the co-expression module of MYB, bHLH, and WRKY transcription factors also suggested a fascinating transcriptional activation complex, where MYB-bHLH could utilize WRKY as a co-option during the testa color regulation by augmenting anthocyanin biosynthesis in peanut. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal candidate functional genes and potential strategies for the manipulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis to improve peanut varieties with desirable testa color.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Arachis , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Arachis/genética , Arachis/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Lignina/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Cor , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
15.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 12(1)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671046

RESUMO

Avocados (Persea americana M.) are highly valued fruits consumed worldwide, and there are numerous commercially available varieties on the market. However, the high demand for fruit also results in increased food waste. Thus, this study was conducted for comprehensive profiling of polyphenols of Hass, Reed, and Wurtz avocados obtained from the Australian local market. Ripe Hass peel recorded the highest TPC (77.85 mg GAE/g), TTC (148.98 mg CE/g), DPPH (71.03 mg AAE/g), FRAP (3.05 mg AAE/g), RPA (24.45 mg AAE/g), and ABTS (75.77 mg AAE/g) values; unripe Hass peel recorded the highest TFC (3.44 mg QE/g); and Wurtz peel recorded the highest TAC (35.02 mg AAE/g). Correlation analysis revealed that TPC and TTC were significantly correlated with the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. A total of 348 polyphenols were screened in the peel. A total of 134 compounds including 36 phenolic acids, 70 flavonoids, 11 lignans, 2 stilbenes, and another 15 polyphenols, were characterised through LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS, where the majority were from peels and seeds of samples extract. Overall, the hierarchical heat map revealed that there were a significant amount of polyphenols in peels and seeds. Epicatechin, kaempferol, and protocatechuic acid showed higher concentrations in Reed pulp. Wurtz peel contains a higher concentration of hydroxybenzoic acid. Our results showed that avocado wastes have a considerable amount of polyphenols, exhibiting antioxidant activities. Each sample has its unique value proposition based on its phenolic profile. This study may increase confidence in utilising by-products and encourage further investigation into avocado by-products as nutraceuticals.

16.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 12(1)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671048

RESUMO

Pomegranate is a fruit bearing-plant that is well known for its medicinal properties. Pomegranate is a good source of phenolic acids, tannins, and flavonoids. Pomegranate juice and by-products have attracted the scientific interest due to their potential health benefits. Currently, the medical community has showed great interest in exploiting pomegranate potential as a protective agent against several human diseases including cancer. This is demonstrated by the fact that there are more than 800 reports in the literature reporting pomegranate's anticancer properties. This review is an update on the research outcomes of pomegranate's potential against different types of human diseases, emphasizing on cancer. In addition, perspectives of potential applications of pomegranate, as a natural additive aiming to improve the quality of animal products, are discussed.

17.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 12(1)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671042

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Although substantial research has been conducted to elucidate the complex pathophysiology of AD, the therapeutic approach still has limited efficacy in clinical practice. Oxidative stress (OS) has been established as an early driver of several age-related diseases, including neurodegeneration. In AD, increased levels of reactive oxygen species mediate neuronal lipid, protein, and nucleic acid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, synaptic damage, and inflammation. Thus, the identification of novel antioxidant molecules capable of detecting, preventing, and counteracting AD onset and progression is of the utmost importance. However, although several studies have been published, comprehensive and up-to-date overviews of the principal anti-AD agents harboring antioxidant properties remain scarce. In this narrative review, we summarize the role of vitamins, minerals, flavonoids, non-flavonoids, mitochondria-targeting molecules, organosulfur compounds, and carotenoids as non-enzymatic antioxidants with AD diagnostic, preventative, and therapeutic potential, thereby offering insights into the relationship between OS and neurodegeneration.

18.
Brain Sci ; 13(1)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672083

RESUMO

Flavonoids, a group of natural compounds with phenolic structure, are becoming popular as alternative medicines obtained from plants. These compounds are reported to have various pharmacological properties, including attenuation of inflammatory responses in multiple health issues. Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system implicated with the activation of the inflammatory cascade in the brain. The aim of the present study was to summarize the role of various neuroinflammatory mediators in the onset and progression of epilepsy, and, thereafter, to discuss the flavonoids and their classes, including their biological properties. Further, we highlighted the modulation of anti-inflammatory responses achieved by these substances in different forms of epilepsy, as evident from preclinical studies executed on multiple epilepsy models. Overall, the review summarizes the available evidence of the anti-inflammatory potential of various flavonoids in epilepsy.

19.
Biomedicines ; 11(1)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672652

RESUMO

The isolation of phlorizin from the bark of an apple tree in 1835 led to a flurry of research on its inhibitory effect on glucose transporters in the intestine and kidney. Using phlorizin as a prototype drug, antidiabetic agents with more selective inhibitory activity towards glucose transport at the kidney have subsequently been developed. In contrast, its hydrolysis product in the body, phloretin, which is also found in the apple plant, has weak antidiabetic properties. Phloretin, however, displays a range of pharmacological effects including antibacterial, anticancer, and cellular and organ protective properties both in vitro and in vivo. In this communication, the molecular basis of its anti-inflammatory mechanisms that attribute to its pharmacological effects is scrutinised. These include inhibiting the signalling pathways of inflammatory mediators' expression that support its suppressive effect in immune cells overactivation, obesity-induced inflammation, arthritis, endothelial, myocardial, hepatic, renal and lung injury, and inflammation in the gut, skin, and nervous system, among others.

20.
Curr Drug Res Rev ; 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36683366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested that a regular intake of flavonoids is beneficial for cellular homeostasis and in the prevention of the transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells. Because of their multiple biological targets, flavonoids have been studied and investigated as phytoconstituents with potential anticancer properties. Flavonoids interfere in the development of cancerous cells by inhibition of topoisomerases, protein kinases, angiogenesis, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, modulation of multidrug resistance, and improvement in anti-oxidative activities. OBJECTIVE: The current review summarizes the anticancer properties of flavonoids along with the key structural features and their mechanisms. METHODS: The present study provides a detailed analysis of anticancer activities with previously published data on different flavonoids. The review highlighted the structural aspects and mechanism of action of flavonoids with their potential target sites. RESULTS: Flavonoids induce anticancer activity by protein kinases inhibition, P-gp modulation, anti-angiogenesis, topoisomerases inhibition, etc. Open ring C, the double bond between C2-C3, the oxo group at C4, and the position of ring B are crucial determinants for their anticancer activity. Flavonoids act by multiple mechanisms but further studies on target selectivity and specificity of flavonoids are necessary to establish them as anticancer therapeutics. CONCLUSION: The presence of a C2-C3 double bond and oxo group at C4 (also known as an enone moiety) or -OH in the neighbour of a double bond that can transform easily into an enone are common features present in flavonoids. Thus, it can be concluded that enone moiety or its precursor groups are mainly responsible for the anticancer activities of flavonoids via different mechanisms of action.

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