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1.
Environ Manage ; 73(6): 1134-1149, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730130

RESUMO

With limited national financing for conservation, there is an increasing interest in using biodiversity offset funds to strengthen protected area management. Offsetting measures can potentially be used in the restoration of degraded protected areas. However, there are concerns related to the uncertainty of restoration outcomes and time-lags before the expected benefits can be observed. Using a case of the Gangu Central Forest Reserve in central Uganda, we contribute empirical findings showing the potential and limitations of biodiversity offsetting by means of the restoration of a degraded forest reserve. We use forest cover change analysis and community surveys to determine forest changes after eight years of offset implementation, and forest inventories to analyse the current forest structure and composition to ascertain taxonomic diversity recovery. The results revealed that biodiversity offsetting led to a 21% increase in Tropical High Forest cover, and enhanced restoration of forest species composition and diversity. However, attaining permanence of the restoration benefits requires the regulation of community forest resource access and use. Strengthening forest management capacity to monitor the offset sites and compensating impacted communities for foregone forest resource benefits are crucial for the successful implementation of biodiversity offsets.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Uganda , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/métodos
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(5): 470, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658409

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that arthropod diversity in German forests is declining. Currently, different national programs are being developed to monitor arthropod trends and to unravel the effects of forest management on biodiversity in forests. To establish effective long-term monitoring programs, a set of drivers of arthropod diversity and composition as well as suitable species groups have to be identified. To aid in answering these questions, we investigated arthropod data collected in four Hessian forest reserves (FR) in the 1990s. To fully utilize this data set, we combined it with results from a retrospective structural sampling design applied at the original trap locations in central European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests. As expected, the importance of the different forest structural, vegetation, and site attributes differed largely between the investigated arthropod groups: beetles, spiders, Aculeata, and true bugs. Measures related to light availability and temperature such as canopy cover or potential radiation were important to all groups affecting either richness, composition, or both. Spiders and true bugs were affected by the broadest range of explanatory variables, which makes them a good choice for monitoring general trends. For targeted monitoring focused on forestry-related effects on biodiversity, rove and ground beetles seem more suitable. Both groups were driven by a narrower, more management-related set of variables. Most importantly, our study approach shows that it is possible to utilize older biodiversity survey data. Although, in our case, there are strong restrictions due to the long time between species and structural attribute sampling.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fagus , Florestas , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/métodos
3.
Data Brief ; 54: 110384, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38646195

RESUMO

Process-based forest models combine biological, physical, and chemical process understanding to simulate forest dynamics as an emergent property of the system. As such, they are valuable tools to investigate the effects of climate change on forest ecosystems. Specifically, they allow testing of hypotheses regarding long-term ecosystem dynamics and provide means to assess the impacts of climate scenarios on future forest development. As a consequence, numerous local-scale simulation studies have been conducted over the past decades to assess the impacts of climate change on forests. These studies apply the best available models tailored to local conditions, parameterized and evaluated by local experts. However, this treasure trove of knowledge on climate change responses remains underexplored to date, as a consistent and harmonized dataset of local model simulations is missing. Here, our objectives were (i) to compile existing local simulations on forest development under climate change in Europe in a common database, (ii) to harmonize them to a common suite of output variables, and (iii) to provide a standardized vector of auxiliary environmental variables for each simulated location to aid subsequent investigations. Our dataset of European stand- and landscape-level forest simulations contains over 1.1 million simulation runs representing 135 million simulation years for more than 13,000 unique locations spread across Europe. The data were harmonized to consistently describe forest development in terms of stand structure (dominant height), composition (dominant species, admixed species), and functioning (leaf area index). Auxiliary variables provided include consistent daily climate information (temperature, precipitation, radiation, vapor pressure deficit) as well as information on local site conditions (soil depth, soil physical properties, soil water holding capacity, plant-available nitrogen). The present dataset facilitates analyses across models and locations, with the aim to better harness the valuable information contained in local simulations for large-scale policy support, and for fostering a deeper understanding of the effects of climate change on forest ecosystems in Europe.

4.
Biotropica ; 56(1): 36-49, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515454

RESUMO

Determining how fully tropical forests regenerating on abandoned land recover characteristics of old-growth forests is increasingly important for understanding their role in conserving rare species and maintaining ecosystem services. Despite this, our understanding of forest structure and community composition recovery throughout succession is incomplete, as many tropical chronosequences do not extend beyond the first 50 years of succession. Here, we examined trajectories of forest recovery across eight 1-hectare plots in middle and later stages of forest succession (40-120 years) and five 1-hectare old-growth plots, in the Barro Colorado Nature Monument (BCNM), Panama. We first verified that forest age had a greater effect than edaphic or topographic variation on forest structure, diversity and composition and then corroborated results from smaller plots censused 20 years previously. Tree species diversity (but not species richness) and forest structure had fully recovered to old-growth levels by 40 and 90 years, respectively. However, rare species were missing, and old-growth specialists were in low abundance, in the mid- and late secondary forest plots, leading to incomplete recovery of species composition even by 120 years into succession. We also found evidence that dominance early in succession by a long-lived pioneer led to altered forest structure and delayed recovery of species diversity and composition well past a century after land abandonment. Our results illustrate the critical importance of old-growth and old secondary forests for biodiversity conservation, given that recovery of community composition may take several centuries, particularly when a long-lived pioneer dominates in early succession. Abstract in Spanish is available with online material.


Determinar en que medida los bosques tropicales que se regeneran en tierras abandonadas recuperan las características de los bosques primarios es cada vez más importante para comprender su papel en la conservación de especies raras y el mantenimiento de los servicios ecosistémicos. A pesar de ello, nuestro entendimiento sobre la recuperación de la estructura del bosque y la composición de la comunidad a lo largo de la sucesión es incompleta, ya que muchas cronosecuencias tropicales no van más allá de los primeros 50 años de sucesión. En este estudio, investigamos las trayectorias de recuperación del bosque en ocho parcelas de 1 hectárea en estadíos medios y tardíos de la sucesión forestal (40­120 años) y cinco parcelas de 1 hectárea de bosque primario, en el Monumento Natural Barro Colorado (MNBC), Panamá. En primer lugar, verificamos que la edad del bosque tenía un mayor efecto que la variación edáfica o topográfica en la estructura, diversidad y composición del bosque y luego corroboramos los resultados de parcelas más pequeñas estudiadas 20 años antes. La diversidad de especies arbóreas, pero no la riqueza de especies, y la estructura forestal se habían recuperado completamente hasta alcanzar los niveles de bosque primario a los 40 y 90 años, respectivamente. Sin embargo, los bosques secundarios carecían de especies raras y presentaban una escasa abundancia de especies especialistas del bosque antiguo, lo que condujo a una recuperación incompleta de la composición de especies, incluso a 120 años de sucesión. También encontramos pruebas de que el predominio de un pionero longevo en las primeras etapas de la sucesión provocó una alteración de la estructura forestal y retrasó la recuperación de la diversidad y composición de especies más allá de un siglo después el abandono de las tierras. Nuestros resultados ilustran la importancia crítica de los bosques primarios y secundarios más antiguos para la conservación de la biodiversidad, dado que la recuperación de la composición de la comunidad puede llevar varios siglos, especialmente cuando un pionero longevo domina en la sucesión temprana.

5.
Ecol Appl ; 34(3): e2957, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485492

RESUMO

Forest insect outbreaks cause large changes in ecosystem structure, composition, and function. Humans often respond to insect outbreaks by conducting salvage logging, which can amplify the immediate effects, but it is unclear whether logging will result in lasting differences in forest structure and dynamics when compared with forests affected only by insect outbreaks. We used 15 years of data from an experimental removal of Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (Eastern hemlock), a foundation tree species within eastern North American forests, and contrasted the rate, magnitude, and persistence of response trajectories between girdling (emulating mortality from insect outbreak) and timber harvest treatments. Girdling and logging were equally likely to lead to large changes in forest structure and dynamics, but logging resulted in faster rates of change. Understory light increases and community composition changes were larger and more rapid in the logged plots. Tree seedling and understory vegetation abundance increased more in the girdled plots; this likely occurred because seedlings grew rapidly into the sapling- and tree-size classes after logging and quickly shaded out plants on the forest floor. Downed deadwood pools increased more after logging but standing deadwood pools increased dramatically after girdling. Understory light levels remained elevated for a longer time after girdling. Perhaps because the window of opportunity for understory species to establish was longer in the girdled plots, total species richness increased more in the girdled than logged plots. Despite the potential for greater diversity in the girdled plots, Betula lenta L. (black birch) was the most abundant tree species recruited into the sapling- and tree-size classes in both the girdled and logged plots and is poised to dominate the new forest canopy. The largest difference between the girdling and logging treatments-deadwood structure and quantity-will persist and continue to bolster aboveground carbon storage and structural and habitat diversity in the girdled plots. Human responses to insect outbreaks hasten forest reorganization and remove structural resources that may further alter forest response to ongoing climate stress and future disturbances.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Árvores , Humanos , Árvores/fisiologia , Florestas , Carbono
6.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120695, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552521

RESUMO

Urbanization can either directly occupy forests or indirectly lead to forest loss elsewhere through cultivated land displacement, resulting in further forest fragmentation and ecosystem service (ES) loss. However, the effects of urban expansion on forest area and ESs are unknown, and this is especially true for indirect effects. Taking Zhejiang Province, China, a typical deforested province, as an example, this study quantified the direct and indirect effects of urban expansion on forest area and five ESs (timber yield, water yield, carbon sequestration, soil conservation, and biodiversity) from 2000 to 2020, explored the relationship between forest structure (forest proportion, mean patch area, edge density, and mean euclidean nearest neighbor distance) change and ESs, and revealed the telecoupling of urban expansion and forest loss and cascade effects among urbanization, deforestation, forest structure, and ESs. The results indicated that the indirect forest loss (4.30%-6.15%) caused by cultivated land displacement due to urban expansion was larger than the direct forest loss (2.42%). Urban expansion has a greater negative impact on carbon sequestration (6.40%-8.20%), water yield (6.08%-7.78%), and biodiversity (5.79%-7.44%) than on timber yield (4.77%-6.17%) and soil conservation (4.43%-5.77%). The indirect forest ES loss was approximately 2.83-4.34 times greater than the direct forest ES loss. Most forest ESs showed a nonlinear significant positive correlation with changes in forest proportion and mean patch area and a significant nonlinear negative correlation with changes in edge density and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance (p < 0.05). There is telecoupling between urban expansion in one region and forest ES loss in other distant regions. This study contributes to guiding sustainable forest conservation and management globally.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Solo , China , Água
7.
PNAS Nexus ; 3(2): pgae008, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38390215

RESUMO

Linking individual and stand-level dynamics during forest development reveals a scaling relationship between mean tree size and tree density in forest stands, which integrates forest structure and function. However, the nature of this so-called scaling law and its variation across broad spatial scales remain unquantified, and its linkage with forest demographic processes and carbon dynamics remains elusive. In this study, we develop a theoretical framework and compile a broad-scale dataset of long-term sample forest stands (n = 1,433) from largely undisturbed forests to examine the association of temporal mean tree size vs. density scaling trajectories (slopes) with biomass accumulation rates and the sensitivity of scaling slopes to environmental and demographic drivers. The results empirically demonstrate a large variation of scaling slopes, ranging from -4 to -0.2, across forest stands in tropical, temperate, and boreal forest biomes. Steeper scaling slopes are associated with higher rates of biomass accumulation, resulting from a lower offset of forest growth by biomass loss from mortality. In North America, scaling slopes are positively correlated with forest stand age and rainfall seasonality, thus suggesting a higher rate of biomass accumulation in younger forests with lower rainfall seasonality. These results demonstrate the strong association of the transient mean tree size vs. density scaling trajectories with forest demography and biomass accumulation rates, thus highlighting the potential of leveraging forest structure properties to predict forest demography, carbon fluxes, and dynamics at broad spatial scales.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 912: 168781, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38007132

RESUMO

Urban forests provide ecological functions and human well-being. However, spatiotemporal changes in urban forest carbon sequestration (CS) under rapid urbanization remain poorly understood. We established a model to predict the annual CS dynamics in urban forests based on plot-measured CS and Landsat images. Our results showed that the urban forest coverage in Changchun increased from 18.09 % to 24.01 % between 2000 and 2019, especially in the urban suburbs. However, urban forest patches became more fragmented and less connected, particularly in the urban center. The NDVI is better than other vegetation indices for mapping urban forest CS. We observed a gradual increase in urban forest CS capacity from 2000 to 2019, with higher CS capacity found in urban suburbs compared to urban centers. The class distribution of urban forest CS capacity was skewed toward low values (0-2 g·m-2·d-1), but this tendency diminished gradually. In 2000, the urban forest in Changchun offset approximately 2.11 % of carbon emissions but declined to 0.88 % by 2019 due to increased carbon emissions. Rapid urbanization was the main factor affecting CS, with impervious surface area accounting for 48.7 % of the variation. Urban landscape pattern indices also influenced the CS, with higher forest patch connectivity and lower patch density leading to greater CS capacity. Our study helps urban managers develop urban greening strategies for carbon neutrality and low-carbon city.

9.
Data Brief ; 51: 109807, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38075613

RESUMO

Contemporary reference sites in California's Sierra Nevada represent areas where a frequent, low-intensity fire regime - an integral ecological process in temperate dry forests - has been reintroduced after several decades of fire suppression. Produced by an intact fire regime, forest structural patterns in these sites are likely more resilient to future disturbances and climate, and thus can provide reference conditions to guide management and ecological research. In this paper, we present a set of 119 delineated contemporary reference sites in the Sierra Nevada yellow pine and mixed-conifer zone along with a suite of key remote sensing-derived forest structure metrics representing conditions within these sites. We also provide a set of summary figures for individual reference sites and sites grouped by dominant climate class. We identified restored frequent-fire landscapes using a combination of fire history, burn severity, management history, and forest type datasets and we delineated individual polygons using catchment basins, fire perimeters, and imagery. Reference sites ranged in size from 101-966 ha with a mean size of 240 ha. Where available (for 59 sites), we used airborne lidar datasets to characterize a suite of key forest structure metrics within reference sites. Across all 119 sites, we provide a set of forest structure metrics produced by the California Forest Observatory. Reference sites were categorized based on their dominant climate class to assist users in identifying the most climatically relevant reference conditions for their project or study area. We encourage the use of the reference sites and associated forest structure datasets for guiding ecologically focused forest management and research in the Sierra Nevada.

10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 266: 115545, 2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37806128

RESUMO

The global atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has intensified in recent years, resulting in a complex impact on forest ecosystems. This study investigated the effects of canopy (CAN) and understory additions of N (UAN) on leaf carbon (C) and N assimilations, as well as growth parameters of representative woody plant species in an evergreen broad-leaved forest, i.e. Castanea henryi, Schefflera heptaphylla, Blastus cochinchinensis, and Lasianthus chinensis. The results showed that leaf N assimilation key enzyme nitrate reductase (NR) activities of B. cochinchinensis and S. heptaphylla were significantly decreased by UAN, and were significantly decreased by CAN for C. henryi. CAN significantly decreased the nitrite reductase activity of C. henryi, while significantly increased that of L. chinensis. However, the Amax values of each woody species were not significantly different among control (CK), CAN, and UAN. Community surveys demonstrated that CAN and UAN inhibited the growth (diameter at breast height, height, or crown width) of the representative large tree, C. henryi, while promoting the growths of understory woody species (B. cochinchinensis and L. chinensis). Overall, N addition was found to change the physiological processes of N and C metabolisms of the dominant woody species in an evergreen broad-leaved forest. The community of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests may further decline and its C fixation capacity may be detrimentally changed under N deposition in the future.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Nitrogênio , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Carbono , Florestas , Árvores/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , China
11.
Bull Math Biol ; 85(11): 108, 2023 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37775681

RESUMO

Mountain pine beetle (MPB) in Canada have spread well beyond their historical range. Accurate modelling of the long-term dynamics of MPB is critical for assessing the risk of further expansion and informing management strategies, particularly in the context of climate change and variable forest resilience. Most previous models have focused on capturing a single outbreak without tree replacement. While these models are useful for understanding MPB biology and outbreak dynamics, they cannot accurately model long-term forest dynamics. Past models that incorporate forest growth tend to simplify beetle dynamics. We present a new model that couples forest growth to MPB population dynamics and accurately captures key aspects of MPB biology, including a threshold for the number of beetles needed to overcome tree defenses and beetle aggregation that facilitates mass attacks. These mechanisms lead to a demographic Allee effect, which is known to be important in beetle population dynamics. We show that as forest resilience decreases, a fold bifurcation emerges and there is a stable fixed point with a non-zero MPB population. We derive conditions for the existence of this equilibrium. We then simulate biologically relevant scenarios and show that the beetle population approaches this equilibrium with transient boom and bust cycles with period related to the time of forest recovery. As forest resilience decreases, the Allee threshold also decreases. Thus, if host resilience decreases under climate change, for example under increased stress from drought, then the lower Allee threshold makes transient outbreaks more likely to occur in the future.

12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 34(8): 2029-2038, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37681366

RESUMO

Taking the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of Tianmu Mountain National Nature Reserve in Zhejiang Province as research object, we divided the tree species into three pairs, including evergreen and deci-duous species, broad-leaved and coniferous species, dominant and non-dominant species, to compare the difference of the individual tree carbon stock of each pair and analyze the diameter distribution pattern and tree height distribution pattern of carbon stocks. The relationship between spatial structure and individual tree carbon stock was analyzed by using spatial structure indicators including V_Hegyi competition index, complete mingling and aggregation index, to reveal the relationship between the structure of coniferous and broad-leaved forests and carbon stocks, and provide a theoretical basis for management of forest carbon sequestration. The results showed that the average individual carbon stock for evergreen and deciduous species, broad-leaved and coniferous species, dominant and non-dominant species were 57.7 and 87.4 kg, 54.6 and 74.7 kg, 67.4 and 48.1 kg, respectively. The individual tree carbon stock of evergreen species was significantly lower than that of deciduous species, the individual tree carbon stock of broad-leaved species was significantly lower than that of coniferous species, and the individual tree carbon stock of dominant tree species was significantly higher than that of non-dominant tree species. The diameter distribution and height distribution of carbon stock of each species group obeyed normal distribution. The V_Hegyi competition index was significantly negatively correlated with individual tree carbon stock, and it was consistent with the power function distribution. Both complete mingling and aggregation index were linearly and positively correlated with individual tree carbon stock. The direction of influence of different spatial structures on the individual tree carbon stock was consistent. The structure of coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest had a significant impact on individual tree carbon stock. In the management of forest carbon sequestration and sink enhancement, it is necessary to regulate the unreasonable forest structure and promote its succession to the climax community in order to improve forest carbon stock.


Assuntos
Florestas , Traqueófitas , Árvores , China , Carbono , Sequestro de Carbono
13.
Ecol Evol ; 13(9): e10439, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37664503

RESUMO

Forest transformation has major impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Identifying the influence of forest habitat structure and composition on avian functional communities is important for conserving and managing forest systems. This study investigated the effect of forest structure and composition characteristics on bird species community structure, habitat use and functional diversity in 14 Mistbelt Forest patches of the Midlands of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. We surveyed bird communities using point counts. We quantified bird functional diversity for each forest patch using three diversity indices: functional richness, functional evenness and functional divergence. We further assessed species-specific responses by focussing on three avian forest specialists, orange ground-thrush Geokichla gurneyi, forest canary Crithagra scotops and Cape parrot Poicephalus robustus. We found that bird community and forest-specialist species responses to forest structure and tree species diversity differed. Also, forest structural complexity, canopy cover and tree species richness were the main forest characteristics better at explaining microhabitat influence on bird functional diversity. Forest patches with relatively high structural complexity and tree species richness had higher functional richness. Different structural characteristics influenced habitat use by the three forest specialists. Tree species diversity influenced C. scotops and G. gurneyi positively, while P. robustus responded negatively to forest patches with high tree species richness. Our study showed that site-scale forest structure and composition characteristics are important for bird species richness and functional richness. Forest patches with high tree species diversity and structural complexity should be maintained to conserve forest specialists, bird species richness and functional richness.

14.
Ambio ; 52(11): 1737-1756, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37535310

RESUMO

Forest management methods and harvest intensities influence wood production, carbon sequestration and biodiversity. We devised different management scenarios by means of stakeholder analysis and incorporated them in the forest growth simulator PREBAS. To analyse impacts of harvest intensity, we used constraints on total harvest: business as usual, low harvest, intensive harvest and no harvest. We carried out simulations on a wall-to-wall grid in Finland until 2050. Our objectives were to (1) test how the management scenarios differed in their projections, (2) analyse the potential wood production, carbon sequestration and biodiversity under the different harvest levels, and (3) compare different options of allocating the scenarios and protected areas. Harvest level was key to carbon stocks and fluxes regardless of management actions and moderate changes in proportion of strictly protected forest. In contrast, biodiversity was more dependent on other management variables than harvesting levels, and relatively independent of carbon stocks and fluxes.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 901: 165887, 2023 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37517715

RESUMO

Understanding how Mediterranean forests respond to the increasing frequency of extreme droughts and forest densification is crucial for effective land management in the present context of climate change and land abandonment. We study the responses of Iberian holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) woodlands to recent extreme droughts during 2000-2019 along broad gradients of climate aridity and forest structure. To this purpose, we apply large-scale remote-sensing using MODIS EVI as a primary production proxy in 5274 Q. ilex sites distributed within a 100,000 km2 region in eastern Spain. These woodlands were extensively affected by two extreme drought events in 2005 and 2012. Resistance, assessed as the capacity of the ecosystems to maintain primary production during drought, was significantly lower for semi-arid than for sub-humid and dry-transition conditions. Holm oak woodlands located in semi-arid areas of the region showed also poorer resilience to drought, characterized by low capacity to fully recover to their pre-drought production levels. Further, drought intensity and both pre- and post-drought hydric conditions controlled the variations of resistance, recovery and resilience between the two analyzed extreme drought events. Drought effects were particularly negative for dense Q. ilex stands under semi-arid climate conditions, where strong competition for scarce water resources reduced drought resistance. The observed drought vulnerability of semi-arid holm oak woodlands may affect the long-term stability of these dry forests. Adaptive management strategies, such as selective forest thinning, may be useful for improving drought responses in these more vulnerable semi-arid woodlands. Conversely, natural rewilding may more appropriately guide management actions for more humid areas, where densely developed Q. ilex woodlands show in general a high ability to maintain ecosystem primary production during drought.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Quercus , Secas , Quercus/fisiologia , Espanha , Florestas , Mudança Climática , Árvores/fisiologia
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 894: 164916, 2023 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37343871

RESUMO

Research indicates that urban ecosystems can store large amounts of carbon. However, few studies have examined how the spatial features of park greenspace affect its carbon-carrying capacity, and how those effects vary with the spatial scale. Lidar point clouds and remote sensing images were extracted for the 196 ha green space in the China Green Expo to study carbon storage and sequestration in parks. Full subset regression, stepwise regression, HP analysis, and structural equation modeling were used to examine the scale dependency and the driving relationship between carbon storage and carbon sequestration in parks. The results show that the optimal statistical sample diameters for carbon density and carbon sequestration density in parks are 100 m. Under the influence of impermeable surfaces and water bodies, the statistical values of carbon density were minimized when the sample plot diameter was 700 m. Biodiversity and forest structure are the main drivers of carbon density, with the influence of water bodies being more prominent on a larger scale. Texture characteristics explain more carbon density than the vegetation index, and RVI could better explain the variation of carbon sequestration than NDVI. This study explores scaled changes in carbon density, carbon sequestration density in parks, and their driving relationships, which can aid in developing carbon sequestration strategies based on parks.

17.
Ecology ; 104(7): e4098, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37258300

RESUMO

Many studies have focused on vegetation across forest edges to study impacts of edges created by human activities on forest structure and composition, or patterns of vegetation at inherent natural edges. Our objective was to create a database of plant-related variables across different types of edges from various studies (mainly from across Canada, but also in Brazil and Belize) to facilitate edge research. We compiled data on vegetation along more than 300 transects perpendicular to forest edges adjacent to clear-cuts, burned areas, bogs, lakes, barrens, insect disturbances, and riparian areas from 24 studies conducted over the past three decades. Data were compiled for more than 400 plant species and forest structure variables (e.g., trees, logs, canopy cover). All data were collected with a similar sampling design of quadrats along transects perpendicular to forest edges, but with varying numbers of transects and quadrats, and distances from the edge. The purpose for most of the studies was either to determine the distance of edge influence (edge width) or to explore the pattern of vegetation along the edge to interior gradient. We provide data tables for the cover of plant species and functional groups, the species and size of live and dead trees, the density of saplings, maximum height of functional groups and shrub species, and the cover of functional groups at different heights (vertical distribution of vegetation). The Forest Edge Research Network (FERN) database provides extensive data on many variables that can be used for further study including meta-analyses and can assist in answering questions important to conservation efforts (e.g., how is distance of edge influence from created edges affected by different factors?). We plan to expand this database with subsequent studies from the authors and we invite others to contribute to make this a more global database. The data are released under a CC0 license. When using these data, we ask that you cite this data paper and any relevant publications listed in our metadata file. We also encourage you to contact the first author if you are planning to use or contribute to this database.


Assuntos
Florestas , Animais , Humanos , Insetos , Árvores , Áreas Alagadas
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 884: 163852, 2023 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37142026

RESUMO

Increasing tropical cyclone (TC) pressure on temperate forests is inevitable under the recent global increase of the intensity and poleward migration of TCs. However, the long-term effects of TCs on large-scale structure and diversity of temperate forests remain unclear. Here, we aim to ascertain the legacy of TCs on forest structure and tree species richness by using structural equation models that consider several environmental gradients and use an extensive dataset containing >140,000 plots with >3 million trees from natural temperate forests across eastern United States impacted by TCs. We found that high TC activity (a combination of TC frequency and intensity) leads to a decrease in maximum tree sizes (height and diameter), an increase in tree density and basal area, and a decline in the number of tree species and recruits. We identified TC activity as the strongest predictor of forest structure and species richness in xeric (dry) forests, while it had a weaker impact on hydric (wet) forests. We highlight the sensitivity of forest structure and tree species richness to impacts of likely further increase of TC activity in interaction with climate extremes, especially drought. Our results show that increased TC activity leads to the homogenization of forest structure and reduced tree species richness in U.S. temperate forests. These findings suggest that further declines in tree species richness may be expected because of the projected increase of future levels of TC activity.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Árvores , Estados Unidos , Biodiversidade , Florestas , Clima
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 880: 163263, 2023 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37028669

RESUMO

High water-holding forests are essential for adapting to drought climates under global warming, and a central issue is which type of forests could conserve more water in the ecosystem. This paper explores how forest structure, plant diversity, and soil physics impact forest water-holding capacities. We investigated 720 sampling plots by measuring water-holding capacities from 1440 soil and litter samples, 8400 leaves, and 1680 branches and surveying 18,054 trees in total (28 species). Water-holding capacities were measured as four soil indices (Maxwc, maximum water-holding capacity; Fcwc, field water-holding capacity; Cpwc, soil capillary water-holding capacity; Ncpwc, non-capillary water-holding capacity), two litter metrics (Maxwcl, maximum water-holding capacity of litters; Ewcl, effective water-holding capacity of litters), and canopy interception (C, the sum of estimated water interception of all branches and leaves of all tree species in the plot). We found that water-holding capacity in the big-sized tree plots was 4-25 % higher in the litters, 54-64 % in the canopy, and 6-37 % in the soils than in the small-sized plots. The higher species richness increased all soil water-holding capacities compared to the lowest richness plot. Higher Simpson and Shannon-Wiener plots had 10-27 % higher Ewcl and C than the lowest plots. Bulk density had the strongest negative relations with Maxwc, Cpwc, and Fcwc, whereas field soil water content positively affected them. Soil physics, forest structure, and plant diversity explained 90.5 %, 5.9 %, and 0.2 % of the water-holding variation, respectively. Tree sizes increased C, Ncpwc, Ewcl directly (p < 0.05), and richness increased Ewcl directly (p < 0.05). However, the direct effects from the uniform angle index (tree distribution evenness) were balanced by their indirect effect from soil physics. Our findings highlighted that the mixed forests with big-sized trees and rich species could effectively improve the water-holding capacities of the ecosystem.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Árvores , Água , Biodiversidade , Florestas , China , Solo/química
20.
J Environ Manage ; 337: 117772, 2023 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36958279

RESUMO

Mangrove forests, some of the most carbon-dense ecosystems on Earth, play an important role in climate change mitigation through storing carbon in the soil. However, increasing anthropogenic pressures and sea level rise are likely to alter mangrove forest structure and functions, including the major source of carbon in mangrove ecosystems - below-ground soil carbon stocks (BSCS). Although estimating soil carbon stocks has been a popular practice in the mangroves, but poorly understood the (I) the linkage between BSCS and key ecosystem drivers (i.e., biotic, abiotic, and functional) and in (II) determining the pathways of how BSCS and multiple forest variables interact along stress gradients. This lack of understanding limits our ability to predict ecosystem carbon dynamics under future changes in climate. Here, we aimed to understand how abiotic factors (such as salinity, canopy gap fraction, nutrients, and soil pH), biotic factors (e.g., structural parameters, canopy packing, and leaf area index, LAI), and forest functional variables (e.g., growth and aboveground biomass stocks, AGB) affect BSCS (i.e., soil organic carbon, SOC, and root carbon, RC) using spatiotemporal data collected from the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest (SMF) in Bangladesh. We observed that BSCS decreased significantly with increasing salinity (e.g., from 70.6 Mg C ha-1 in the low-saline zone to 44.6 Mg C ha-1 in the high-saline zone). In contrast, the availability of several macronutrients (such as nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium), LAI, species diversity, AGB, and growth showed a significant positive effect on SOC and RC. Stand properties, including tree height, basal area, density, canopy packing, and structural diversity, had a non-significant but positive impact on RC, while tree height and basal area significantly influenced SOC. Pathway analysis showed that salinity affects BSCS variability directly and indirectly by regulating stand structure and restricting nutrients and forest functions, although basal area, nutrients, and LAI directly enhance RC stocks. Our results indicate that an increase in nutrient content, canopy density, species diversity, and leaf area index can enhance BSCS, as they improve forest functions and contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Áreas Alagadas , Solo/química , Carbono/análise , Florestas , Biomassa
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