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J Intell ; 11(2)2023 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36826936


Whereas it has sometimes been asserted that the intellectually gifted would be more prone to develop mental health problems, empirical studies generally do not seem to support such claims. However, much of the available research has relied on preselected samples, introducing risks for sample selection bias. This study scrutinized the relationship between intellectual giftedness (defined as high cognitive ability) and mental health in a large, non-selective sample of early adolescents (n = 3409; 49.6% boys; Mage = 12.5 years). Using a standardized intelligence test (CoVaT-CHC) to identify participants with a high cognitive ability (IQ ≥ 120; n = 403), we compared self- and parent-reported levels of emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and self-reported worry and global self-esteem between high and average ability adolescents. Findings indicated that adolescents with a high cognitive ability were not at increased risk of psychological maladjustment; if any, differences were in favor of the high ability group. However, adolescents who had been formally identified as gifted (i.e., who had received a gifted label) did report worse adjustment for a number of outcomes.

J Clin Sleep Med ; 19(5): 925-934, 2023 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710429


STUDY OBJECTIVES: Giftedness is a multidimensional condition. It is increasingly put forward that gifted children (GC) could be a population at high risk for sleep problems. The current study investigated GC and typically developing children for their habitual sleep, night-to-night sleep variability, and parental reports of child sleep. METHODS: The sample consisted of 62 GC (31 girls; mean age = 9.63 ± 1.71 years) and 62 typically developing children (31 girls; mean age = 9.68 ± 1.68 years). Groups were age and sex matched. Giftedness was identified using Renzulli's 3-factor definition of giftedness. Sleep duration, quality, and night-to-night variability were assessed using actigraphy. Parents were asked to complete the short-form version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire to report on their child's sleep. Groups were compared with independent sample t-tests and chi-square analyses. RESULTS: GC displayed lower sleep efficiencies, more wake time after sleep onset, and more night-to-night sleep variability than typically developing children. GC were found to experience less social jetlag compared to typically developing children, and they also showed more clinically significant sleep problems as reported by parents. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep maintenance and stability tend to be challenged in GC. While there is growing evidence that greater sleep variability is associated with poorer physical and emotional health, studies have yet to examine these associations in GC specifically to get a better understanding of giftedness. Overall, there is a need for research focused on both predictors and consequences of sleep patterns and sleep variability in GC. CITATION: Bastien L, Théoret R, Bernier A, Godbout R. Habitual sleep and intraindividual variability of sleep in gifted children: an actigraphy study. J Clin Sleep Med. 2023;19(5):925-934.

Criança Superdotada , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Actigrafia , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental
Neuropsychologia ; 179: 108448, 2023 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528220


Previous studies on intelligence have demonstrated that higher abilities are associated with lower brain activation, indicating a higher neural efficiency. In other words, more able individuals use fewer brain resources. However, it is unclear whether the neural efficiency phenomenon also appears for mathematical performance, which is influenced by both domain-general giftedness and domain-specific competencies. Therefore, this study examined the effects of general giftedness (G) and excellence in mathematics (EM) on performance and brain activation while solving learning-based mathematical tasks that required translation from graphical to symbolic representations of functions. Overall, 118 high school students (aged 16-18) participated in the present study and were divided according to G and EM using a 2 × 2 study design. Participants worked on a function task requiring translation between symbolic and graphical representations of functions. Analyses of the behavioral data revealed positive effects of both G and EM on the accuracy of solutions and an interaction effect of both factors on reaction times, reflecting a positive effect of EM only among the gifted individuals. EEG analyses focused on oscillatory activity in the theta and alpha frequency bands and showed a significant effect of EM in the upper alpha band (10-12 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) for both graphical and symbolic representations. Specifically, higher (compared to lower) EM was associated with a larger alpha ERD, indicating a higher level of brain activity. This stands in contrast with the neural efficiency phenomenon. These findings suggest that the neural efficiency phenomenon cannot be generalized to higher-order mathematical demands in high-performing individuals. Several explanations for this limitation are offered.

Encéfalo , Cognição , Humanos , Cognição/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Sincronização Cortical
J Sleep Res ; : e13807, 2022 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550780


Neurological uniqueness, maladaptive behaviours, as well as atypical sleep patterns are reported to be defining characteristics of giftedness, but this has received little empirical support. We studied the polysomnography recorded sleep of gifted and typically-developing children together with features of maladaptive behaviours. The association of sleep macrostructure and sleep instability with maladaptive behaviours was also investigated in gifted children. In all, 19 gifted children (74% boys) and 17 typically-developing children (76% boys) aged 6-12 years were studied. Giftedness was identified using Renzulli's three-factor definition. The microarousal index, number of awakenings, and number of Stage shifts between sleep stages throughout the night were computed as sleep instability parameters. Maladaptive behaviours were assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist. We found significantly more Stage N1 and less Stage N3 in gifted children compared to typically-developing children. More Stage N1 sleep was correlated with more externalising problems and less Stage N3 sleep was correlated with more internalising problems. Gifted children also displayed more rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, but this was not significantly correlated with behavioural scales. Gifted children displayed two opposing trends of sleep instability: more instability involving N1 sleep and less instability involving N2, N3 and REM sleep. More total Stage shifts were correlated with more internalising and externalising problems. The results of this study provide initial evidence of polysomnography-based characteristics of giftedness. Further studies are needed to explore common pathways linking sleep alterations and maladaptive behaviours in children with giftedness.

Preprint em Português | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-5212


The pandemic caused by the new coronavirus, SARS-coV-2, has paralyzed the world, highlighting the importance of knowledge related to immunity that should be present in people's daily lives since basic education. The school space must be a place of inclusion and among all the publics served, students with gifted behavior are pointed out. The work took place in a workshop held at the VIII Summer Course (2020), for gifted students from the Development and Innovation in Science Teaching group - UFF (DIECI-UFF). The subject dealt with the Immune System and the proposals for the construction of pedagogical tools for future learning. The participating students were encouraged to solve clinical case studies, to participate in a game about the Immune System and challenged to produce a teaching material to be used by Science and Biology teachers. From the demands found, as well as the suggestions brought by the gifted, it became possible to improve the prototype of the board game. It was concluded that gifted students, when challenged, tend to concentrate and get involved with the proposed task, which resulted in the satisfactory production of materials that can be used by other students in elementary schools.

La pandemia provocada por el nuevo coronavirus, SARS-coV-2, ha paralizado al mundo, destacando la importancia de los conocimientos relacionados con la inmunidad que deben estar presentes en el día a día de las personas desde la educación primaria. El espacio escolar debe ser un lugar de inclusión y entre todos los públicos atendidos se destacan los alumnos con comportamiento superdotado. El trabajo tuvo lugar en un taller realizado en el VIII Curso de Verano (2020), para alumnos superdotados del grupo Desarrollo e Innovación en la Enseñanza de las Ciencias - UFF  (DIECI-UFF). El tema abordado fue el Sistema Inmune y las propuestas para la construcción de herramientas pedagógicas para el aprendizaje futuro. Es decir, se animó a los estudiantes del taller a resolver estudios de casos clínicos, a participar en un juego sobre el Sistema Inmune y se les desafió a producir un material didáctico para ser utilizado por profesores de Ciencias y Biología. A partir de las demandas encontradas, así como de las sugerencias aportadas por los superdotados, fue posible mejorar el prototipo del juego de mesa elegido por ellos. Se concluyó que los estudiantes superdotados, cuando son desafiados, tienden a concentrarse e involucrarse con la tarea propuesta, lo que resultó en la producción satisfactoria de materiales que pueden ser utilizados por otros estudiantes en las escuelas primarias.

A pandemia causada pelo novo Coronavírus, SARS-coV-2, tem paralisado o mundo, ressaltando a importância de conhecimentos relativos à imunidade que deverão estar presentes no cotidiano das pessoas desde a educação básica. O espaço escolar deve ser local de inclusão e dentre todos os públicos atendidos aponta-se para alunos com comportamento superdotado. O trabalho ocorreu em um workshop realizado no VIII Curso de Verão (2020), para alunos superdotados do grupo Desenvolvimento e Inovação no Ensino de Ciências ­ UFF (DIECI-UFF). O assunto abordado foi o Sistema Imunológico e as propostas de construção de ferramentas pedagógicas para um futuro aprendizado. Os alunos participantes foram instigados a solucionarem estudos de casos clínicos, a participarem de um jogo sobre o Sistema Imunológico e desafiados a produzirem um material didático que fomentasse as aulas de Ciências e Biologia.  A partir das demandas encontradas, bem como pelas sugestões trazidas pelos superdotados, tornou-se possível o aprimoramento do protótipo do jogo de tabuleiro. Concluiu-se que alunos com superdotação, quando desafiados, tendem a se concentrar e envolver-se com a tarefa proposta, o que resultou na produção satisfatória de materiais que podem ser utilizados pelos demais alunos nas escolas do ensino básico

Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36428869


The present paper is based on data of two samples concerning the Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) that aimed to gain insight into the psychometric properties (internal consistency reliability, structural and convergent validity) of the Greek version of the GRS-P. In both studies, teachers estimated their students' giftedness with the GRS-P and executive functions with the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (Study 1). In Study 2, kindergarteners were examined in cognitive measurements which included the colored progressive matrices, the children category test, the Athena test, and the mini-mental state examination. Statistical analyses (EFA, CFA, Cronbach's α, and Pearson's r coefficients) revealed the excellent internal consistency of the scales as well as their good factorial and convergent/discriminant validity. In relation to the children's cognitive ability measures, it emphasized the fact that the GRS-P is a reliable and valid tool for teachers to assess their gifted students in a Greek cultural context.

Brain Sci ; 12(11)2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421895


The potential for the misdiagnosis of giftedness as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been well documented, as has the clinical diagnostic profile of individuals with both giftedness and ADHD. This study aimed to examine parents' and teachers' responses to the Conners 3 behavioral rating scale of gifted students with ADHD compared to gifted students without ADHD and non-gifted students with ADHD. Ninety-two children aged 6 to 16 years were included in the study. On the basis of clinical assessments utilizing the K-SADS, the WISC-V, and other neurocognitive tests, the students were split into three groups: gifted/ADHD (n = 35), ADHD (n = 35), and gifted (n = 22). The results revealed that mothers', fathers', and teachers' responses to the Conners 3 rating scale distinguished well between the gifted group and the other two groups, but not between the gifted/ADHD and ADHD groups. The learning difficulties observed by teachers was the most significant element that distinguished gifted/ADHD students from non-gifted ADHD students. Other results indicated that mothers and fathers reported more inattention problems in their gifted/ADHD children than teachers. Additionally, mothers tended to observe more learning and executive function problems in their gifted/ADHD children than teachers did. These findings highlight the importance of multiple informants complementing each other in the assessment process for ADHD in a gifted context to counteract the masking effect between giftedness and ADHD.

J Intell ; 10(4)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36412771


The manifestation of performance at the top of a given talent distribution constitutes giftedness. While identifying talented youths based on IQ has been the focus of previous research, examining their cognitive profile is a new endeavor. The present study assessed the IQ and cognitive abilities of a sample of gifted Italian children and compared them to their parents using the Wechsler scales. Fifty-nine gifted children aged 6 to 14 years were administered the WISC-IV while their parents (N = 53 mothers and N = 55 fathers) took the WAIS-IV. The gifted children (IQ ≥ 120) obtained particularly high scores in verbal comprehension (VCI) and visual-perceptual reasoning (PRI). More than two-thirds of the mothers and over half of the fathers also achieved an IQ ≥ 120. The gifted children scored significantly higher than both mothers and fathers in VCI and PRI. The mothers were significantly higher than their children in the processing speed domain. Correlational analyses highlighted that children's IQ was positively related to that of their mothers. In keeping with the literature, the cognitive profile of gifted children was found to vary across cognitive abilities. It follows that the General Ability Index was the WISC-IV index that best matched the potential of gifted youths. Consistent with previous research, our study suggests that intellectual abilities, especially working memory and processing speed, are maintained and presumably passed on from one generation to the next.

J Intell ; 10(4)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36412773


Contrary to the common notion that personality and intelligence are unrelated constructs, numerous correlational studies have demonstrated substantial associations between the two domains. Moreover, samples of intellectually gifted individuals have been found to differ from the general population in specific aspects of their personalities. However, most studies so far have relied on the Five-Factor Model of Personality (FFM), while none have investigated this phenomenon using the HEXACO personality framework. We recruited 617 adult members of the international high-IQ society MENSA and compared them to 3 reference samples (combined N = 112,637) regarding their personalities as measured by the HEXACO-60 personality inventory. We found that gifted persons scored higher in Honesty-Humility and Conscientiousness but lower in Emotionality compared to reference samples. Interestingly, gifted individuals scored only slightly higher in Openness to Experience, and no consistent differences emerged for Agreeableness. We demonstrate that some known personality differences between gifted and non-gifted persons translate from the FFM to the HEXACO model, while others do not. Our results indicate that within the HEXACO factor structure differences in sociability are more pronounced, while intellect-related differences are comparatively weak.

J Intell ; 10(4)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36412774


It is common practice in the educational system to foster high mathematical abilities in schools as well as in specific promotional programs. Still, little is known about the construct of mathematical giftedness itself. In line with intellectual investment theories, our study investigates the relationship between fluid intelligence (figural and numerical), openness, and the need for cognition with mathematical abilities. The current study is based on a sample (N = 115) of seventh graders participating in the application process for a promotion program. The results of our regression analyses show a positive link between fluid intelligence and mathematical abilities. However, neither the association with openness nor the need for cognition reached significance, emphasizing the importance of cognitive abilities for mathematical giftedness. Limitations and further directions are discussed.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181607


This work systematically reviewed past literature to investigate the association between intellectual giftedness and socio-emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria, 17 of which have children and/or adolescents as participants, and 12 have a non-gifted control group. Socio-emotional problems, such as withdrawal, were found in 3 out of 8 studies; internalizing disorders, such as anxiety, were found in 5 out of 9; externalizing disorders, such as hyperactivity, were found in 3 out of 5. The most investigated comorbidity was attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A univocal conclusion on the relationship between intellectual giftedness and socio-emotional/behavioral problems cannot be drawn, principally because of the heterogeneity of participants' age, informants, and instruments. The review highlights the need for future studies to use multi-informant and comprehensive assessments, to reach more robust findings, and suggests that age and discrepancy between verbal and non-verbal intellectual abilities should be considered critical factors.

Psico USF ; 27(4): 721-734, Oct.-Dec. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1422349


It is essential that intelligence assessment be integrated with creativity, although no instruments in Brazil do so. This research investigated the item difficulty and validity and reliability of the Bateria de Avaliação Intelectual e Criativa Infantil (BAICI) to address this gap. The first sample consisted of 612 children (54% M) aged 7 to 12 years, and the second sample consisted of 377 students (56% M), some of whom (N = 164) were already identified as exhibiting high skills/giftedness. Item analysis indicated the need to adjust the BAICI items. The results of a MANCOVA indicated that the BAICI exhibits evidence of validity with external variables because the group of gifted children was significantly distinguished from the group of students attending regular schools on tests of vocabulary, speed, logical thinking, and creativity. The study concludes that the BAICI has psychometric qualities that can be used in the psychological assessment of children. (AU)

É essencial que a avaliação da inteligência seja integrada com a criatividade embora não existam instrumentos no país para essa finalidade. Esta pesquisa investigou a dificuldade dos itens e as evidências de validade e precisão da Bateria de Avaliação Intelectual e Criativa Infantil (BAICI) para oferecer uma avaliação mais completa do potencial infantil. A primeira amostra foi composta por 612 crianças (54% M), idade sete a 12 anos e a segunda de 377 estudantes (56% M), uma parte (N = 164) já identificadas com altas habilidades/superdotação. A análise pela TRI indicou a necessidade de ajuste de itens da BAICI. Os resultados pela MANCOVA indicaram que a BAICI possui evidências de validade com variáveis externas, pois o grupo de crianças superdotadas se distinguiu significativamente de estudantes de escolas regulares nos testes de vocabulário, rapidez, pensamento lógico e criatividade. Conclui-se que a BAICI possui qualidades psicométricas para ser utilizada na avaliação psicológica infantil. (AU)

Es fundamental que la evaluación de la inteligencia se integre con la creatividad, aunque en el país no existen instrumentos para este fin. Esta investigación analizó las evidencias de validez y precisión de la Batería de Evaluación Intelectual y Creativa Infantil (BAICI) para proporcionar una evaluación más completa del potencial de los niños. La primera muestra estuvo compuesta por 612 niños (54% M), de 7 a 12 años, a su vez, la segunda por 377 estudiantes (56% M), una parte (N = 164) ya identificada con altas habilidades/superdotación. El análisis de la TRI indicó la necesidad de ajustar los ítems de la BAICI. Los resultados de MANCOVA indicaron que BAICI tiene evidencias de validez con variables externas, ya que el grupo de niños superdotados se distinguió significativamente de niños de escuelas regulares en las pruebas de vocabulario, velocidad, pensamiento lógico y creatividad. Se concluye que la BAICI tiene cualidades psicométricas para ser utilizada en la evaluación psicológica infantil. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Criança Superdotada/psicologia , Criatividade , Inteligência , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Variância , Análise Fatorial , Distribuição por Sexo , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Correlação de Dados , Fatores Sociodemográficos , Testes de Inteligência , Testes de Linguagem
Front Psychol ; 13: 961624, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092065


In this study, a systematic review was undertaken of the international scholarly literature on the identification and development of giftedness/talent in the physical domain, to establish the scope of current knowledge in the area. To identify relevant research, a search that involved the creation of a search string and the manual examination of the titles and abstracts of potentially relevant research, was conducted using two databases-Web of Science Core Collection and SportDiscus-and six inclusion/exclusion criteria (i.e., relevance to identification or development of physical giftedness/talent, an empirical study, publication in a reputable academic peer-reviewed journal, publication from 2000 to 2021, an English language publication, and authorship by scholars based in any part of the world). The 101 journal articles that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were analyzed for key details, including the year of publication, methodological approaches, participants, and major findings. The five broad themes that emerged from the findings of these articles related to conceptions of physical giftedness/talent, identification characteristics/criteria, factors associated with identification, identification methods, and talent development interventions. An outline and discussion of the key issues and trends in the research, along with some recommendations for future research, conclude the systematic review.

Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 29(3)septiembre 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-213239


Introducción: Se pretende analizar las características clínicas de menores con superdotación intelectual y autismo, planteando que la identificación temprana de superdotación no se acompaña de un diagnóstico temprano de TEA.Material y métodosAnálisis descriptivo de una muestra de pacientes (n=8) de 7 a 16 años, con Altas Capacidades identificadas, derivados a una consulta específica de autismo infantil para evaluación diagnóstica.Resultados6 de los pacientes recibieron diagnóstico clínico de TEA. Solo 3 de los pacientes superaron el punto de corte de espectro autista en la evaluación ADOS-2. La edad media de detección de Altas Capacidades fue de 5,88 años, y la de TEA fue de 9,83 años, transcurriendo un tiempo medio de 4,83 años. Todos habían sido evaluados en Servicios de Salud Mental, y 7 habían recibido, al menos, un diagnóstico psiquiátrico previo, así como tratamiento psicofarmacológico.DiscusiónPosiblemente, la superposición de características clínicas de las Altas Capacidades con los síntomas TEA retrase el diagnóstico del segundo cuando se han detectado las primeras, tanto por un fenómeno de enmascaramiento, como por un sesgo de atribución, debido a que la categoría de Altas Capacidades sea mejor aceptada. El deterioro clínicamente significativo de estos pacientes parece agravarse en la adolescencia. La conceptualización incompleta de la neurodivergencia podría estar dificultando a los profesionales clínicos la identificación y clasificación de menores con neurodesarrollos atípicos.ConclusionesLa identificación de una superdotación podría retrasar el diagnóstico de TEA. Se debe ampliar la investigación sobre neurodesarrollo y neurodiversidad, la inteligencia y su relación con el TEA. Es imprescindible la formación específica en neurodesarrollo de psiquiatras infanto-juveniles. (AU)

Introduction: We intend to analyze the clinical characteristics of intellectually gifted minors with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), stating that early identification of giftedness is not linked to an early ASD diagnosis.Material and methodDescriptive analysis in a sample of n=8 patients ages 7 to 16, with identified giftedness refered to a medical consultation specialized in infantile autism for a diagnostic evaluation.Results6 of the latter referred patients received an ASD clinical diagnosis. Only 3 of the patients were above the cut-off point for autism spectrum on the ADOS-2 evaluation. The average age of detection was 5’88 for Giftedness and 9’83 for ASD, with an average time of 4’83 years elapsed in between. All of them had been previously evaluated in Mental Health Services and 7 had received at least one previous psychiatric diagnosis, as well as psycho-pharmacological treatment.DiscussionIt is possible that the superimposition between the clinical characteristics of Giftedness and ASD symptoms may delay the latter’s diagnosis when the previous have been detected, be it due to a masking phenomenon, an attribution bias, or that the Giftedness category is better accepted. This patients significant clinical deterioration seems to worsen during adolescence. The uncompleted conceptualization of neuro-divergence may be hampering the clinicians ability to identify and classify minors with an atypical neurodevelopment.ConclusionsGiftedness identification may delay ASD diagnosis. We must improve investigation about neuro-development and neuro-diversity, as well as intelligence and its connection to ASD. Child and Adolescent psychiatrists’ specific training in neuro-development is therefore essential. (AU)

Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Inteligência , Síndrome de Asperger , Diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais
Front Psychol ; 13: 945766, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36033028


The present study is a differential study that describes the nature of the relationship between cooperation and altruistic behavior in a sample of gifted adolescents in three universities in Egypt and Kuwait University. It also identified the differences between males/females, and senior students/junior students in both cooperation and altruism. A total of 237 gifted adolescents-with average age 21.3 ± SD 2.6 years-from three Egyptian universities: Alexandria University, Sadat Academy for Management Sciences, and Suez University (in Egypt), and Kuwait University, were involved in this study. Measures used in the study include the Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students (SRBCSS), Generative Altruism Scale (GAlS), and The Cooperative/Competitive Strategy Scale (CCSS). Results revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between altruism and cooperation among gifted adolescents. Also, findings show that there are statistically significant differences between males and females in both altruism and cooperation. In addition, there are differences statistically significant between senior students and junior students in both altruism and cooperation in favor of senior students. It is recommended that altruism and cooperation intervention-based programs should be designed to increase the adaptive behaviors of adolescents.

Anim Cogn ; 25(6): 1645-1652, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930164


While personality and cognition are distinct domains, some personality traits may affect the capacity for problem-solving. It was suggested that there is a positive association between the Playfulness trait and problem-solving performance in humans. Studies on giftedness (extremely good capacity in the case of a specific skill), typically aimed to reveal the genetic, experiential, and mental origins of such extreme inter-individual variation. We exploited recent findings on giftedness in a specific cognitive skill, object label learning, in dogs to explore the potential association between this exceptional skill and personality traits. We administered the Dog Personality Questionnaire to 21 gifted dog owners and compared the personality traits of their dogs to those of matched samples of 43 Hungarian and 101 Austrian typical dogs, i.e., dogs lacking this exceptional capacity. Since most Gifted Word Learner dogs are Border collies, we restricted our analysis to dogs of this breed. We hypothesized that the Gifted Word Learner dogs may show higher levels of Playfulness. As expected, we found that the gifted Border collies were rated as more playful than both the Hungarian and Austrian typical ones. Our results suggest that an extremely high level of Playfulness is associated with giftedness in a specific cognitive trait in dogs: the capacity to learn object verbal labels, thus opening new possibilities for comparative research on the relationship between giftedness and personality.

Cognição , Personalidade , Cães , Humanos , Animais , Cruzamento , Resolução de Problemas , Fenótipo
Front Psychol ; 13: 736487, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664147


A person's intelligence level positively influences his or her professional success. Gifted and highly intelligent individuals should therefore be successful in their careers. However, previous findings on the occupational situation of gifted adults are mainly known from popular scientific sources in the fields of coaching and self-help groups and confirm prevailing stereotypes that gifted people have difficulties at work. Reliable studies are scarce. This systematic literature review examines 40 studies with a total of 22 job-related variables. Results are shown in general for (a) the employment situation and more specific for the occupational aspects (b) career, (c) personality and behavior, (d) satisfaction, (e) organization, and (f) influence of giftedness on the profession. Moreover, possible differences between female and male gifted individuals and gifted and non-gifted individuals are analyzed. Based on these findings, implications for practice as well as further research are discussed.

Liberabit ; 28(1): e500, Jan.-June 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405515


Resumen Antecedentes: estudiantes con alta capacidad o potencial de talento académico, necesitan un entorno enriquecedor para alcanzar un desempeño sobresaliente, y fenómenos como la segregación escolar impactan negativamente la transformación del potencial intelectual en talento académico. Objetivo: comparar la distribución de estudiantes con alta capacidad de quinto básico a cuarto medio de la provincia de Concepción, Chile, provenientes de familias de nivel socioeconómico bajo, medio y alto, según el tipo de establecimiento educativo en que estudian. Método: participaron 650 estudiantes entre 11 y 17 años de edad, quienes respondieron el test de matrices progresivas de Raven, el cual permitió identificar el potencial intelectual según el puntaje de corte. Resultados: hay diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el potencial intelectual entre estudiantes de establecimientos públicos, particulares subvencionados y particulares pagados, así como diferencias en la distribución del potencial intelectual según el nivel educativo de los estudiantes y el nivel socioeconómico de sus familias. Conclusiones: al explorar la distribución de estudiantes con alta capacidad según el tipo de establecimiento educativo, hay una mayor concentración de estudiantes con alta capacidad en establecimientos educativos con familias de nivel socioeconómico alto y una menor concentración de estos en establecimientos educativos con familias de nivel socioeconómico bajo.

Abstract Background: Gifted students or students with academic potential need an enriching environment to achieve an outstanding performance. However, phenomena such as school segregation negatively affect the transformation of intellectual potential into academic talent. Objective: To compare the distribution of gifted students from the fifth grade of elementary school to the fourth year of high school in the Province of Concepción, Chile, coming from families of low, medium and high socioeconomic status, determined by the type of educational institution in which they study. Method: Six hundred fifty (650) students aged between 11 and 17 participated in the study and answered the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, which allowed the identification of the intellectual potential based on the cut-off score. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in the intellectual potential among students from public, subsidized private and fee-paying private educational institutions, as well as differences in the distribution of the intellectual potential relative to the students' education level and their families' socioeconomic status. Conclusions: When exploring the distribution of gifted students according to the type of educational institution, there was a higher concentration of those students in educational institutions with families of high socioeconomic status, and a lower concentration in educational institutions with families of low socioeconomic status.

An. psicol ; 38(2): 278-294, may. 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202889


Los estudiantes con altas capacidades, aquellos que presentan una mayor probabilidad de lograr metas extraordinarias en uno o más dominios, generalmente difieren del alumnado general en algunas de las dimensiones del autoconcepto, o la percepción que tiene una persona de sí misma. Sin embargo, la investigación actual sobre altas capacidades ha evolucionado introduciendo nuevos posibles moderadores en estas diferencias por lo que se hace necesaria una actualización sobre el tema. El objetivo del presente metaanálisis (referencia: CRD42018094723) fue sintetizar los estudios desde 2005 sobre las diferencias en el autoconcepto entre estudiantes con altas capacidades y alumnado general. Los resultados mostraron que los alumnos con altas capacidades presentan niveles superiores de autoconcepto global y académico, especialmente el matemático. Sin embargo, no se hallaron diferencias en autoconceptos conductual y emocional, y hubo puntuaciones levemente más bajas en autoconcepto social. En el autoconcepto físico, estos estudiantes puntúan notablemente más bajo que el alumnado general. Las diferencias en esta subdimensión están moderadas por los procedimientos de identificación, la procedencia y la edad, por lo que se sugieren que los estereotipos sociales acerca de las altas capacidades, así como los hábitos de actividad física podrían estar detrás de las dichas diferencias.(AU)

Gifted students (i.e., those who are more likely to achieve ex-traordinary goals in one or more domains) generally differ from the non-gifted students in some of the dimensions of self-concept (i.e., a person's perception of him/herself). However, the current research on giftedness has evolvedto introduce new possible moderators of these differences so it has become necessary to carry out an update on the topic. The aim of the present meta-analysis (reference: CRD42018094723) was to synthesise the studies since 2005 on differences in self-concept between gifted and non-gifted students. The results showed that gifted students have higher levels of general and academic self-concept, especially in math self-concept. However, no differences were found in behavioural and emotion-al self-concepts, andonly slightly lower scores in social self-concept. In physical self-concept they scored significantly lower than non-gifted stu-dents. The differences in this sub-dimension are moderated by identifica-tion procedures, geographical area, and age, so it is suggested that social stereotypes about giftedness as well as physical activity habits may be some of the reasons for these differences.(AU)

Humanos , Ciências da Saúde , Autoimagem , Estudantes , Criança Superdotada , Metanálise em Rede , Individualidade
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270379


High intellectual ability is expanding its conceptualization. This broadening includes the need for executive and ethical regulation of high potential, in order to offer effective solutions in the complexity of the 21st century. Research on the regulation of ethical sensitivity in persons with HIA is scarce and necessary, suggesting that children and adolescents with HIA are superior and earlier in ethical sensitivity than their typical peers. However, cognitive excellence does not predict excellence and its development; therefore, the importance of regulating and guiding the broad ethical sensitivity of people with HIA is highlighted. The objective of this study is to explore what is the ethical sensitivity of schoolchildren with HIA compared to typical ones. A sample of n = 21 schoolchildren, previously diagnosed with HIA, and an age-matched control group of n = 23 schoolchildren of average intelligence is studied through their answers to the ATHRI questionnaire. The multivariate general linear analysis reported intergroup differences showing the highest and earliest ethical sensitivity in schoolchildren with HIA compared to typical schoolchildren from 8 to 9 years old, but not at 10 years. The generalizability coefficient was high (0.842). Educative derivations are suggested to guide the regulation of ethical sensitivity in children.

Cognição , Princípios Morais , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários