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1.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 13(9)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36144074

RESUMO

Ginsenoside, known as a natural substance, is a saponin component in ginseng and has various effects, such as antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, gold nanoparticles can realize various optical and physical properties according to particle size and shape. For polymer polymerization, ginsenoside and gold nanoparticles were used as additives and copolymerized with a basic silicone hydrogel material. As gold nanoparticles, spherical and rod-shaped particles were used, and basic physical properties, such as water content, refractive index, and wettability of the prepared ophthalmic lenses, were measured. As a result of measuring the physical properties of the resulting polymer, it was found that the contact angle decreased by about 1.6% to 83.1% as the addition ratio of ginsenoside increased. In addition, as the addition ratio of metal nanoparticles increased, the refractive index was found to increase regardless of the shape of the nanoparticles. In addition, in the case of water content, the spherical shape gradually decreased according to the addition ratio, while the rod shape gradually increased according to the addition ratio. Therefore, it was found that the addition of ginsenoside, known as a saponin-based natural substance, has excellent wettability, and gold nanoparticles with different shapes have different properties. Thus, it is judged that the resulting copolymer can be utilized as a variety of highly functional ophthalmic polymer materials with high refractive index and high wettability.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115715, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108895

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (P. ginseng) is effective in the prevention and treatment of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The mechanism by which P. ginseng exerts cardioprotective effects is complex. P. ginseng contains many pharmacologically active ingredients, such as molecular glycosides, polyphenols, and polysaccharides. P. ginseng and each of its active components can potentially act against myocardial I/R injury. Myocardial I/R was originally a treatment for myocardial ischemia, but it also induced irreversible damage, including oxygen-containing free radicals, calcium overload, energy metabolism disorder, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, microvascular injury, autophagy, and apoptosis. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to clarify the protective effects of P. ginseng and its active ingredients against myocardial I/R injury, so as to provide experimental evidence and new insights for the research and application of P. ginseng in the field of myocardial I/R injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review was based on a search of PubMed, NCBI, Embase, and Web of Science databases from their inception to February 21, 2022, using terms such as "ginseng," "ginsenosides," and "myocardial reperfusion injury." In this review, we first summarized the active ingredients of P. ginseng, including ginsenosides, ginseng polysaccharides, and phytosterols, as well as the pathophysiological mechanisms of myocardial I/R injury. Importantly, preclinical models with myocardial I/R injury and potential mechanisms of these active ingredients of P. ginseng for the prevention and treatment of myocardial disorders were generally summarized. RESULTS: P. ginseng and its active components can regulate oxidative stress related proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis factors, while protecting the myocardium and preventing myocardial I/R injury. Therefore, P. ginseng can play a role in the prevention and treatment of myocardial I/R injury. CONCLUSIONS: P. ginseng has a certain curative effect on myocardial I/R injury. It can prevent and treat myocardial I/R injury in several ways. When ginseng exerts its effects, should be based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine and with the help of modern medicine; the clinical efficacy of P. ginseng in preventing and treating myocardial I/R injury can be improved.

3.
Front Neurosci ; 16: 969056, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081662

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). It is mainly caused by trauma and reduces the quality of life of the affected individual. Ginsenosides are safe and effective traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), and their efficacy against SCI is being increasingly researched in many countries, especially in China and Korea. This systematic review evaluated the neuroprotective effects of ginsenosides in SCI and elucidated their properties. Methods: All experimental information and summaries used in this review were acquired from peer-reviewed articles in the relevant fields. The PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for relevant articles. Information on the manual classification and selection of ginsenosides that protect against SCI is included in this review. Results: A literature survey yielded studies reporting several properties of ginsenosides, including anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, anti-oxidative stress, and inhibition of glial scar formation. Conclusion: In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of action of different ginsenosides that exert neuroprotective effects in SCI. These results suggest that after further verification in the future, ginsenosides may be used as adjunctive therapy to promote neurological recovery.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112741

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paraplegia may develop as a result of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in patients who underwent thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. The objective of this research is to determine the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rd pretreatment in a rat model of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n=36) were randomly assigned to three groups. The sham (n=12) and control (n=12) groups received normal saline orally. The Rd group (n=12) received ginsenoside Rd (100 mg/kg) orally 48 hours before the induction of spinal cord ischemia. Spinal cord ischemia was induced by aortic occlusion using a Fogarty balloon catheter in the Rd and control groups. A neurological assessment according to the motor deficit index and a histological evaluation of the spinal cord were performed. To evaluate the antioxidant activity of ginsenoside Rd, malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase activity were determined. Further, the tissue levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta were measured. RESULTS: The Rd group showed significantly lower motor deficit index scores than did the control group throughout the entire experimental period (P<0.001). The Rd group demonstrated significantly greater numbers of normal motor neurons than did the control group (P=0.039). The Rd group exhibited decreased malondialdehyde levels (P<0.001) and increased superoxide dismutase activity (P=0.029) compared to the control group. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta tissue levels were significantly decreased in the Rd group (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Ginsenoside Rd pretreatment may be a promising treatment to prevent ischemia-reperfusion injury in patients who undergo thoracoabdominal aortic surgery.

5.
Biomolecules ; 12(9)2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36139149

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment (CI) is one of the major clinical features of many neurodegenerative diseases. It can be aging-related or even appear in non-central nerve system (CNS) diseases. CI has a wide spectrum that ranges from the cognitive complaint with normal screening tests to mild CI and, at its end, dementia. Ginsenosides, agents extracted from a key Chinese herbal medicine (ginseng), show great promise as a new therapeutic option for treating CI. This review covered both clinical trials and preclinical studies to summarize the possible mechanisms of how ginsenosides affect CI in different diseases. It shows that ginsenosides can modulate signaling pathways associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. The involved signaling pathways mainly include the PI3K/Akt, CREB/BDNF, Keap1/Nrf2 signaling, and NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome pathways. We hope to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of CI for related diseases by ginsenosides.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ginsenosídeos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 964069, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017314

RESUMO

Aging ovaries caused diminished fertility and depleted steroid hormone level. Ginsenosides, the active ingredient in ginseng, had estrogen-like hormonal effects. Although ginsenosides were well known for their ability to alleviate many age-related degenerative diseases, the effect of ginsenosides on the decline in reproductive capability caused by aging, as well as the mechanism, are unknown. We found that ginsenosides improved the quantity and quality of the offspring, prolonged life and restored muscle ability in aged female Drosophila. In addition, ginsenosides inhibited ovarian atrophy and maintained steroid hormone 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile-preserving hormone (JH)) levels. Ginsenosides activated ecdysteroid receptor (ECR) and increased the expression of the early transcription genes E74 and Broad (Br), which triggered steroid signaling pathway. Meanwhile, ginsenosides promoted JH biosynthesis by increasing the expression of Hydroxyl-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and juvenile hormone acid O-methyltransferase (JHAMT). Subsequently, JH was bound to Methoprene Tolerant (Met) and activated the transcription of the responsive gene Kruppel Homolog 1 (Kr-h1), which coordinated with 20E signaling to promote the reproduction of aged female Drosophila. The reproductive capacity and steroid hormone levels were not improved and the steroid signaling pathway was not activated in ginsenoside-treated ECR knockout Drosophila. This suggested that ginsenosides played a role dependent on targeted ECR. Furthermore, 17 kinds of ginsenoside monomers were identified from the total ginsenosides. Among them, Rg1, Re and Rb1 improved the reproductive capacity and steroid hormone levels of aged female Drosophila, which has similar effects to the total ginsenoside. These results indicated that ginsenosides could enhance the reproductive capacity of aged female Drosophila by activating steroid signals dependent on nuclear receptor ECR. In addition, ginsenoside monomers Rg1, Rb1 and Re are the main active components of total ginsenosides to improve reproductive ability. This will provide strong evidence that ginsenosides had the potential to alleviate age-induced reproductive degradation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Ginsenosídeos , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Ecdisterona/farmacologia , Feminino , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Hormônios Juvenis/farmacologia , Receptores de Esteroides , Reprodução
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 974274, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36003522

RESUMO

Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to Panax genus of Araliaceae. Ginsenosides are a kind of important compounds in ginseng and minor ginsenosides are secondary metabolic derivatives of ginsenosides. Studies have shown that minor ginsenosides have many pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-platelet aggregation, and neuroprotective effects. However, the therapeutic effects of minor ginsenosides are limited due to poor solubility in water, short half-life, and poor targeting accuracy. In recent years, to improve the application efficiency, the research on the nanocrystallization of minor ginsenosides have attracted extensive attention from researchers. This review focuses on the classification, preparation methods, pharmacological effects, and action mechanisms of minor ginsenoside nanoparticles, as well as existing problems and future direction of relevant research, which provides a reference for the in-depth research of minor ginsenoside nanoparticles.

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 972813, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35979234

RESUMO

Panax quinquefolius L. has attracted extensive attention worldwide because of its prominent pharmacological properties on type 2 diabetes, cancers, central nervous system, and cardiovascular diseases. Ginsenosides are active phytochemicals of P. quinquefolius, which can be classified as propanaxdiol (PPD)-type, propanaxtriol (PPT)-type, oleanane-type, and ocotillol-type oligo-glycosides depending on the skeleton of aglycone. Recently, advanced analytical and isolated methods including ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem with mass detector, preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and high speed counter-current chromatography have been used to isolate and identify minor components in P. quinquefolius, which accelerates the clarification of the material basis. However, the poor bioavailability and undetermined bio-metabolism of most saponins have greatly hindered both the development of medicines and the identification of their real active constituents. Thus, it is essential to consider the bio-metabolism of constituents before and after absorption. In this review, we described the structures of minor ginsenosides in P. quinquefolius, including naturally occurring protype compounds and their in vivo metabolites. The preclinical and clinical pharmacological studies of the ginsenosides in the past few years were also summarized. The review will promote the reacquaint of minor saponins on the growing appreciation of their biological role in P. quinquefolius.

9.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e5493, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36044184

RESUMO

Ginsenosides have poor oral bioavailability and undergo rapid biological transformation in the complex gastrointestinal environment. Most studies on the metabolism of ginsenosides have focused on gut bacteria, yet gastric juice remains a nonnegligible factor. Metabolic profiles of ginsenoside monomers formed in artificial gastric juice were separately investigated and qualitatively identified using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MSn ). A common pattern of their metabolic pathways was established, showing that ginsenosides were transformed via deglycosylation, hydration, and dehydration pathways. Two major structure types, 20(S), 20(R)-protopanaxatriols and 20(S), 20(R)-protopanaxadiols, basically shared similar transformation pathways and yielded deglycosylated, hydrated, and dehydrated products. Fragmentation patterns of major ginsenosides were also discussed. Consequently, gastric juice, as the primary link in ginsenoside metabolism and as important as the intestinal flora, produces considerable amounts of degraded ginsenosides, providing a partial explanation for the low bioavailabilities of primary ginsenosides.

10.
Bioorg Chem ; 128: 106094, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985160

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms of enzyme specificity is increasingly important from a fundamental viewpoint and for practical applications. Transglycosylation has attracted many attentions due to its importance in improving the functional properties of acceptor substrates both in vivo and in vitro. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) is one of the key enzymes in transglycosylation, it has a broad substrate spectrum and utilizes sugar as the donor. However, little is known about the acceptor selectivity of CGTase, which greatly hampers efforts toward the rational design of desirable transglycosylated derivatives. In this study, we found that the CGTase from Bacillus circulans, BcCGTase, was able to form glycosylated products with diverse ginsenosides. In particular, it not only carries out diverse mono-, di-, and even higher-order glycosylations via the transfer of glucose moieties to the COGlc positions, but also can glycosylate the C3-OH position of ginsenosides. In contrast, another CGTase from Bacillus licheniformis (BlCGTase) showed relatively specific acceptor preference with only several ginsenosides. Structural comparison between BcCGTase and BlCGTase revealed that the Arg74/K81 position within the acceptor-binding sites of BcCGTase/BlCGTase was responsible for the differences in catalytic specificity for ginsenoside F1. Further mutagenesis confirmed their roles in the acceptor selection. In conclusion, our study not only demonstrates the acceptor selectivity of CGTases, but also provides insight into the catalytic mechanism of CGTases, which will potentially increase the utility of CGTase for biosynthesis of new, rationally designed transglycosylated derivatives.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Catálise , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
11.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 14: 870326, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35795238

RESUMO

In an increasingly aged global population, achieving healthy life expectancy through natural and safe drug interventions is highly desirable. Here we show that total ginsenosides (TGGR), the main active components in the traditional Chinese medicine, ginseng, promote longevity across species. In Drosophila, an intriguing effect of TGGR on lifespan was the relatively narrow treatment window to elicit long-term benefits. TGGR administration during early adulthood, and especially during midlife, was sufficient to extend lifespan in both sexes. TGGR did not increase lifespan by reducing food intake or reproductive capacity; rather, TGGR increased the fertility of male Drosophila. TGGR augmented healthspan readouts associated with youth and with healthy aging, such as motility, intestinal barrier integrity, and biorhythm homeostasis. TGGR treatment also improved some types of stress resistance in both sexes, including increased tolerance to starvation and oxidation, and shifting "aged" gene expression patterns toward "healthy" patterns seen in the young. Gene expression, pharmacological and genetic epistatic analyses demonstrated that TGGR effects require normal expression of genes involved in insulin, TOR and MAPK signaling. The positive effects of TGGR on both healthspan and lifespan, coupled with its mechanism of action via evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, demonstrate it to be a promising anti-aging drug.

12.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 10(4): e00986, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35844164

RESUMO

Decreased Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) level has received increasing attention in recent years since it plays a critical role in many diseases and aging. Although some research has proved that supplementing nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) could improve the level of NAD+ , it is still uncertain whether the NAD+ level in specific tissues could be improved in combination with other nutrients. So far, a variety of nutritional supplements have flooded the market, which contains the compositions of NMN coupled with natural products. However, the synergy and transformation process of NMN has not been fully elucidated. In this study, oral administration of NMN (500 mg/kg) combined with resveratrol (50 mg/kg) or ginsenoside Rh2&Rg3 (50 mg/kg) was used to validate the efficacy of appropriate drug combinations in mice. Compared with NMN alone, NMN combined with resveratrol could increase the levels of NAD+ in the heart and muscle by about 1.6 times and 1.7 times, respectively, whereas NMN coupled with ginsenoside Rh2&Rg3 could effectively improve the level of NAD+ in lung tissue for approximately 2.0 times. Our study may provide new treatment ideas for aging or diseases in cardiopulmonary caused by decreased NAD+ levels.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Mononucleotídeo de Nicotinamida , Animais , Biotransformação , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , NAD/metabolismo , Mononucleotídeo de Nicotinamida/metabolismo , Mononucleotídeo de Nicotinamida/farmacologia , Resveratrol
13.
J Ginseng Res ; 46(4): 609-619, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35818423

RESUMO

Obesity is a primary factor provoking various chronic disorders, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer, and causes the death of 2.8 million individuals each year. Diet, physical activity, medications, and surgery are the main therapies for overweightness and obesity. During weight loss therapy, a decrease in energy stores activates appetite signaling pathways under the regulation of neuropeptides, including anorexigenic [corticotropin-releasing hormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), cholecystokinin (CCK), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript] and orexigenic [agouti-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and melanin-concentrating hormone] neuropeptides, which increase food intake and lead to failure in attaining weight loss goals. Ginseng and ginsenosides reverse these signaling pathways by suppressing orexigenic neuropeptides (NPY and AgRP) and provoking anorexigenic neuropeptides (CCK and POMC), which prevent the increase in food intake. Moreover, the results of network pharmacology analysis have revealed that constituents of ginseng radix, including campesterol, beta-elemene, ginsenoside Rb1, biotin, and pantothenic acid, are highly correlated with neuropeptide genes that regulate energy balance and food intake, including ADIPOQ, NAMPT, UBL5, NUCB2, LEP, CCK, GAST, IGF1, RLN1, PENK, PDYN, and POMC. Based on previous studies and network pharmacology analysis data, ginseng and its compounds may be a potent source for obesity treatment by regulating neuropeptides associated with appetite.

14.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889211

RESUMO

The extraction of active constituents from natural sources in a green and efficient manner is considered an important field in the pharmaceutical industry. In recent years, deep eutectic solvents (DESs), a new type of green solvent, have attracted increasing attention. Therefore, we aimed to establish a green and high-efficiency extraction method for ginsenosides based on DESs. This study takes Panax ginseng as a model sample. Eighteen different DESs were produced to extract polar ginsenosides. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was applied for simplicity and efficiency. A binary DES synthesized using choline chloride and urea at a proportion of 1:2 prepared by a heating stirring method is proven to be more effective than other solvents, such as the widely used 70% ethanol for the extraction of ginsenosides. Three variables that might affect the extraction, including the DES content in the extraction solvent, liquid/solid ratio, and ultrasound extraction time, were evaluated for optimization. The optimum extraction conditions for ginsenosides were determined as follows: DES water content of 20 wt%, liquid/solid ratio of 15 mL g-1, and an ultrasonic extraction time of 15 min. The extraction yield for the optimized method is found to be 31% higher than that for 70% ethanol, which achieves efficient extraction. This study shows that DESs are available to extract ginsenosides for use in traditional Chinese medicine. The discovery also contributes to further research into the green extraction of ginsenosides.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , Etanol , Solventes
15.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889423

RESUMO

This study investigated changes in nutrients (fatty acids, amino acids, and minerals), ginsenosides, and volatile flavors, and antioxidant activities during food processing of mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG) with the cocktail lactic acid bacteria. Fatty acid content increased, but the free amino acid content decreased, and minerals were practically unaffected during processing. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and maillard reaction products increased markedly according to processing stage. The total ginsenosides levels increased from 31.25 mg/g (DMCG) to 32.36 mg/g (red MCG, RMCG) and then decreased (27.27 mg/g, at fermented RMCG) during processing. Particularly, the contents of F2 (0.31 → 1.02 → 2.27 mg/g), Rg3 (0.36 → 0.77 → 1.93 mg/g), and compound K (0.5 → 1.68 → 4.13 mg/g) of ginsenosides and ß-panasinsene (17.28 → 22.69 → 31.61%), biocycloelemene (0.11 → 0.84 → 0.92%), δ-cadinene (0.39 → 0.5 → 0.94%), and alloaromadendrene (1.64 → 1.39 → 2.6%) of volatile flavor compounds increased during processing, along with to the antioxidant effects (such as DPPH, ABTS, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and FRAP). This study may provide several choices for the use of ginseng in functional foods and functional cosmetics.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Antioxidantes/química , Ginsenosídeos/química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Panax/química , Fenóis/química
16.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897960

RESUMO

Although ginseng leaf is a good source of health-beneficial phytochemicals, such as polyphenols and ginsenosides, few studies have focused on the variation in compounds and bioactivities during leaf thermal processing. The efficiency of far-infrared irradiation (FIR) between 160 °C and 200 °C on the deglycosylation of bioactive compounds in ginseng leaves was analyzed. FIR treatment significantly increased the total polyphenol content (TPC) and kaempferol production from panasenoside conversion. The highest content or conversion ratio was observed at 180 °C (FIR-180). Major ginsenoside contents gradually decreased as the FIR temperature increased, while minor ginsenoside contents significantly increased. FIR exhibited high efficiency to produce dehydrated minor ginsenosides, of which F4, Rg6, Rh4, Rk3, Rk1, and Rg5 increased to their highest levels at FIR-190, by 278-, 149-, 176-, 275-, 64-, and 81-fold, respectively. Moreover, significantly increased antioxidant activities were also observed in FIR-treated leaves, particularly FIR-180, mainly due to the breakage of phenolic polymers to release antioxidants. These results suggest that FIR treatment is a rapid and efficient processing method for producing various health-beneficial bioactive compounds from ginseng leaves. After 30 min of treatment without leaf burning, FIR-190 was the optimum temperature for producing minor ginsenosides, whereas FIR-180 was the optimum temperature for producing polyphenols and kaempferol. In addition, the results suggested that the antioxidant benefits of ginseng leaves are mainly due to polyphenols rather than ginsenosides.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Antioxidantes , Ginsenosídeos/química , Quempferóis , Panax/química , Folhas de Planta , Polifenóis
17.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 946752, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35873557

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke has been considered one of the leading causes of mortality and disability worldwide, associated with a series of complex pathophysiological processes. However, effective therapeutic methods for ischemic stroke are still limited. Panax ginseng, a valuable traditional Chinese medicine, has been long used in eastern countries for various diseases. Ginsenosides, the main active ingredient of Panax ginseng, has demonstrated neuroprotective effects on ischemic stroke injury during the last decade. In this article, we summarized the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke and reviewed the literature on ginsenosides studies in preclinical and clinical ischemic stroke. Available findings showed that both major ginsenosides and minor ginsenosides (such as Rg3, Rg5, and Rh2) has a potential neuroprotective effect, mainly through attenuating the excitotoxicity, Ca2+ overload, mitochondria dysfunction, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative, anti-apoptosis, anti-pyroptosis, anti-autophagy, improving angiogenesis, and neurogenesis. Therefore, this review brings a current understanding of the mechanisms of ginsenosides in the treatment of ischemic stroke. Further studies, especially in clinical trials, will be important to confirm the clinical value of ginseng and ginsenosides.

18.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 919434, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35801112

RESUMO

Soil microorganisms affect crop rhizospheres via the transformation and transport of nutrients, which has important influences on soil fertility, carbon sequestration, and plant yield and health in agroecosystems. There are few reports on the effects of fertilizer application on the growth of Panax ginseng (C. A. Mey.) or the structure of its rhizosphere microbial communities. In this study, an orthogonal experimental design was used to explore the effects of nine different combinations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilizers with different amounts and proportions on ginseng growth and accumulation of ginsenosides and the structure of rhizosphere soil fungal communities. Soil without fertilization was the control. With the combined application of NPK, ginseng growth and development increased. The fertilization scheme N3P1K3, with N fertilizer at 50 g·m-2, P fertilizer at 15 g·m-2, and K fertilizer at 60 g·m-2, had the most comprehensive benefit and significantly increased ginseng rhizome biomass and ginsenoside contents (Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Ro, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, and Rd). Amplicon sequencing showed that NPK application increased the diversity of fungal communities in ginseng rhizospheres, whereas richness was bidirectionally regulated by proportions and amounts of NPK. Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum in ginseng rhizosphere soil, and relative abundances decreased with combined NPK application. Combined NPK application increased the relative abundance of potential beneficial fungi, such as Mortierella, but decreased that of potentially pathogenic fungi, such as Fusarium. Correlation analysis showed that potential beneficial fungi were significantly positively correlated with ginseng rhizome yield and ginsenoside contents, whereas the opposite relation was observed with potential pathogenic fungi. Thus, in addition to directly increasing crop growth, precise NPK application can also increase crop adaptability to the environment by shaping specific microbial communities. The results of this study suggest that the combined effects of biotic and abiotic processes on agricultural production determine crop yield and quality.

19.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 10(3): 474-485, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836757

RESUMO

Background and Aims: The effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury (ALI) is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on ALI and its underlying mechanisms. Methods: Mice were pretreated with ginsenoside Rb1 by intraperitoneal injection for 3 days before D-GalN/LPS treatment, to induce ALI. The survival rate was monitored every hour for 24 h, and serum biochemical parameters, hepatic index and histopathological analysis were evaluated to measure the degree of liver injury. ELISA was used to detect oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines in hepatic tissue and serum. Immunohistochemistry staining, RT-PCR and western blotting were performed to evaluate the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 protein (NLRP3) in liver tissue and Kupffer cells (KCs). Results: Ginsenoside Rb1 improved survival with D-GalN/LPS-induced ALI by up to 80%, significantly ameliorated the increased alanine and aspartate transaminase, restored the hepatic pathological changes and reduced the levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines altered by D-GalN/LPS. Compared to the control group, the KCs were increased in the D-GalN/LPS groups but did not increase significantly with Rb1 pretreatment. D-GalN/LPS could upregulate while Rb1 pretreatment could downregulate the expression of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-18, NLRP3, apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) and caspase-1 in isolated KCs. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rb1 inhibited activation of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome induced by D-GalN/LPS administration. Conclusions: Ginsenoside Rb1 protects mice against D-GalN/LPS-induced ALI by attenuating oxidative stress and the inflammatory response through the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1676: 463284, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792442

RESUMO

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is protected by Geographical Indications as harvested roots have different regional characteristics. The aim of this study was to distinguish 95 American ginseng samples from four origins (including America, Canada, Shandong province and the Northeast provinces in China), and to further discriminate samples harvested within the protected designation of origin (PDO) from those harvested in non-PDO regions. Two metabolomic methods were used to acquire qualitative data on the metabolites of American ginseng samples from different origins, namely high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). There were significant differences in numerous metabolites, including volatile compounds and ginsenosides. American ginsengs from four different regions were discriminated based on 25 volatile compounds and 8 ginsenosides using linear discriminant analysis (LDA), which had a 96.8% accuracy and a 74.7% cross validation rate, and random forest (RF) modeling, which reached 100% accuracy using the training set and 92.9% accuracy using the testing set. The same 33 analytes combined with LDA and RF were compared for discrimination of PDO and non-PDO samples. The 100% accuracy was again obtained using the RF model, but only when using data from both HS-GC-MS and HPLC. The result showed that chemical composition combined with chemometric is effectively and accurately to study the origins of American ginseng.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Quimiometria , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Panax/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
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