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1.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; : e202202672, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346326

RESUMO

Introduction. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of reference tables to monitor the growth pattern and nutritional status of children and adolescents. Body mass index (BMI), weight, and height are the most commonly used variables. The objective of this study was to estimate the BMI, weight, and height percentiles for school-aged children (2009-2011) living in the department of San Rafael (Mendoza) and compare them to the international World Health Organization reference to establish their relevance for the evaluation of the growth pattern and nutritional status of this population. Population and methods. A cross-sectional anthropometric study was conducted in 3448 school-aged children aged 4.00 to 13.49 years. The LMS ChartMarker Pro software was used to estimate the BMIfor-age, weight-for-age, and height-for-age percentiles, by sex and age, and they were compared with the WHO curves. Besides, percentage differences (%D) were calculated to estimate the differences and their statistical significance using the Wilcoxon test. Results. The population of boys and girls in San Rafael showed higher weight and BMI (%D ≈ 7% and 9%, respectively) percentiles, and lower height (%D ≈ 0.8%) values than WHO reference (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The differences found warn about the use of the WHO reference in the school-aged population of San Rafael since it would overestimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and chronic malnutrition and underestimate the prevalence of acute and global malnutrition. This situation highlights the importance of having a local reference resource.


Introducción. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) recomienda el uso de tablas de referencia para monitorear el crecimiento y estado nutricional de niños, niñas y adolescentes. El peso corporal, la talla y el índice de masa corporal (IMC) son las variables más utilizadas. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivos estimar los percentiles de peso, talla e IMC de escolares (2009-2011) residentes en el departamento San Rafael (Mendoza) y compararlos con la referencia internacional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, a fin de establecer su pertinencia para la evaluación del crecimiento y estado nutricional de dicha población. Población y métodos. Se realizó un estudio antropométrico transversal en 3448 escolares de entre 4,00 y 13,49 años de edad. Se utilizó el programa LMS ChartMarker Pro para calcular los valores percentilares de peso/edad, talla/edad e IMC/edad, por sexo y edad, y se compararon con las curvas de la OMS. Además, se calcularon diferencias porcentuales (D%) para estimar las diferencias y su significación estadística mediante prueba de Wilcoxon. Resultados. La población de San Rafael mostró, en varones y mujeres, valores percentilares superiores de peso e IMC (D% ≈7 % y 9 %, respectivamente), y menores de talla (D% ≈0,8 %) que los de la OMS (p <0,05). Conclusión. Las diferencias encontradas alertan sobre el empleo de la referencia OMS en la población escolar de San Rafael, ya que sobreestimaría las prevalencias de sobrepeso, obesidad y desnutrición crónica, y subestimaría la de desnutrición aguda y global. Esta situación resalta la importancia de contar con una referencia local.

2.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 947493, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405844

RESUMO

Objectives: This study investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the primary health care (PHC) services to follow-up the child growth and development (CGD) in Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using secondary data related visits to assess the growth and development of children up to five years between Apr-2017 to Mar-2021. Differences between monthly rate of visits (per thousand inhabitants up to five) during the pandemic (Apr-2020 to Mar-2021) and before (Apr-2017 to Mar-2020) were analyzed using paired t test and control diagrams (averages ± 1.96 standard deviation). Results: A total of 39,599,313 visits for monitoring CGD was studied. The average monthly rate of visits dropped from 61.34 (per thousand) before the pandemic to 39.70 in the first 12 months of the pandemic (p < 0.001). In all states, except Rio Grande do Sul, there was a significant reduction, with differences ranging from -14.21% in São Paulo to -59.66% in Ceará. The Northeast region was the most impacted, being lower than expected in all 12 first months of pandemic. Conclusions: The number of visits to follow-up the CGD in PHC in Brazil decreased during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, varying over the months and between states and regions.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361840

RESUMO

Auxin is a general coordinator for growth and development throughout plant lifespan, acting in a concentration-dependent manner. Tryptophan aminotransferases (YUCCA) family catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) to form indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and plays a critical role in auxin homeostasis. Here, 18 YUCCA family genes divided into four categories were identified from Mikania micrantha (M. micrantha), one of the world's most invasive plants. Five highly conserved motifs were characterized in these YUCCA genes (MmYUCs). Transcriptome analysis revealed that MmYUCs exhibited distinct expression patterns in different organs and five MmYUCs showed high expression levels throughout all the five tissues, implying that they may play dominant roles in auxin biosynthesis and plant development. In addition, MmYUC6_1 was overexpressed in DR5::GUS Arabidopsis line to explore its function, which resulted in remarkably increased auxin level and typical elevated auxin-related phenotypes including shortened roots and elongated hypocotyls in the transgenic plants, suggesting that MmYUC6_1 promoted IAA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Collectively, these findings provided comprehensive insight into the phylogenetic relationships, chromosomal distributions, expression patterns and functions of the MmYUC genes in M. micrantha, which would facilitate the study of molecular mechanisms underlying the fast growth of M. micrantha and preventing its invasion.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Mikania , Yucca , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Mikania/genética , Mikania/metabolismo , Yucca/genética , Yucca/metabolismo , Filogenia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
4.
Front Sports Act Living ; 4: 975900, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385783

RESUMO

Understanding the challenges football (soccer) players face during adolescence is fundamental to avoid disruptions in their development due to injury. This mini review will describe basic concepts of somatic growth and biological maturity, examine data from 53 prospective epidemiological studies on high-level youth football players and discuss how age, growth and maturity may affect the injury patterns observed. Based on the existing evidence, at least every third player sustains an injury during a football season. The thigh (median for studies of boys: 25%, median for girls: 21%), ankle (b: 18%, g: 30%), knee (b: 17%, g: 18%) and hip/groin (b: 14%, g: 10%) are the body parts injured most often, while muscle strains (b: 31%, g: 25%), sprains (b: 20%, g: 27%) and contusions (b: 17%, g: 16%) are the most common injury types. Injury trends are, however, not consistent throughout adolescence, and players' age, maturity status and position relative to peak height velocity (PHV) have shown to influence the number, type and location of injuries sustained. Despite a high volume of observational injury studies published on high-level youth players, girls (7 studies) and settings outside of Europe (included in 23% of studies) are underrepresented and should receive extra attention in the future. Based on the available epidemiological data, tailored injury reduction programmes can be considered in youth football, alongside application of general training principles such as progression, variation and individualization which may be especially important during vulnerable phases such as the adolescent growth spurt.

5.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(22)2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36428392

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle growth has always been the focus of the broiler industry, and circRNAs play a significant role in this process. We collected leg muscles of slow- and fast-growing Bian chicken embryos in the study at 14 (S14 and F14) and 20 (S20 and F20) days for RNA-seq. Finally, 123 and 121 differentially expressed circRNAs (DECs) were identified in S14 vs. F14 and S20 vs. F20, respectively. GO enrichment analysis for DECs obtained important biological process (BP) terms including nicotinate nucleotide biosynthetic process, nicotinate nucleotide salvage, and NAD salvage in S20 vs. F20 and protein mannosylation in S14 vs. F14. KEGG pathway analysis showed Wnt signaling pathway, Tight junction, Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, and Notch signaling pathway were enriched in the top 20. Based on the GO and KEGG analysis results, we found some significant host genes and circRNAs such as NAPRT and novel_circ_0004547, DVL1 and novel_circ_0003578, JAK2 and novel_circ_0010289, DERA and novel_circ_0003082, etc. Further analysis found 19 co-differentially expressed circRNAs between the two comparison groups. We next constructed a circRNA-miRNA network for them, and some candidate circRNA-miRNA pairs related to skeletal muscle were obtained, such as novel_circ_0002153-miR-12219-5p, novel_circ_0003578-miR-3064-3p, and novel_circ_0010661-miR-12260-3p. These results would help to reveal the mechanism for circRNAs in skeletal muscle and also provide some guidance for the breeding of broilers.

6.
Cureus ; 14(10): e30083, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36381799

RESUMO

Maternal nutrition needs to be addressed during pregnancy for the child's first 1,000 days of life, or roughly between conception and a child's second birthday. The infant requires just breast milk for the first six months of life. The production of breastmilk and its nutritional value is essentially unaffected by maternal privation. The child's health suffers when the mother's diet and health are impaired. This review aims to discuss the importance of pregnant women's nutrition and how it impacts the development and expansion of a child during this critical period of development, which is supported by the most recent literature. Throughout the child's growth in the mother's womb and outside, four distinct stages have been identified: (1) nine months to zero months: pregnancy; (2) zero to six months: breastfeeding; (3) six to 12 months: introduction of solid food; and (4) >12 months: transition to family diet, appreciation of nutritious food offered within each period for the child's development. Moreover, there is a strong link between nutrition, well-being, and learning. The nutritional intake of infants, children, and adolescents maintains the body weight and is sufficient to sustain their normal growth and development. One of the crucial factors influencing a child's development is nutrition. Rapid growth occurs during infancy. Compared to other growth phases, this phase has the largest relative energy and food needs for body size.

7.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; : e202202567, 2022 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36227153

RESUMO

Introduction. Newborn size is associated with intrauterine conditions. Genetic potential is expressed later; the canalization of growth is typically described up to 24 months of age. Objective. To describe the canalization of growth between 2 and 5 years of age in apparently healthy children with short stature at age 2 years. Population and methods. Retrospective, cohort study. Children seen at a community teaching hospital between 2003 and 2019, who had a Z-score for height below -2 SDs for age and sex at age 2 years were included. Infants born preterm, with a low birth weight, and chronic conditions were excluded. Growth patterns were assessed. Canalization was defined as reaching a normal stature for the general population. Results. Sixty-four children were included; 37 (58%) showed canalization of growth at 5 years old (20 at 3 years, 8 at 4 years, and 9 at 5 years). The growth rate at 3 and 5 years of age was significantly higher among those who showed canalization compared to those who did not; a similar trend was observed at 4 years of age. Among 27 children with short stature at 5 years of age, 25 had at least 1 annual growth velocity below the 25th centile. Conclusions. Most apparently healthy children with short stature at 2 years old reached a normal stature at 5 years old. The annual growth velocity allows to detect children at risk of not showing canalization.


Introducción. El tamaño del recién nacido se asocia a condiciones intrauterinas. El potencial genético se expresa más tarde; la canalización del crecimiento se describe clásicamente hasta los 24 meses. Objetivo. Describir la canalización del crecimiento entre los 2 y los 5 años en niños aparentemente sanos con talla baja a los 2 años. Población y métodos. Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron niños seguidos en un hospital universitario de comunidad entre 2003 y 2019, con puntaje Z de talla menor a -2 DE para edad y sexo a los 2 años. Se excluyeron los nacidos prematuros, con bajo peso y con enfermedades crónicas. Se evaluó la trayectoria de crecimiento. Se definió canalización como la adquisición de talla normal para la población general. Resultados. Se incluyeron 64 niños, de los cuales 37 (58 %) presentaron canalización del crecimiento a los 5 años (20 a los 3 años, 8 a los 4 años, y 9 a los 5 años). La velocidad de crecimiento a los 3 y a los 5 años fue significativamente mayor en los que canalizaron en comparación con los que no lo hicieron; hubo una tendencia similar a los 4 años. De los 27 niños con talla baja a los 5 años, 25 tuvieron al menos un registro de velocidad de crecimiento anual menor al percentil 25. Conclusiones. La mayoría de los niños aparentemente sanos con baja talla a los 2 años alcanzan una talla normal a los 5 años. La velocidad de crecimiento anual permite detectar a los niños con riesgo de no canalizar.

8.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223083

RESUMO

Both phytohormone signaling and epigenetic mechanisms have long been known to play crucial roles in plant development and plasticity in response to ambient stimuli. Indeed, diverse signaling pathways mediated by phytohormones and epigenetic processes integrate multiple upstream signals to regulate various plant traits. Emerging evidence indicates that phytohormones and epigenetic processes interact at multiple levels. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the interplay between phytohormones and epigenetic processes from the perspective of phytohormone biology. We also review chemical regulators used in epigenetic studies and propose strategies for developing novel regulators using multidisciplinary approaches. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Sci Prog ; 105(4): 368504221131233, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) have genetic etiology, which has been uncovered with different methods. Although chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) has been broadly used in patients with DEE, data is still limited. METHODS: Among 560 children (<18 years) who underwent CMA in our hospital between January 2013 and June 2021, 146 patients with developmental delay and recurrent seizures were screened. Patients with major brain abnormalities, metabolic abnormalities, and specific syndromes were excluded. The rate of rare copy number variants (CNVs) was estimated in total and according to seizure-onset age, relation to first seizure with the diagnosis of developmental delay, epilepsy syndromes, and organ anomalies. RESULTS: Among the 110 patients enrolled, the rate of rare CNVs was 16.4%, varying by seizure-onset age: 33.3% in three neonates, 21.2% in 33 infants, 13.3% in 45 early childhood patients, 5.3% in 19 late childhood patients, and 30.0% in 10 adolescents. In relation to the first seizure with the diagnosis of developmental delay, the rates were 3.7%, 22.2%, and 12.5% in "before", "after", and "concurrent" subclasses, respectively. The rates of rare CNVs were 16.7% in "other predominantly focal or multifocal epilepsy", 28.6% in "other predominantly generalized epilepsy (PGE)", and 15.4% in West syndrome. The rates were 27.8% in minor brain anomalies, 37.5% in facial dysmorphism, and 22.2%, 20.0%, and 57.1% in endocrine, genitourinary and cardiovascular anomalies, respectively. CONCLUSION: The rate of rare CNVs in patients with genetic DEE was 16.4% in total, which was higher in seizures occurring below the infantile period or after the diagnosis of developmental delay, in PGE, and in the presence of facial dysmorphism or cardiovascular anomalies.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Adolescente , Encefalopatias/complicações , Encefalopatias/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Prostaglandinas E , Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293351

RESUMO

The plant hormone auxin acts as a signaling molecule to regulate numerous developmental processes throughout all stages of plant growth. Understanding how auxin regulates various physiological and developmental processes has been a hot topic and an intriguing field. Recent studies have unveiled more molecular details into how diverse auxin responses function in every aspect of plant growth and development. In this review, we systematically summarized and classified the molecular mechanisms of diverse auxin responses, and comprehensively elaborated the characteristics and multilevel regulation mechanisms of the canonical transcriptional auxin response. On this basis, we described the characteristics and differences between different auxin responses. We also presented some auxin response genes that have been genetically modified in plant species and how their changes impact various traits of interest. Finally, we summarized some important aspects and unsolved questions of auxin responses that need to be focused on or addressed in future research. This review will help to gain an overall understanding of and some insights into the diverse molecular mechanisms of auxin responses in plant growth and development that are instrumental in harnessing genetic resources in molecular breeding of extant plant species.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
11.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 1027071, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36311122

RESUMO

Homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors that contain a homeodomain (HD) and a leucine zipper (LZ) domain. The highly conserved HD binds specifically to DNA and the LZ mediates homodimer or heterodimer formation. HD-ZIP transcription factors control plant growth, development, and responses to abiotic stress by regulating downstream target genes and hormone regulatory pathways. HD-ZIP proteins are divided into four subclasses (I-IV) according to their sequence conservation and function. The genome-wide identification and expression profile analysis of HD-ZIP proteins in model plants such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) have improved our understanding of the functions of the different subclasses. In this review, we mainly summarize and discuss the roles of HD-ZIP proteins in plant response to abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, low temperature, and harmful metals. HD-ZIP proteins mainly mediate plant stress tolerance by regulating the expression of downstream stress-related genes through abscisic acid (ABA) mediated signaling pathways, and also by regulating plant growth and development. This review provides a basis for understanding the roles of HD-ZIP proteins and potential targets for breeding abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

12.
Planta ; 256(6): 103, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36307739

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Manipulation of autophagic pathway represents a tremendous opportunity for designing climate-smart crops with improved yield and better adaptability to changing environment. For exploiting autophagy to its full potential, identification and comprehensive characterization of adapters/receptor complex and elucidation of its regulatory network in crop plants is highly warranted.  Autophagy is a major intracellular trafficking pathway in eukaryotes involved in vacuolar degradation of cytoplasmic constituents, mis-folded proteins, and defective organelles. Under optimum conditions, autophagy operates at a basal level to maintain cellular homeostasis, but under stressed conditions, it is induced further to provide temporal stress relief. Our understanding of this highly dynamic process has evolved exponentially in the past few years with special reference to several plant-specific roles of autophagy. Here, we review the most recent advances in the field of autophagy in plants and discuss its potential implications in designing crops with improved stress and disease-tolerance, enhanced yield potential, and improved capabilities for producing metabolites of high economic value. We also assess the current knowledge gaps and the possible strategies to develop a robust module for biotechnological application of autophagy to enhance bioeconomy and sustainability of agriculture.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Vacúolos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética
13.
J Insect Sci ; 22(5)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36268784

RESUMO

Arma custos (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a natural predator that can control various agricultural and forestry pests. This study aimed to clarify the effects of temperature on the growth, reproduction, and population of the predator and to simulate its population growth. Using the age-stage, two-sex life table method, 18°C, 22°C, 26°C, 30°C, and 34°C were selected as the temperature conditions. A. custos can complete its life cycle at 18°C-30°C, and the developmental duration of each A. custos stage, adult pre-oviposition period, total pre-oviposition period, and the mean generation time (T) were shortened with the increase in temperature. The pre-adult mortality was significantly reduced at 26°C and 30°C. In addition, the fecundity of a single female and the gross reproductive rate were the highest at 30°C. Significant differences were observed in the intrinsic rate of increase (r) and the finite rate of increase (λ) under different temperature conditions, and both reached the maximum at 30°C. Results showed that adult A. custos raised at 26°C had a longer lifespan and the fecundity was higher at 30°C in comparison with the other temperatures. This study is the first to report the life cycle of A. custos at different temperatures, and the results can provide a scientific theoretical basis for the indoor artificial reproduction, outdoor release, and colonization of A. custos.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Feminino , Animais , Temperatura , Crescimento Demográfico , Reprodução , Fertilidade , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
14.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 10: 949184, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36187491

RESUMO

Microscopic X-ray computed tomography (microCT) is a structural ex vivo imaging technique providing genuine isotropic 3D images from biological samples at micron resolution. MicroCT imaging is non-destructive and combines well with other modalities such as light and electron microscopy in correlative imaging workflows. Protocols for staining embryos with X-ray dense contrast agents enable the acquisition of high-contrast and high-resolution datasets of whole embryos and specific organ systems. High sample throughput is achieved with dedicated setups. Consequently, microCT has gained enormous importance for both qualitative and quantitative phenotyping of mouse development. We here summarize state-of-the-art protocols of sample preparation and imaging procedures, showcase contemporary applications, and discuss possible pitfalls and sources for artefacts. In addition, we give an outlook on phenotyping workflows using microscopic dual energy CT (microDECT) and tissue-specific contrast agents.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242760

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study primarily aimed to assess the accuracy of radiographic dental calcification parameters for the identification of specific craniofacial growth stages. METHODS: Permanent mandibular canines, premolars, and second molars of 288 patients, from 6 to 15 years old, were analysed on randomly selected panoramic radiographs, and categorised according to two calcification methods. Reproducibility analyses and data derived from panoramic records were correlated with the gold-standard method, as evaluated from lateral cephalometric teleradiographs. Accuracy tests were finally calculated, considering several cutoff points. RESULTS: Dental calcification methods showed "strong" to "almost perfect" intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility. Significant, although weak correlations were observed for all parameters. Canine and first premolar calcification stage 8 and second premolar and second molar stage 7 showed higher sensitivity rates for identifying the pubertal growth spurt period, as well as the stage F for these teeth. Canine and first premolar stages 10 and H obtained higher specificity rates for identifying the absence of post-pubertal period. CONCLUSIONS: The dental calcification parameters showed adequate reproducibility, in addition to significant correlations with cervical vertebrae stages. Radiographic dental calcification parameters used for the mandibular first premolar obtained high accuracy rates and were recommended for identifying specific craniofacial growth periods.

16.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36196669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pest Aphis gossypii Glover globally causes considerable economic losses on various crops by its feeding damage and disease transmission. Transgenic plants that produce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeted to insect genes are being developed as a pest control strategy. In this study, we evaluated the effects of transgenic cotton-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) on the growth and detoxification ability of A. gossypii after the transgenic cotton lines expressing dsAgCYP6CY3-P1 (the TG cotton lines) were obtained on the basis of exploring the functions of CYP6CY3 in our previous research. RESULTS: The developmental time of third- and fourth-instar nymphs which fed on the TG cotton lines were significantly prolonged. Life table parameters showed that the fitness of cotton aphids from the TG cotton lines decreased. Additionally, the relative expression level of CYP6CY3 in cotton aphids which fed on the TG cotton lines was significantly reduced by 47.3 % at 48 h compared with that from the nontransgenic cotton (the NT cotton). Bioassay showed that silencing of CYP6CY3 increased mortality of the nymphs to imidacloprid by 28.49 % (at 24 h) and to acetamiprid by 73.77 % (at 48 h), respectively. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that the TG cotton lines delayed the growth and development of A. gossypii, but also decreased population density and increased its sensitivity to imidacloprid and acetamiprid, respectively. The results provide further support for the development and application of plant-mediated RNAi. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

17.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36263892

RESUMO

Auxin is a crucial phytohormone that has various effects on the regulators of plant growth and development. Auxin signal transduction is mainly controlled by two gene families: auxin response factor (ARF) and auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA). ARFs are plant-specific transcription factors that bind directly to auxin response elements in the promoters of auxin-responsive genes. ARF proteins contain three conserved regions: a conserved N-terminal B3 DNA-binding domain, a variable intermediate middle region domain that functions in activation or repression, and a C-terminal domain including the Phox and Bem1p region for dimerization, similar to the III and IV elements of Aux/IAA, which facilitate protein-protein interaction through homodimerization of ARF proteins or heterodimerization of ARF and Aux/IAA proteins. In the two decades following the identification of the first ARF, 23 ARF members have been identified and characterized in Arabidopsis. Using whole-genome sequencing, 22, 25, 23, 25, and 36 ARF genes have been identified in tomato, rice, wheat, sorghum, and maize, respectively, in addition to which the related biofunctions of some ARFs have been reported. ARFs play crucial roles in regulating the growth and development of roots, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, and phytohormone signal crosstalk. In this review, we summarize the research progress on the structures and functions of ARFs in Arabidopsis, tomato, and cereal crops, to provide clues for future basic research on phytohormone signaling and the molecular design breeding of crops. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207995

RESUMO

Specialized metabolites are a structurally diverse group of naturally occurring compounds that facilitate plant-environment interactions. Their synthesis and maintenance in plants is overall a resource-demanding process that occurs at the expense of growth and reproduction and typically incurs several costs. Evidence emerging on different specialized compounds suggests that they serve multiple auxiliary functions to influence and moderate primary metabolism in plants. These new functionalities enable them to mediate trade-offs from defenses to growth and also to offset their production and maintenance costs in plants. Recent research on glucosinolates (GSLs), which are specialized metabolites of Brassicales, demonstrates their emerging multifunctionalities to fine-tune plant growth and development under variable environments. Herein, we present findings from the septennium on individual GSLs and their catabolites (GHPs) per se, that work as mobile signals within plants to mediate precise regulations of their primary physiological functions. Both GSLs and GHPs calibrate growth-defense trade-off interactions either synergistically or directly when they function as storage compounds, abiotic stress alleviators, and one-to-one regulators of growth pathways in plants. We finally summarize the overall lessons learned from GSLs and GHPs as a model and raise the most pressing questions to address the molecular-genetic intricacies of specialized metabolite-based trade-offs in plants.

19.
PeerJ ; 10: e13793, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36262417

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the primary abiotic stresses that cause negative physiological and biochemical changes due to the oxidative stress caused by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The effect of jasmonic acid (JA) as foliar spray and humic acid (HA) as soil amendment on the growth and biochemical attributes of forage sorghum plants exposed to salinity stress was investigated. Soil treated with NaCl at levels of 0, 2, and 4 g NaCl kg-1 dry soil (designated as S0, S1, and S2) and soil amendment with humic acid at 0, 3, and 6 g HA kg-1 dry soil (designated as HA0, HA1, and HA2). The plants were sprayed with three JA levels, including 0, 5, and 10 mM JA. Salinity stress increased carotenoid and soluble protein content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. In contrast, salinity stress reduced plant height, leaf area, relative growth rate, proline content, and the activity of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). At the S2 salinity level, HA2 rate increased plant high by 9.7%, relative growth rate by 70.8% and CAT by 45.5, while HA1 increased leaf area by 12.5%, chlorophyll content by 22.3%, carotenoid content by 38.1%, SOD activity by 20.9%, MDA content by 18.0%, POD activity by 24.6% and APX value by 21.7%. At the S2 salinity level, the highest plant height, chlorophyll content, soluble protein content and APX value were recorded at 5 mM JA, while the highest leaf area, the content of carotenoid, proline, and MDA, and the activity of POD and CAT were achieved at 10 mM JA. Generally, 10 mM JA and 3 g HA kg-1 dry soil produced the best positive effects on forage sorghum plants physiological responses. Our study suggested that jasmonic acid and humic acid at appropriate rates can successfully mitigate the adverse effects of salinity stress on forage sorghum.

20.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(9)2022 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36135614

RESUMO

Triterpenoids are secondary metabolites produced by the fungus Sanghuangporus&nbsp;baumii that have important pharmacological activities. However, the yield of triterpenoids is low and cannot meet market demand. Here, we treated S. baumii with several concentrations of MeJA (methyl jasmonate) and found that the total triterpenoid content was highest (23.31 mg/g) when the MeJA concentration was 250 µmol/L. qRT-PCR was used to quantify the transcription of five key genes involved in triterpenoid biosynthesis. The results showed that the relative transcription of most genes increased with increasing MeJA concentration, indicating that MeJA is a potent inducer of triterpenoid biosynthesis in S. baumii. To further explore whether other terpenoid biosynthesis pathways are also involved in the accumulation of triterpenoids induced by MeJA, we measured the contents of cis-Zeatin (cZ), gibberellins (GAs), and the transcript levels of related biosynthesis genes. We found that MeJA significantly inhibited the biosynthesis of cZ, GAs, and the transcription of related genes. The repressive effects of MeJA on cZ and GA accumulation were further confirmed by growth rate and biomass assays. In conclusion, our study provides an effective method to enhance the triterpenoid content of S. baumii, and also provides novel insights into the mechanism of MeJA-induced triterpenoid biosynthesis.

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