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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255664, 2024. graf, mapas, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360227

RESUMO

Magnolia biondii Pamp is an important ornamental tree species widely grown and used as a rootstock in the propagation of different Magnolia varieties. In the current studies, anatomical, physiological and endogenous hormones were studied to check the effect of IBA 750 mg/L on the adventitious rooting and to provide theoretical and technical support for the propagation of Magnolia biondii Pamp through stem cuttings. Two thousand stem cuttings were prepared and divided into two groups i.e., IBA treated cuttings and water control. For the evaluation of antioxidant enzyme activities, and endogenous hormones levels, samples were collected on the day of planting and each 5th day and further steps were carried out in the laboratory according to the protocols and proper precautions. For the anatomical observations, samples were collected on the 13th, 15th, and 17th day for IBA treated cuttings while 21st, 23rd, and 25th day for control. Collected samples were preserved in the FAA solution and further observations were carried out in the laboratory. Anatomical observations showed that it took 13 days for the differentiation of root primordia to the appearance of young adventitious roots in IBA treated cuttings, while it took 21 days to develop primordia in the control. Antioxidant enzyme activities involved in ROS were significantly higher in the IBA treated cuttings compared to control. POD showed a peak on the 13th day before the emergence of roots in IBA treated cuttings while it showed a peak on the 21st day in the control. PPO showed a peak on the 21st day in the IBA treated cuttings while it showed a peak on the 29th day in the control. SOD showed a peak on the 17th day in IBA treated cuttings, while it showed a peak on the 25th day in the control. Exogenous application of IBA enhanced the endogenous IAA and GA3 levels compared to CK, while it reduced the levels of ABA continuously at the time of rooting and then increased gradually. Inclusively, our study suggests that IBA 750 mg/L is efficient for the rooting of Magnolia biondii Pamp cuttings, as it enhanced the process of antioxidant enzyme activities, endogenous hormones levels and reduced the time of root formation which is evident from the anatomical observations.


Magnolia biondii Pamp é uma importante espécie de árvore ornamental muito cultivada e utilizada como porta-enxerto na propagação de diferentes variedades de Magnolia. Nos estudos atuais, hormônios anatômicos, fisiológicos e endógenos foram estudados para verificar o efeito do AIB na dose de 750 mg / L no enraizamento adventício e fornecer suporte teórico e técnico para a propagação de M. biondii Pamp por meio de estacas. Duas mil estacas foram preparadas e divididas em dois grupos, ou seja, tratadas com AIB e controle de água. Para a avaliação das atividades das enzimas antioxidantes e dos níveis de hormônios endógenos, as amostras foram coletadas no dia do plantio e a cada 5 dias, enquanto as demais etapas foram realizadas em laboratório de acordo com os protocolos e os devidos cuidados. Para as observações anatômicas, as amostras foram coletadas no 13º, 15º e 17º dias para estacas tratadas com AIB e no 21º, 23º e 25º dias para o controle. As amostras coletadas foram preservadas em solução FAA, e outras observações foram realizadas em laboratório. Observações anatômicas mostraram a necessidade de 13 dias para a diferenciação dos primórdios radiculares até o aparecimento de raízes adventícias jovens em estacas tratadas com AIB e de 21 dias para o desenvolvimento dos primórdios no controle. As atividades das enzimas antioxidantes envolvidas nas ROS foram significativamente maiores nas estacas tratadas com AIB em comparação com o controle. A POD apresentou pico no 13º dia antes da emergência das raízes nas estacas tratadas com AIB, enquanto no 21º dia apresentou pico no controle. A PPO teve pico no 21º dia nas estacas tratadas com AIB e no 29º dia no controle. A SOD apresentou pico no 17º dia nas estacas tratadas com AIB e no 25º dia no controle. A aplicação exógena de AIB aumentou os níveis endógenos de IAA e GA3 em relação ao controle, enquanto reduziu os níveis de ABA continuamente no momento do enraizamento e, em seguida, aumentou gradativamente. Inclusive, nosso estudo sugere que o AIB na dose de 750 mg / L é eficiente para o enraizamento de estacas de M. biondii Pamp, visto que potencializou o processo de atividades de enzimas antioxidantes e os níveis de hormônios endógenos, além de reduzir o tempo de formação de raízes, o que fica evidente nas observações anatômicas.


Assuntos
Magnolia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hormônios
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 125: 641-649, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375946

RESUMO

Exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDCs) could disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. However, human epidemiological studies reported inconsistent observations, and scarce information on the effect of a mixture of chemicals. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of multiple chemicals with thyroid hormones among adults from China. We measured serum levels of thyroid hormones and urinary levels of 11 EDCs, including six phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), perchlorate, and thiocyanate among 177 healthy adults without occupational exposure. Associations of multiple urinary analytes with serum thyroid hormones were examined by performing general linear regression analysis and bayesian kernal machine regression analysis. These EDCs were detected in almost all samples. After adjusting for various covariates, we observed only BPF significantly associated with total thyroxin (TT4) (ß=-0.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-0.41, -0.14]), total triiodothyronine (TT3) (ß=-0.02 95% CI [-0.03, -0.01]), free T4 (fT4) (ß=-0.02, 95% CI [-0.03, -0.01]), and free T3 (fT3) (ß=-0.04, 95% CI [-0.07, -0.01]), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) positively associated with TT4 (ß=0.24, 95% CI [0.01, 0.48]) and fT4 (ß=0.02, 95% CI [0.01, 0.04]), respectively. Moreover, we observed significant dose-response relationships between TT4 and the mixture of 11 EDCs, and BPF was the main contributor to the mixture effect, suggesting the priority of potential effect of BPF on disrupting thyroid function under a real scenario of human exposure to multiple EDCs. Our findings supported the hypothesis that human exposure to low levels of EDCs could alter thyroid hormones homeostasis among non-occupational healthy adults.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Humanos , Adulto , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Teorema de Bayes , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Hormônios Tireóideos
3.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136911, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270526

RESUMO

Salt and drought stress are major environmental issues world-widely. These stresses can result in failures of seed germination, limiting agricultural production. New approaches are needed to increase crop production, ensuring food safety, quality, and agriculture sustainability. Nanopriming (priming seeds with nanomaterials) is an emerging seed technology improving crop production under the drastic climate change associated with stress factors. The present review not only provided an overview of nanopriming achieved salt and drought tolerance but also tried to discuss the behind mechanisms. We argued that the physico-chemical properties of the nanomaterials are key factors affecting their negative or positive effects on seed germination in terms of seed nanopriming. Furthermore, we highlighted the possible critical role of seed coat anatomy in effective nanopriming, in terms of saving costs and reducing biosafety issues. This review aims to help researchers to better understand and follow this fast-developing, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly research area.


Assuntos
Germinação , Nanoestruturas , Secas , Salinidade , Sementes , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
4.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 559: 111792, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309204

RESUMO

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has a critical role in bone development and anti-tumour function in breast cancer (BC). As the expression and role of PEDF in BC bone metastases is unknown, we aimed to characterise PEDF in primary and metastatic BC. Subcellular PEDF localisation was semi-quantitatively analysed via immunohistochemistry in patient-matched, archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary BC and liver, lung, and decalcified bone metastases specimens. PEDF localisation was evaluated in 23 metastatic BC patients diagnosed with ER+, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) negative BC or TNBC. Cytoplasmic (p = 0.019) and membrane (p = 0.048) PEDF was lower in bone metastases compared to primary ER+/HER2- BC. In contrast, nuclear PEDF scores were higher in metastases compared to primary TNBC (p = 0.027), and increased membrane PEDF in metastatic tissue had improved disease-free interval (p = 0.016). Nuclear PEDF was decreased in bone metastases compared to primary ER+//HER2- BC in post-menopausal patients (p = 0.029). These novel findings indicate PEDF plays a role in clinical BC metastasis. Significantly lower PEDF levels in the post-menopausal compared to pre-menopausal setting suggests future PEDF research may have greater clinical importance in the post-menopausal ER+/HER2- BC population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Neoplasias da Mama , Serpinas , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Proteínas do Olho , Menopausa
5.
Theriogenology ; 195: 149-158, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332374

RESUMO

The cargo carried by extracellular vesicles (EVs) plays an important physiological role in their corresponding target organs or target tissue cells. Extracellular vesicles are classified into large extracellular vesicles (LEVs) and small extracellular vesicles (SEVs) according to their diameters. Since different subtypes contain different contents, their roles are also different. In this study, the morphology and size of LEVs were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle size, and the marker proteins of LEVs (CD63, GP96, TSG101, ALB) were identified by western blot, and high-purity LEVs were obtained. Through the uptake of extracellular vesicles by purified ovarian granulosa cells and the determination of granulosa cell viability, cell apoptosis, and steroid hormone production, the result indicated that LEVs significantly enhanced cell viability (P < 0.05), reduced the rate of granulosa cell apoptosis (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, LEVs promoted the secretion of estradiol in granulosa cells (P < 0.05). This study provides a reference for the in-depth study of the function of follicular fluid extracellular vesicle subtypes and the research on the regulation of extracellular vesicles on follicle and oocyte development.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Líquido Folicular , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Células da Granulosa , Esteroides , Apoptose , Estradiol
6.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 330: 114151, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341970

RESUMO

To better understand reproductive physiology of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae that reside in Hawai'i and Alaska, enzyme immunoassays were validated for both progesterone and testosterone in free-ranging and stranded animals (n = 185 biopsies). Concentrations were analyzed between different depths of large segments of blubber taken from skin to muscle layers of stranded female (n = 2, 1 pregnant, 1 non-pregnant) and male (n = 1) whales. Additionally, progesterone metabolites were identified between pregnant (n = 1) and non-pregnant (n = 3) females using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Progesterone concentrations were compared between juvenile (i.e., sexually immature), lactating, and pregnant females, and male whales, and pregnancy rates of sexually mature females were calculated. Based on replicate samples from ship struck animals collected at 7 depth locations, blubber containing the highest concentration of progesterone was located 1 cm below the skin for females, and the highest concentration of testosterone was in the skin layer of one male whale. HPLC of blubber samples of pregnant and non-pregnant females contain different immunoreactive progesterone metabolites, with the non-pregnant female eluate comprised of a more polar, and possibly conjugated, form of progesterone than the pregnant female. In females, concentrations of progesterone were highest in the blubber of pregnant (n = 28, 28.6 ± 6.9 ng/g), followed by lactating (n = 16, 0.9 ± 0.1 ng/g), and female juvenile (n = 5, 1.0 ± 0.2 ng/g) whales. Progesterone concentrations in male (n = 24, 0.6 ng/g ± 0.1 ng/g) tissues were the lowest all groups, and not different from lactating or juvenile females. Estimated summer season pregnancy rate among sexually mature females from the Hawai'i stock of humpback whales was 0.562 (95 % confidence interval 0.528-0.605). For lactating females, the year-round pregnancy rate was 0.243 (0.09-0.59), and varies depending on the threshold of progesterone assumed for pregnancy in the range between 3.1 and 28.5 ng/g. Our results demonstrate the synergistic value added when combining immunoreactive assays, HPLC, and long-term sighting histories to further knowledge of humpback whale reproductive physiology.


Assuntos
Jubarte , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Gravidez , Progesterona , Taxa de Gravidez , Lactação , Testosterona
7.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 82: 106768, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215938

RESUMO

Previous studies showed that coat color significantly affects hair cortisol levels but not serum cortisol and serotonin levels in heifers and dairy cows under heat stress conditions. As a follow-up study, we tested whether both serum and hair cortisol and serotonin levels in winter-housed dairy cows were affected by coat color (black vs white). Twenty multiparous high-yielding dairy cows (DIM = 110 ± 25, milk yield = 35 ± 2.1 kg) were assigned to one of the following groups: 1) black coat color (BCC; over 85% of coat black, n = 14) and 2) white coat color (WCC; over 85% of coat white, n = 6). The experimental period lasted 60 d (from December to February), during which the animals were kept in a building with free stalls that had dry river sand bedding. Blood was harvested for 3 consecutive days at the end of the study. Hair was harvested from the forehead of each individual at the beginning and on the end-day of the study. Cortisol and serotonin hormones were measured in serum and hair. Data were analyzed using t-test. The results revealed that cows with BCC had lower hair cortisol and higher hair serotonin levels than those with WCC (P < 0.05). No differences in serum cortisol levels were observed between cows with WCC and BCC (P > 0.05). The serum serotonin level was lower in cows with WCC compared to the BCC group (P < 0.05). Taken together, coat color significantly affected stress levels indicated by higher hair cortisol and lower hair serotonin levels in WCC cows in addition to lower serum serotonin levels in the corresponding animals. This feature of coat color should be considered as a management tool, particularly in countries with long winters.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Lactação , Bovinos , Animais , Feminino , Serotonina , Seguimentos , Cabelo , Leite
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247071, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285609

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic effects of whole kumquat (Ku) powder in diabetic rats fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using stable 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, 2,2´-azinobis (3-ethyl benzo thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenolic content was (51.85 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid content was (0.24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE/g). DPPH and ABTS values were 3.32 and 3.98 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g where FRAP value was 3.00 mM Fe2+/kg dry material. A total of 90 albino rats were used in the present study. Rats group were as follows: normal diet; normal treated (2, 4, and 6% Ku.), diabetic rats (non-treated), diabetic + HFHC diet (non-treated), HFHC (non-treated), Diabetic (treated), HFHC (treated) and Diabetic + HFHC (treated). The diets were followed for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment. Serum glucose was recorded and thyroid hormones (T4, Thyroxine and T3, Triiodothyronine) were conducted. Diet supplemented with Kumquat at different concentrations have a hypoglycemic effect and improve the thyroid hormones of both diabetic rats and HFHC diabetic rats.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a atividade antioxidante e os efeitos hipoglicêmicos do pó de kumquat (Ku) em ratos diabéticos alimentados com uma dieta rica em gordura e colesterol (HFHC). As atividades antioxidantes foram avaliadas usando o método de eliminação de radicais livres de 1,1-difenil 2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico) radical cátion (ABTS) e antioxidante redutor férrico potência (FRAP). O conteúdo fenólico total foi (51,85 mg GAE / g) e o conteúdo total de flavonoides foi (0,24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE / g). Os valores de DPPH e ABTS foram 3,32 e 3,98 mg equivalente de Trolox (TE) / g, em que o valor de FRAP foi de 3,00 mM Fe2 + / kg de material seco. Um total de 90 ratos albinos foi usado ​​no presente estudo. O grupo dos ratos foi o seguinte: dieta normal: tratados normais (2, 4 e 6% Ku.), ratos diabéticos (não tratados), diabéticos + dieta HFHC (não tratados), HFHC (não tratados), diabéticos (tratados), HFHC (tratados) e diabéticos + HFHC (tratados). As dietas foram seguidas por 8 semanas. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas ao final do experimento. A glicose sérica foi registrada e os hormônios tireoidianos (T4, Tiroxina e T3, Triiodotironina) foram conduzidos. A dieta suplementada com kumquat em diferentes concentrações tem um efeito hipoglicêmico e melhora os hormônios tireoidianos tanto de ratos diabéticos quanto de ratos diabéticos com HFHC.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Rutaceae , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Pós , Hormônios Tireóideos , Glicemia , Frutas
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 367: 128270, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347483

RESUMO

In this study, a novel method of coupling phytohormones with saline wastewater was proposed to drive efficient microalgal lipid production. All the six phytohormones effectively promoted microalgae growth in saline wastewater, and further increased the microalgal lipid content based on salt stress, so as to achieve a large increase in microalgal lipid productivity. Among the phytohormones used, abscisic acid had the most significant promoting effect. Under the synergistic effect of 20 g/L salt and 20 mg/L abscisic acid, the microalgal lipid productivity reached 3.7 times that of the control. Transcriptome analysis showed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of microalgae in saline wastewater were mainly up-regulated under the effects of phytohormones except brassinolide. Common DEGs analysis showed that phytohormones all regulated the expression of genes related to DNA repair and substance synthesis. In conclusion, synergistic effect of salt stress and phytohormones can greatly improve the microalgal lipid production efficiency.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Microalgas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Águas Residuárias , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Estresse Salino , Biomassa
10.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 330: 114141, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272446

RESUMO

Living in variable and unpredictable environments, organisms face recurrent stressful situations. The endocrine stress response, which includes the secretion of glucocorticoids, helps organisms to cope with these perturbations. Although short-term elevations of glucocorticoid levels are often associated with immediate beneficial consequences for individuals, long-term glucocorticoid elevation can compromise key physiological functions such as immunity. While laboratory works highlighted the immunosuppressive effect of long-term elevated glucocorticoids, it remains largely unknown, especially in wild animals, whether this relationship is modulated by individual and environmental characteristics. In this study, we explored the co-variation between integrated cortisol levels, assessed non-invasively using faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs), and 12 constitutive indices of innate, inflammatory, and adaptive immune functions, in wild roe deer living in three populations with previously known contrasting environmental conditions. Using longitudinal data on 564 individuals, we further investigated whether age and spatio-temporal variations in the quantity and quality of food resources modulate the relationship between FCMs and immunity. Negative covariation with glucocorticoids was evident only for innate and inflammatory markers of immunity, while adaptive immunity appeared to be positively or not linked to glucocorticoids. In addition, the negative covariations were generally stronger in individuals facing harsh environmental constraints and in old individuals. Therefore, our results highlight the importance of measuring multiple immune markers of immunity in individuals from contrasted environments to unravel the complex relationships between glucocorticoids and immunity in wild animals. Our results also help explain conflicting results found in the literature and could improve our understanding of the link between elevated glucocorticoid levels and disease spread, and its consequences on population dynamics.


Assuntos
Cervos , Animais , Cervos/metabolismo , Animais Selvagens/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Imunidade Adaptativa
11.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 31-37, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799505

RESUMO

Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of disability worldwide, and biological sex is an important determining factor in stroke incidence and pathology. From childhood through adulthood, men have a higher incidence of stroke compared with women. Abundant research has confirmed the beneficial effects of estrogen in experimental ischemic stroke but genetic factors such as the X-chromosome complement can also play an important role in determining sex differences in stroke. Autophagy is a self-degrading cellular process orchestrated by multiple core proteins, which leads to the engulfment of cytoplasmic material and degradation of cargo after autophagy vesicles fuse with lysosomes or endosomes. The levels and the activity of components of these signaling pathways and of autophagy-related proteins can be altered during ischemic insults. Ischemic stroke activates autophagy, however, whether inhibiting autophagy after stroke is beneficial in the brain is still under a debate. Autophagy is a potential mechanism that may contribute to differences in stroke progression between the sexes. Furthermore, the effects of manipulating autophagy may also differ between the sexes. Mechanisms that regulate autophagy in a sex-dependent manner in ischemic stroke remain unexplored. In this review, we summarize clinical and pre-clinical evidence for sex differences in stroke. We briefly introduce the autophagy process and summarize the effects of gonadal hormones in autophagy in the brain and discuss X-linked genes that could potentially regulate brain autophagy. Finally, we review pre-clinical studies that address the mechanisms that could mediate sex differences in brain autophagy after stroke.

12.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 827478, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35371125

RESUMO

Potassium (K) is an indispensable nutrient element in the development of fruit trees in terms of yield and quality. It is unclear how a stable or unstable supply of K affects plant growth. We studied the root morphology and physiological and molecular changes in the carbon and nitrogen metabolism of M9T337 apple rootstock under different K levels and supply methods using hydroponics. Five K supply treatments were implemented: continuous low K (KL), initial low and then high K (KLH), appropriate and constant K (KAC), initial high and then low K (KHL), and continuous high K (KH). The results showed that the biomass, root activity, photosynthesis, and carbon and nitrogen metabolism of the M9T337 rootstocks were inhibited under KL, KH, KLH and KHL conditions. The KAC treatment promoted root growth by optimizing endogenous hormone content, enhancing carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzyme activities, improving photosynthesis, optimizing the distribution of carbon and nitrogen, and upregulating the transcription levels of nitrogen assimilation-related genes (nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, MdNRT1.1, MdNRT1.2, MdNRT1.5, MdNRT2.4). These results suggest that an appropriate and constant K supply ensures the efficient assimilation and utilization of nitrogen and carbon.

13.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(6): e880, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36320653

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Sustained neurohormonal activation plays a central role in the progression of heart failure (HF). Other endocrine axes may also be affected. It was the aim of this study to examine the endocrine profile (thyroid, parathyroid, glucocorticoid, and sex hormones) in a contemporary sample of patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (EF) on established disease-modifying therapy. Methods: This study prospectively measured morning fasting hormones in 52 ambulatory and stable HF patients with EF < 50% on disease-modifying therapy (mean age 63 ± 11 years, 29% female, mean LVEF 32 ± 9.6%) and compared them to 54 patients at elevated risk for HF (61 ± 12 years, 28% female) and 62 healthy controls (HC; 61 ± 13 years, 27% female). Main comparisons were performed using one-way analysis of variance. Associations with biomarkers were studied with linear regression. Results: HF patients showed a reduced free triiodothyronine (fT3)/free thyroxine (fT4) ratio compared to HC (0.30 ± 0.06 vs. 0.33 ± 0.05, p = 0.046). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and cortisol were increased in HF compared to both HC (median [IQR] 59 [50-84] vs. 46 [37-52] ng/L, p < 0.001 and 497 ± 150 vs. 436 ± 108 nmol/L, p = 0.03, respectively) and patients at risk (both p < 0.001). Total testosterone was reduced in male HF compared to HC (14.4 ± 6.6 vs. 18.6 ± 5.3 nmol/L; p = 0.01). No differences in TSH, estradiol, progesterone, and prolactin were found. Lower fT3 levels were found in HF with EF < 40% versus EF 40%-49% (4.6 ± 0.3 vs. 5.2 ± 0.7 pmol/L, p = 0.009). In HF patients, fT3 was an independent predictor of NT-proBNP and high-sensitivity troponin T in multiple regression analysis. PTH was positively associated with NT-proBNP. Conclusion: There is evidence of endocrine hormonal imbalance in HF with reduced EF beyond principal neurohormones and despite the use of disease-modifying therapy.

14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1018757, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324469

RESUMO

Introduction: During the COVID-19 lockdown, people's lifestyles have changed including their habits and physical activities. There has been an increase in anabolic hormones and nutritional supplement use among people who regularly do exercise in the MENA region. This study aims to assess knowledge, practice, and attitude toward the use of anabolic hormones and nutritional supplements among people who regularly exercise in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and to compare their exercise habits and hormones and supplements usage between before and during COVID-19 lockdown. Methods: A self-administrated online Google form survey was carried out between February 2021 and April 2021. Five thousand eight hundred forty-five participants who regularly exercise and aged ≥18 years responded to the questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed through social media platforms and included five sections: demographic, training characters, knowledge, practice, and attitude. Results: The participants mean age was 27.4 ± 8.6 years. Males represented 58.2 % of participants. 75.3% of the study participants had not used either hormones or supplements, and about 19% used supplements only. The mean percent score for knowledge, practice, and attitude were 39.3 ± 30.5, 1.1 ± 9.5, and 21.3 ± 23.8, respectively. Level of knowledge was higher among participants who worked in the medical field or as sports coaches. The practice was higher among male participants. The most commonly used anabolic hormones and nutritional supplements were steroids and proteins with bodybuilding being the most common purpose. Internet was the main source of information and pharmacy was the main source for procuring these substances. There was a significant decrease in proteins, carbohydrates, and sports drinks used during the COVID-19 lockdown compared to before the COVID-19 lockdown, while a statistically significant increase in vitamins used during the COVID-19 lockdown compared to before COVID-19 lockdown. Discussion: In the MENA region, there has been an increase in the use of anabolic hormones and nutritional supplements. Most of the population has low knowledge of the harmful effect of uncontrolled, uninformed and unmonitored use of these substances Therefore, increasing the awareness level of participants and sports coaches should be a priority to limit the unsupervised use of hormones and supplements.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esportes , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hormônios
15.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331512

RESUMO

Shoot stem cells act as the source of the aboveground parts of flowering plants. A precise regulatory basis is required to ensure that plant stem cells show the right status during stages of proliferation, senescence and cell death. Over the past decades, the genetic circuits controlling stem cell fate, including the regulatory pathways of establishment, maintenance, and differentiation, have been largely revealed. However, the morphological changes and molecular mechanisms of the final stages of stem cells, which are represented by senescence and cell death, have been less studied. The senescence and death of shoot stem cells are under the control of a complex series of pathways that integrate multiple internal and external signals. Given the crucial roles of shoot stem cells in influencing plant longevity and crop yields, researchers have attempted to uncover details of stem cell senescence and death. Recent studies indicate that stem cell activity arrest is controlled by the FRUITFULL (FUL)-APETALA2 (AP2) pathway and the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin, while the features of senescent and dead shoot apical stem cells have also been described, with dynamic changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) implicated in stem cell death. In this review, we highlight the recent breakthroughs that have enriched our understanding of senescence and cell death processes in plant stem cells.

16.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 1041068, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330269

RESUMO

Gibberellin (GA) is an important phytohormone that can participate in various developmental processes of plants. The study found that application of GA3 can induce parthenocarpy fruit and improve fruit set. However, the use of GA3 affects endogenous hormones in fruits, thereby affecting fruit quality. This study mainly investigates the effect of exogenous GA3 on endogenous hormones in sweet cherries. The anabolic pathways of each hormone were analyzed by metabolome and transcriptome to identify key metabolites and genes that affect endogenous hormones in response to exogenous GA3 application. Results showed that exogenous GA3 led to a significant increase in the content of abscisic acid (ABA) and GA and affected jasmonic acid (JA) and auxin (IAA). At the same time, the key structural genes affecting the synthesis of various hormones were preliminarily determined. Combined with transcription factor family analysis, WRKY genes were found to be more sensitive to the use of exogenous GA3, especially the genes belonging to Group III (PaWRKY16, PaWRKY21, PaWRKY38, PaWRKY52, and PaWRKY53). These transcription factors can combine with the promoters of NCED, YUCCA, and other genes to regulate the content of endogenous hormones. These findings lay the foundation for the preliminary determination of the mechanism of GA3's effect on endogenous hormones in sweet cherry and the biological function of WRKY transcription factors.

17.
New Phytol ; 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333982

RESUMO

Karrikins are a class of butenolide compounds found in smoke that were first identified as seed germination stimulants for fire-following species. Early studies of karrikins classified the germination and post-germination responses of many plant species, and investigated crosstalk with plant hormones that regulate germination. The discovery that Arabidopsis thaliana responds to karrikins laid the foundation for identifying mutants with altered karrikin responses. Genetic analysis of karrikin signalling revealed an unexpected link to strigolactones, a class of carotenoid-derived plant hormones. Substantial progress has since been made toward understanding how karrikins are perceived and regulate plant growth, in no small part due to advances in understanding strigolactone perception. Karrikin and strigolactone signalling systems are evolutionarily related and retain a high degree of similarity. There is strong evidence that karrikins (KARs) are natural analogues of an endogenous signal(s), KAI2 ligand (KL), which remains unknown. KAR/KL signalling regulates many developmental processes in plants including germination, seedling photomorphogenesis, and root and root hair growth. KAR/KL signalling also affects abiotic stress responses and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Here we summarise the current knowledge of KAR/KL signalling, and discuss current controversies and unanswered questions in this field.

18.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 196: 107697, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336274

RESUMO

Extinction training creates a second inhibitory memory trace and effectively reduces conditioned responding. However, acute stress inhibits the retrieval of this extinction memory trace. It is not known whether this also applies to other forms of associative learning such as instrumental counterconditioning, where previously learned associations are reversed and paired with the opposite valence. Therefore, the current preregistered study investigates whether stress decreases the retrieval of instrumental counterconditioning memories with aversive and appetitive consequences. Fifty-two healthy men were randomly assigned to either a stress or control group and took part in a two-day instrumental learning paradigm. During a first phase, participants learned that pressing specific buttons in response to the presentation of four neutral stimuli either leads to gaining or losing money. During a second phase, two stimuli reversed their contingencies (counterconditioning). One day later, participants were exposed to acute stress or a control condition prior to the same task, which no longer included feedback about gains or losses. Stressed participants showed more approach behavior towards appetitive and less avoidance behavior towards aversive stimuli as compared to non-stressed participants. Our findings indicate that stress effects on memory retrieval differ depending on the associative learning approach in men. These differences might be related to stress effects on decision making and different motivational systems involved.

19.
Endocrine ; 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction is closely related to arrhythmia. However, the relationship between sensitivity to thyroid hormone and risk of arrhythmia remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the association between the thyroid system complex index and risk of arrhythmia in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: This large, multicenter study included 28,413 patients with CHD. Central sensitivity to thyroid hormone was assessed by calculating the thyroid feedback quantile-based index (TFQI). Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between sensitivity to thyroid hormone and risk of arrhythmia. This study also assessed the relationship between sensitivity to thyroid hormone and risk of arrhythmia in different sexes, ages, and glucose regulation and blood lipid states. RESULTS: Of the 28,413 participants, 8935 (31.4%) patients with CHD had arrhythmia. There was a remarkable association between TFQI and risk of arrhythmia (odds ratio [OR]: 0.783; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.735-0.836). Furthermore, the association between the TFQI and risk of arrhythmia in women (OR: 0.731; 95% CI: 0.667-0.802) was stronger than that in men (OR: 0.894; 95% CI: 0.816-0.910), as well as higher in elder (OR: 0.779; 95% CI: 0.721-0.843) than middle-aged (OR: 0.789; 95% CI: 0.703-0.886) patients. Furthermore, the association was strong in the state of diabetes (OR: 0.635; 95% 0.569-0.709) and dyslipidemia (OR: 0.706; 95% CI: 0.644-0.774). CONCLUSION: There is a remarkable association between sensitivity to thyroid hormone and risk of arrhythmia in patients with CHD, which is more pronounced among women and the elderly. The association is also stronger in CHD patients with dyslipidemia or diabetes.

20.
Cell Metab ; 34(11): 1620-1653, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323233

RESUMO

The analogy of mitochondria as powerhouses has expired. Mitochondria are living, dynamic, maternally inherited, energy-transforming, biosynthetic, and signaling organelles that actively transduce biological information. We argue that mitochondria are the processor of the cell, and together with the nucleus and other organelles they constitute the mitochondrial information processing system (MIPS). In a three-step process, mitochondria (1) sense and respond to both endogenous and environmental inputs through morphological and functional remodeling; (2) integrate information through dynamic, network-based physical interactions and diffusion mechanisms; and (3) produce output signals that tune the functions of other organelles and systemically regulate physiology. This input-to-output transformation allows mitochondria to transduce metabolic, biochemical, neuroendocrine, and other local or systemic signals that enhance organismal adaptation. An explicit focus on mitochondrial signal transduction emphasizes the role of communication in mitochondrial biology. This framework also opens new avenues to understand how mitochondria mediate inter-organ processes underlying human health.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias , Transdução de Sinais , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo
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