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1.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 76: 103392, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36731262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore recurrent themes in diaries kept by intensive care unit (ICU) staff during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: Qualitative study. SETTING: Two ICUs in a tertiary level hospital (Milan, Italy) from January to December 2021. METHODS: ICU staff members wrote a digital diary while caring for adult patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit for >48 hours. A thematic analysis was performed. FINDINGS: Diary entries described what happened and expressed emotions. Thematic analysis of 518 entries gleaned from 48 diaries identified four themes (plus ten subthemes): Presenting (Places and people; Diary project), Intensive Care Unit Stay (Clinical events; What the patient does; Patient support), Outside the Hospital (Family and topical events; The weather), Feelings and Thoughts (Encouragement and wishes; Farewell; Considerations). CONCLUSION: The themes were similar to published findings. They offer insight into care in an intensive care unit during a pandemic, with scarce resources and no family visitors permitted, reflecting on the patient as a person and on daily care. The staff wrote farewell entries to dying patients even though no one would read them. IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE: The implementation of digital diaries kept by intensive care unit staff is feasible even during the COVID-19 pandemic. Diaries kept by staff can provide a tool to humanize critical care. Staff can improve their work by reflecting on diary records.

2.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 76: 103394, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36731263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of video visitation on intensive care patients' and family members' outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: This is a randomised controlled trial. SETTING: An adult intensive care unit in a tertiary hospital in Beijing, China. METHODS: A total of 121 adults, who were >18 years of age, conscious, able to communicate verbally, and admitted to the intensive care unit for over 24 hours were randomised into the intervention (video visitation) (n = 65) and control (n = 56) Groups. A total of 98 family members participated. Patient primary outcomes included anxiety and depression, measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes included patient delirium and family anxiety assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, respectively; and patient and family satisfaction, measured using a questionnaire routinely used in the hospital. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in patients' anxiety (t = 1.328, p = 0.187) and depression scores (t = 1.569, p = 0.119); and no statistically significant differences in delirium incidence between the groups (7.7 % vs 7.1 %, p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in changes in family members' anxiety scores (t = 0.496, p = 0.621). A statistically significant difference in satisfaction was found between the two group patients (86.1 % vs 57.2 % of patients were satisfied with using video visitation, p < 0.05), and the result of family members' satisfaction was also statistically significant (88 % vs 62.5 % of family members were satisfied with using video visitation, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Video visitation did not seem to influence anxiety, but the use of video visitation can improve the patient and their family members' satisfaction. Future research is needed to determine the feasibility of embedding video visitation into routine practice, and the optimal frequency and length of video visitation in relation to patients' and family members' outcomes. IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE: Video visitation improved patient and family members' satisfaction. Therefore, clinicians should consider using video visitation when face to face visit is restricted. Video visVitation did not reduce patient anxiety significantly in this study maybe because the average length of intensive care stay was too short. Future research is needed on its effect on long term intensive care patients.

3.
Cureus ; 15(1): e33210, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36733561

RESUMO

Background and objective Despite the adherence to strict infection control measures, vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) colonization and VRE infections are still important problems nowadays. However, there are only a limited number of studies examining the factors causing the transformation of VRE colonization to VRE infection in the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study is to delineate the prevalence of VRE colonization and its transformation into infection and the risk factors leading to infection. Methods Patients admitted to the third-level mixed-type ICU from 2012 to 2015 for at least 24 hours and acquired VRE colonization and VRE infection, both during and after their admission, were included in the study, and their medical records were examined retrospectively. VRE rectal swabs were taken weekly from each patient on admission and discharge from the ICU. If the VRE-positive patient was detected negative for VRE on the rectal swap taken three times in total as a surveillance culture successively, this patient was accepted as VRE negative. Demographic data, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) scores, invasive procedures, treatments (corticosteroid, antibiotic, etc.), nutrition types, laboratory results, and ICU results were recorded. Results Among 1730 patients admitted to ICU, 101 (5.8%) were found to carry VRE colonization. Twelve (11.8%) out of 101 patients colonized with VRE developed VRE infection. About 56.4% had urinary tract infections, 68.3% had pneumonia, 15.8% had surgical site infections, and 24.8% had catheter-associated infections among these infected patients. The most prevalent factor was Enterococcus faecium in patients with VRE colonization (64.3%) and infection (91%). VRE turned negative in 67% of patients with VRE colonization during their stay in ICU. Renal replacement therapy was statistically significant (p < 0.05) in the group with VRE infection (66.7%) compared to the VRE-colonized group (26.1%). Infection development risk among carriers of VRE for more than one week was again found statistically significant (p = 0.025). Demographic data, APACHE-II scores, treatments, nutrition type, previous antibiotic usage and types, invasive procedures, laboratory results, and ICU results were similar among the patients with VRE colonization and infection. Conclusion A longer duration of ICU stay in patients with colonization and previous renal replacement therapy increases the transformation of VRE colonization to VRE infection. Strategies toward decreasing VRE-colonized patients' period of stay in ICU is the main objective to control the rate of VRE infection.

4.
Aust Crit Care ; 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36737263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the process of how nurses experienced and dealt with alarm fatigue in intensive care units based on Iranian nurses' perceptions and experiences. BACKGROUND: Alarm fatigue is the overstimulation of senses due to the constant ringing of alarms in intensive care units. It is associated with nurses' desensitization to critical alarms that can directly influence patient safety and quality of care. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory study using the grounded theory approach by Strauss and Corbin was carried out. Participants were 20 nurses working in intensive care units. The sampling process was started purposively and continued theoretically. Data were collected using semi-structured, in-depth, and individual interviews and continued to data saturation. The constant comparative analysis approach was used consisting of the following steps: open coding, developing concepts, analysing the context, entering the process into data analysis, integrating categories. FINDINGS: The participants' main concern in the exposure to alarm fatigue was 'threat to personal balance'. The core category in this research was 'trying to create a holistic balance', which reflected a set of strategies that the nurses consistently and continuously used to deal with alarm fatigue and consisted of four main categories as follows: 'smart care', 'deliberate balancing', 'conditional prioritisation', and 'negligent performance'. Threat to personal balance was strengthened by 'inappropriate circuit of individual roles', 'distortion of the organisational structure', and 'insecurity of the infrastructure'. The consequences of this process was harm to the patient, burnout among nurse, and damage to the healthcare organisation. CONCLUSIONS: The research findings have practical implications for healthcare management, policymaking, nursing education, research, and clinical practice. Mitigating staff shortages, improving staff competencies, enhancing nurses' authority for responding to alarms, modifying care routines, improving the physical environment, and removing problems related to alarm equipment can prevent alarm fatigue and its unappropriated consequences.

5.
Infect Drug Resist ; 16: 569-579, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726386

RESUMO

Purpose: Nosocomial infection (NI) is associated with poor prognosis. The present study assessed the clinical and microbiological characteristics of NI patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and investigated the clinical impact and risk factors for NI in ICU patients. Patients and Methods: An observational study was conducted in an adult general ICU. The electronic medical records of all patients admitted to the ICU for >2 days from 2018-2020 were analyzed retrospectively. Multivariate regression models were used to analyze the risk factors for NI in ICU patients. Propensity score-matching (PSM) was used to control the confounding factors between the case and control groups, thus analyzing the clinical impact of NIs. Results: The present study included 2425 patient admissions, of which 231 (9.53%) had NI. Acinetobacter baumannii (33.0%) was the most common bacteria. Long-term immunosuppressive therapy, disturbance of consciousness, blood transfusion, multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS), treatment with three or more antibiotics, mechanical ventilation (MV), tracheotomy, the urinary catheter (UC), nasogastric catheter, and central venous catheter (CVC) were risk factors for NI in the ICU patients. After PSM, patients with NI had a prolonged length of stay (LOS) in the ICU and hospital, significant hospitalization expenses (all p<0.001), increased mortality (p=0.027), and predicted mortality (p=0.007). The differences in the ICU and hospital LOSs among three pathogens were statistically significant (p<0.001); the results of the Escherichia coli infection group were lower than the other two pathogenic groups. Conclusion: NI was associated with poor outcomes. The risk factors for NI identified in this study provided further insight into preventing NI.

6.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 76: 103398, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36731265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the level of sustained adherence to a delirium guideline in a university intensive care unit setting five years after cessation of a multifaceted implementation program conducted between April 2012 and February 2015. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY/DESIGN: A quantitative retrospective cohort study was conducted using the medical records of all eligible patients admitted to the intensive care unit from November 2019 to February 2020. SETTING: Four adult intensive care units in a university hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome is adherence to seven performance indicators indicated in the guideline being: light sedation days, mobilisation, physical therapy, analgesics use, delirium and sedation screening and avoiding benzodiazepines. Clinical patient outcomes such as Intensive care unit stay and prevalence of delirium were also collected. Data were compared with the results of the original implementation study's using descriptive statistics and Kruskal-wallis and Chi-square tests. RESULTS: Data of 236 patients were included. The most notable decrease in adherence concerned 'number of light sedation days' (-28 %). Adherence to three indicators had increased: 'number of days receiving out-of-bed mobilisation' (+11 %); 'number of days receiving physical therapy' (+9%); and 'use of analgesics' (+12 %). Comparison of clinical outcomes showed an increased intensive care unit length-of-stay from 3 to 5 days (P < 0.001). Prevalence of delirium increased over five years from 41 % to 43 % of patients while delirium duration decreased from a median of 3 days to a median of 2 days. CONCLUSION: Five years after ceasing of implementation efforts regarding the delirium guideline, partial sustainability has been achieved. The decrease in adherence to 'number of light sedation days' could have contributed to the increased length-of-stay on the intensive care unit. IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE: After implementation, routine monitoring of performance indicators is required to evaluate the level of sustainment. Further, revisiting reasons for decrease in guideline adherence when contextual changes occur. Reassessment of the perceived barriers and facilitators can guide adaptations to sustain, or even improve, adherence.

7.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; : e008961, 2023 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36734862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to 20% of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients may benefit from intensive care unit (ICU)-level care; however, there are few studies evaluating ICU availability for AIS. We aim to summarize the proportion of elderly AIS patients in the United States who are admitted to an ICU and assess the national availability of ICU-level care in AIS. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using de-identified Medicare inpatient datasets from January 1, 2016 through December 31, 2019 for US individuals aged ≥65 years. We used validated International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification codes to identify AIS admission and interventions. ICU-level care was identified by revenue center code. AIS patient characteristics and interventions were stratified by receipt of ICU-level care, comparing differences through calculated standardized mean difference score due to large sample sizes. RESULTS: From 2016 through 2019, a total of 952 400 admissions by 850 055 individuals met criteria for hospital admission for AIS with 19.9% involving ICU-level care. Individuals were predominantly >75 years of age (58.5%) and identified as white (80.0%). Hospitals on average admitted 11.4% (SD 14.6) of AIS patients to the ICU, with the median hospital admitting 7.7% of AIS patients to the ICU. The ICU admissions were younger and more likely to receive reperfusion therapy but had more comorbid conditions and neurologic complications. Of the 5084 hospitals included, 1971 (38.8%) reported no ICU-level AIS care. Teaching hospitals (36.9% versus 1.6%, P<0.0001) with larger AIS volume (P<0.0001) or in larger metropolitan areas (P<0.0001) were more likely to have an ICU available. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of national variation in the availability of ICU-level care for AIS admissions. Since ICUs may provide comprehensive care for the most severe AIS patients, continued effort is needed to examine ICU accessibility and utility among AIS.

8.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 47(2): 73-83, feb. 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-215028

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate the benefits and harmful effects of conservative versus liberal oxygen therapy in patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Design A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out. Setting ICU. Participants Adult patients (aged 18 years or older) were randomized to either a lower oxygenation target strategy (conservative oxygen therapy) or a higher oxygenation target strategy (liberal oxygen therapy) in the ICU. Interventions Patients received different oxygenation target strategies. Results Ten studies involving 5429 adult patients admitted to the ICU were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results showed no decreased all-cause mortality at 28 days (RR 0.90; 95%CI 0.75–1.09; p=0.28), 90 days (RR 1.02; 95%CI 0.92–1.13; p=0.71) or longest follow-up (RR 0.97; 95%CI 0.88–1.08; p=0.63) among patients administered conservative oxygen therapy. Secondary outcomes were comparable between the two groups. The results of sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses were consistent with the main analyses. Conclusion No beneficial or harmful effects of conservative oxygen therapy were found compared to liberal oxygen therapy in relation to all-cause mortality among adult patients in the ICU. Conservative oxygen therapy did not reduce all-cause mortality at 28 days, 90 days or longest follow-up. Other important clinical outcomes were also comparable between the two groups (AU)


Objetivo Evaluar los beneficios y los daños de la oxigenoterapia conservadora frente a la liberal para los pacientes de la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI). Diseño Revision sistemática y metaanálisis. Lugar UCI. Participantes Los pacientes adultos (de 18 años o más) fueron asignados al azar para recibir una estrategia de objetivo de oxigenación más baja (terapia de oxígeno conservadora) o una estrategia de objetivo de oxigenación más alta (terapia de oxígeno liberal) en la UCI. Intervenciones Los pacientes recibieron diferentes estrategias de objetivos de oxigenación. Resultados En este metaanálisis se incluyeron 10 estudios con 5.429 pacientes adultos ingresados en la UCI. Los resultados agrupados no mostraron una disminución de la mortalidad total a los 28 días (RR 0,90; IC del 95%: 0,75 a 1,09; p=0,28), 90 días (RR 1,02; IC del 95%: 0,92 a 1,13; p=0,71) ni en el seguimiento más prolongado (RR 0,97; IC del 95%: 0,88 a 1,08; p=0,63) para los pacientes tratados con oxigenoterapia conservadora. Los resultados secundarios fueron comparables entre los dos grupos. Los resultados de los análisis de sensibilidad y los análisis de subgrupos fueron consistentes con los análisis principales. Conclusión No se encontraron efectos beneficiosos o perjudiciales de la oxigenoterapia conservadora en comparación con la oxigenoterapia liberal sobre la mortalidad total entre los pacientes adultos en la UCI. La oxigenoterapia conservadora no redujo la mortalidad por todas las causas a los 28 días, a los 90 días ni en el seguimiento más prolongado. Otros resultados clínicos importantes también fueron comparables entre los dos grupos (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/mortalidade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 35(1): 39-43, feb. 2023. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-213768

RESUMO

Objetivos. Analizar la capacidad para predecir la mortalidad hospitalaria de la Escala de Coma de Glasgow con valoración pupilar (GCS-P) comparado con la Escala de Coma de Glasgow (GCS) y con la escala de reactividad pupilar (PRS) en pacientes con traumatismo craneoencefálico (TCE) grave. Métodos. Análisis retrospectivo de cohortes de todos los pacientes con TCE, puntuación en la GCS # 8 en la atención inicial, datos de exploración pupilar inicial y del desenlace hospitalario ingresados en las unidades de cuidados intensivos participantes. Se determinó la capacidad predictiva de mortalidad de la GCS, PRS y la GCS-P mediante un análisis de discriminación. La discriminación se analizó empleando curvas operativas del receptor (COR), el área bajo la curva (ABC) y su intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC 95%). Resultados. Se analizaron 1.551 pacientes con TCE grave y datos sobre exploración pupilar. La edad media fue de 50 años, 1.190 (76,7%) eran hombres, y hubo 592 (38,2%) defunciones. Hubo 905 (58,3%) pacientes sin alteraciones pupilares, 362 (23,3%) con midriasis unilateral y 284 (18,3%) pacientes con midriasis bilateral. El análisis del ABCCOR para predecir la mortalidad hospitalaria mostró de forma significativa una mejor capacidad predictiva del GCS-P con ABC = 0,77 (IC 95% 0,74-0,79) respecto al GCS con ABC = 0,69 (IC 95% 0,67-0,72). La reactividad pupilar mostró un ABC = 0,75 (IC 95% 0,72-0,77). Se observó un incremento de mortalidad con la disminución del GCS-P. Conclusiones. La escala GCS-P presentó mejor rendimiento que la GCS para predecir mortalidad en el TCE grave. (AU)


Objectives. To compare the ability of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, the GCS Pupils (GCS-P) score, and the Pupil Reactivity Score (PRS) to predict mortality in patients with severe head injury. Methods. Retrospective analysis of all patients with severe head injury and initial GCS scores of 8 or lower on initial evaluation for whom records included pupil dilation information and clinical course after admission to intensive care units of participating hospitals. We assessed the ability of each of the 3 scores (GCS, GCS-P, and PRS) to predict mortality using discrimination analysis. Discrimination was estimated by calculating the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) and 95% CIs. Results. A total of 1551 patients with severe head injury and pupil dilation records were studied. The mean age was 50 years, 1190 (76.7%) were males, and 592 (38.2%) died. No pupil dilation was observed in 905 patients (58.3%), 362 (23.3%) had unilateral mydriasis, and 284 (18.3%) had bilateral mydriasis. The GCS-P score was significantly better at predicting mortality, with an AUC of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.74-0.79), versus 0.69 (95% CI, 0.67-0.72) for the GCS, and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.72-0.77) for the PRS. As the GCS-P score decreased, mortality increased. Conclusion. The GCS-P was more useful than the GCS for predicting death after severe head injury. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Espanha , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
10.
Ann Pharmacother ; : 10600280221151170, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Review dexmedetomidine use in critically ill patients for niche indications including sleep, delirium, alcohol withdrawal, sepsis, and immunomodulation. DATA SOURCES: Literature was sought using PubMed (February 2012-November 2022). Search terms included dexmedetomidine AND (hypnotics OR sedatives OR sleep OR delirium OR immunomodulation OR sepsis OR alcohol withdrawal). STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant studies conducted in humans ≥18 years published in English were included. Exclusion criteria included systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and studies evaluating oral dexmedetomidine or other alpha-2 agonists. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 231 articles were retrieved. After removal of duplicates, title and abstract screening, and application of inclusion criteria, 35 articles were included. Across the clinical conditions included in this review, varying clinical outcomes were seen. Dexmedetomidine may improve morbidity outcomes in delirium, sleep, and alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Due to limited human studies and poor quality of evidence, no conclusions can be drawn regarding the role of dexmedetomidine in immunomodulation or sepsis. RELEVANCE TO PATIENT CARE AND CLINICAL PRACTICE: This review presents data for potential niche roles of dexmedetomidine aside from sedation in critically ill patients. This may serve as a guide for sedation selection in critically ill patients who may also benefit from the pleiotropic effects of dexmedetomidine due to a clinical condition discussed in this review. CONCLUSION: While further studies are needed, dexmedetomidine may provide benefit in other indications in critically ill patients including delirium, sleep, and alcohol withdrawal. Given the poor quality of evidence of dexmedetomidine use in immunomodulation and sepsis, no conclusions can be drawn.

11.
Intensive Care Med ; 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723637

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although eosinophil-induced manifestations can be life-threatening, studies focusing on the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of eosinophilia in the intensive care unit (ICU) are lacking. METHODS: A retrospective, national, multicenter (14 centers) cohort study over 6 years of adult patients who presented with eosinophilia ≥ 1 × 109/L on two blood samples performed from the day before admission to the last day of an ICU stay. RESULTS: 620 patients (0.9% of all ICU hospitalizations) were included: 40% with early eosinophilia (within the first 24 h of ICU admission, ICU-Eo1 group) and 56% with delayed (> 24 h after ICU admission, ICU-Eo2 group) eosinophilia. In ICU-Eo1, eosinophilia was mostly due to respiratory (14.9%) and hematological (25.8%) conditions, frequently symptomatic (58.1%, mainly respiratory and cardiovascular manifestations) requiring systemic corticosteroids in 32.2% of cases. In ICU-Eo2, eosinophil-related organ involvement was rare (25%), and eosinophilia was mostly drug-induced (46.8%). Survival rates at day 60 (D60) after ICU admission were 21.4% and 17.2% (p = 0.219) in ICU-Eo1 and ICU-Eo2 patients, respectively. For ICU-Eo1 patients, in multivariate analysis, risk factors for death at D60 were current immunosuppressant therapy at ICU admission, eosinophilia of onco-hematological origin and the use of vasopressors at ICU admission, whereas older age and the use of vasopressors or mechanical ventilation at the onset of eosinophilia were associated with a poorer prognosis for ICU-Eo2 patients. CONCLUSION: Eosinophilia ≥ 1 × 109/L is not uncommon in the ICU. According to the timing of eosinophilia, two subsets of patients requiring different etiological workups and management can be distinguished.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36682405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes of inpatients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) including lower extremity PAD, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and carotid artery disease in a large cohort of critically ill patients aged ≥ 90 years. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of all adult patients aged ≥ 90 years consecutively admitted to the intensive care unit at a tertiary care centre in Hamburg, Germany, between 1 January 2008 and 30 April 2019. Multivariable regression and Kaplan-Meier methods were used to determine the independent impact of PAD on short term and long term mortality endpoints. The analyses were adjusted for confounding by several sociodemographic and clinical parameters including Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and established clinical risk scores. RESULTS: A total of 1 108 eligible patients were identified (92.3 years, 33% men). Of these, 24% had PAD (9% lower extremity PAD, 2% AAA, 15% coronary artery disease) and 76% did not have any history of PAD and were used as a comparison group. When compared with the comparison group, patients with PAD had a higher CCI (2 vs. 1, p < .001), more often chronic kidney disease (28% vs. 21%, p = .019), and renal replacement therapy (5% vs. 2%, p = .016). Furthermore, they needed vasopressors (48% vs. 40%, p = .027) and parenteral nutrition (10% vs. 6%, p = .041) more often. After adjusting for confounding, PAD was independently associated with increased in hospital (hazard ratio [HR] 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39 - 2.81, p < .001) and long term mortality (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.66, p = .019). CONCLUSION: One out of four critically ill nonagenarians and centenarians in an ICU in Germany had PAD. PAD was associated with both higher short and long term mortality while its impact outweighed higher age. Future studies should address this increasingly important population beyond 89 years of age.

13.
JTCVS Tech ; 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36685052

RESUMO

Objectives: A remarkable increase in the number of patients presenting with tracheal complications after prolonged endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation for the management of the severe COVID-19 - associated respiratory failure has been observed. In this study, we assessed the postoperative outcomes of tracheal resection in COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in which all patients with a history of prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation due to COVID-19 infection, who were treated with tracheal resection and reconstruction, were included. The primary objective was in-hospital mortality and postoperative reintervention rate. The secondary objective was the time to tracheal restenosis. Results: During the 16-month study period, 11 COVID-19 patients with tracheal complications underwent tracheal resection with end-to-end anastomosis. Mean patient age was 51.5 ± 9 years, and the majority were male (9 patients). Eight patients were referred for management of post-intubation tracheal stenosis and 3 for tracheoesophageal fistula. Eight patients had a history of tracheostomy during the COVID-19 infection hospitalization. There was one in-hospital death (9.1%) due to septicemia in the Intensive Care Unit, approximately two months after the operation. Postoperatively, 32 reinterventions were required for tracheal restenosis due to granulation tissue formation. The risk for reintervention was higher during the first 3 months after the index operation. Four patients developed tracheal restenosis (36.4%) and two of them required endotracheal stent placement during the follow up period. Conclusions: Tracheal resection and reconstruction after COVID-19 infection is associated with a high reintervention rate postoperatively. Such patients require close follow up in expert interventional pulmonology units and physicians should be on high alert for the early diagnosis and optimal management of tracheal restenosis.

14.
Pharmacology ; : 1-11, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652938

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metformin-treated patients may experience severe hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis (LA). LA often requires intensive-care-unit (ICU) treatment, and mortality rates are high. Here, we investigate the impact of renal dysfunction and renal replacement therapy (RRT) on the outcomes of critically ill patients with metformin-associated LA (MALA). Furthermore, we assessed associations between mortality and metformin dose, metformin plasma/serum concentrations, lactate level, and arterial pH. Finally, we investigated whether the recommended classification in MALA, metformin-unrelated LA, metformin-induced LA, and LA in metformin therapy appears useful in this regard. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis based on a systematic PubMed search for publications on hyperlactatemia/LA in metformin-treated ICU patients from January 1995 to February 2020. Case-level data including demographics and clinical conditions were extracted, and logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 92 ICU patients were reported. Two of these patients had no comorbidities interfering with lactate metabolism. In the overall group, arterial pH, lactate levels, and metformin plasma/serum concentrations were similar in survivors versus non-survivors. Ingested daily metformin doses and plasma/serum creatinine levels were significantly higher in survivors versus non-survivors (p = 0.007 vs. p = 0.024, respectively). Higher plasma/serum creatinine levels, higher lactate levels, and lower arterial pH were all associated with patients receiving RRT (all p < 0.05). Overall mortality was 22% (20 out of 92 patients) and did not differ between the RRT and non-RRT groups. CONCLUSION: Mortality is high in ICU patients with metformin-associated hyperlactatemia/LA. Unexpectedly, higher ingested metformin dose and plasma/serum creatinine were associated with a better outcome. Survival was similar in patients with or without need for RRT.

15.
BJOG ; 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term quality of life (QoL) after obstetric Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: Tertiary care center. POPULATION: Women admitted to the level 3 ICU during pregnancy or ≤6 weeks postpartum, between 2000-2015. METHODS: QoL measures were compared with the population reference values. Associations with baseline ICU parameters were assessed with multivariable linear regression. Patient-reported outcome and experience measures (PROMs/PREMs) were described. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: QoL according to the Linear Analogous Scale (LAS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and the SF-36 questionnaire; PROMs/PREMs using the Pregnancy and Childbirth outcome set of the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement. RESULTS: From all 265 obstetric ICU admissions, 230 were eligible and 94 (41%) were included (median follow-up time 14y). The LAS (75.7 vs 78.7,p=0.077) and SWLS (25.2 vs 26,p=0.176) sum scores were not different from the population reference values. The SF-36 subdomains bodily pain (55.3 vs 73.9), general health (58.2 vs 73.9) and vitality (56.9 vs 69.1) were lower than the reference values (all p<0.001). PROMs/PREMs were low in 46.2% for pain, 15.1% for depression, 11.8% for satisfaction with care and 52.7% for healthcare responsiveness. An indirect obstetric ICU admission diagnosis was independently associated with a reduced physical health score (B -1.7,-3.4;-0.1) and severe neonatal morbidity with a reduced mental health score (B -6.6,-11.3;-1.8). CONCLUSION: Obstetric ICU admission is associated with reductions in long-term physical health QoL and in some patients with mental health QoL. We suggest multidisciplinary rehabilitation and long-term psychosocial support.

16.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous kidney replacement therapy (CKRT) has become an integral part of the care of critically ill children. However, uncertainty exists regarding the current state of how CKRT is prescribed and delivered in children. The main objective of this study was to identify the current practices for pediatric CKRT. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature from 2012 to 2022 to identify data regarding CKRT timing of initiation, dosing, anticoagulation, fluid removal, and quality monitoring. Using this data, we then performed a two-round modified Delphi process using a multinational internet-assisted survey of prescribers of CKRT. RESULTS: The survey was constructed using 172 articles that met inclusion criteria (12% of studies were pediatric focused). A total of 147 and 126 practitioners completed the survey in rounds 1 and 2, respectively. Participants represented Europe (9.5-11.6%) and North America including pediatric intensivists, nephrologists, and advance practice providers. Consensus (defined as a ≥ 75% participant response of "sometimes" or "always") was achieved for 26 statements. There was consensus in the practices of CKRT initiation, dosing, method of anticoagulation, and fluid removal. In contrast, there appears to be greater variability in the methods used for monitoring anticoagulation and the quality of the delivered treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our study results suggest that the current state of pediatric CKRT practice is reflective of the literature over the last 10 years, which is largely based on the care of adult patients. This data provides a framework to study best practices to further improve outcomes for children receiving CKRT. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.

17.
Ann Intensive Care ; 13(1): 5, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The anatomic site for central venous catheter insertion influences the risk of central venous catheter-related intravascular complications. We developed and validated a predictive score of required catheter dwell time to identify critically ill patients at higher risk of intravascular complications. METHODS: We retrospectively conducted a cohort study from three multicenter randomized controlled trials enrolling consecutive patients requiring central venous catheterization. The primary outcome was the required catheter dwell time, defined as the period between the first catheter insertion and removal of the last catheter for absence of utility. Predictors were identified in the training cohort (3SITES trial; 2336 patients) through multivariable analyses based on the subdistribution hazard function accounting for death as a competing event. Internal validation was performed in the training cohort by 500 bootstraps to derive the CVC-IN score from robust risk factors. External validation of the CVC-IN score were performed in the testing cohort (CLEAN, and DRESSING2; 2371 patients). RESULTS: The analysis was restricted to patients requiring mechanical ventilation to comply with model assumptions. Immunosuppression (2 points), high creatinine > 100 micromol/L (2 points), use of vasopressor (1 point), obesity (1 point) and older age (40-59, 1 point; ≥ 60, 2 points) were independently associated with the required catheter dwell time. At day 28, area under the ROC curve for the CVC-IN score was 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.66-0.72] in the training cohort and 0.64, 95% CI [0.61-0.66] in the testing cohort. Patients with a CVC-IN score ≥ 4 in the overall cohort had a median required catheter dwell time of 24 days (versus 11 days for CVC-IN score < 4 points). The positive predictive value of a CVC-IN score ≥ 4 was 76.9% for > 7 days required catheter dwell time in the testing cohort. CONCLUSION: The CVC-IN score, which can be used for the first catheter, had a modest ability to discriminate required catheter dwell time. Nevertheless, preference of the subclavian site may contribute to limit the risk of intravascular complications, in particular among ventilated patients with high CVC-IN score. Trials Registration NCT01479153, NCT01629550, NCT01189682.

18.
JAAD Int ; 10: 68-74, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688099

RESUMO

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease commonly onset during infancy. Objective: We examine the association between pre-and postnatal antibiotic exposure and the development of AD. Methods: A retrospective, observational study analyzed 4106 infants at the University of Florida from June 2011 to April 2017. Results: Antibiotic exposure during the first year of life was associated with a lower risk of AD. The association was strongest for exposure during the first month of life. There were no significant differences in the rates of AD in infants with or without exposure to antibiotics in months 2 through 12, when examined by month. Antibiotic exposure during week 2 of life was associated with lower risk of AD, with weeks 1, 3, and 4 demonstrating a similar trend. Limitations: Retrospective data collection from a single center, use of electronic medical record, patient compliance with prescribed medication, and variable follow-up. Conclusions: Early life exposures, such as antibiotics, may lead to long-term changes in immunity. Murine models of atopic dermatitis demonstrate a "critical window" for the development of immune tolerance to cutaneous microbes. Our findings suggest that there may also be a "critical window" for immune tolerance in human infants, influenced by antibiotic exposure.

19.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 76: 103390, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36706498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Critical illness recovery is a journey; from intensive care unit to hospital ward to home. However, evidence is limited on how best to enable recovery from critical illness. This study aimed to prioritise areas for improvement in care and services for patients recovering from critical illness. RESEARCH DESIGN: This study used experience-based co-design. Service users and providers worked in partnership to identify and prioritise service improvements for patients who had survived an episode of critical illness. METHOD: Qualitative interviews were carried out with patients (n = 10) who had experienced critical illness, and staff (n = 9) who had experienced caring for patients in the intensive care unit. Key patient touchpoints were identified and used to produce a film, reflecting the critical illness journey. A patient feedback event incorporated an emotional mapping exercise, to identify key points during the recovery journey. A joint patient/family (n = 10) and staff (n = 10) event was held to view the film and identify priorities for improvements. FINDINGS: Emotional mapping highlighted areas where services were not synchronised with patients' needs. Four patient-focussed priorities for service improvement emerged 1. Improving the critical care experience, 2. Addressing patients' emotional and psychological needs, 3. Positioning patients at the centre of services and 4. Building a supportive framework for recovery. CONCLUSION: Evidence-based co-design was used successfully in this study to identify priorities for improvements for patients recovering from critical illness. This approach positions patients at the centre of service improvements and realigns care delivery around what matters most to patients. Person-centred care provision underpins all identified priorities. IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE: Intensive care unit staff should get to know patients and their families by talking more to patients and families about their care and engaging in more non-medical conversations. Emotional and psychological support should be provided to aid rehabilitation and recovery from critical illness in the intensive care unit, on general wards, and in the community. Information and services should be available when patients need them, rather than at fixed time points or settings. Recovery services should focus on enabling and building the self-efficacy of patients to empower them to be in control of their recovery journey.

20.
J Vet Intern Med ; 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormally high serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentration, reflecting leakage from or necrosis of cardiomyocytes, is a negative prognosticator for death in dogs. OBJECTIVES: To investigate in critically ill cats whether serum cTnI concentration is abnormally high, identify conditions associated with abnormally high cTnI concentrations, and evaluate cTnI as an independent prognosticator for death and a potential coprognosticator to the acute patient physiologic and laboratory evaluation (APPLE) score in cats. ANIMALS: One hundred nineteen cats admitted to intensive care units (ICU) and 13 healthy cats at 2 university teaching hospitals. METHODS: Prospective study. Clinical examinations were performed, APPLE scores calculated, and serum cTnI and serum amyloid A (SAA) measured within 24 hours after admission. Outcome was defined as death/euthanasia or survival to discharge, 28 and 90 days after ICU-admission. Prognostic capacity of cTnI, APPLE scores and models combining cTnI and scores were evaluated by receiver-operator-characteristic analyses. RESULTS: Median (IQR) serum cTnI concentration was higher in ill (0.63 [0.18-2.65] ng/mL) compared to healthy (0.015 [0.005-0.041] ng/mL) cats (P < .001) and higher in subgroups with structural cardiac disease (2.05 [0.54-16.59] ng/mL; P < .001) or SAA >5 mg/L (0.84 [0.23-2.81] ng/mL; P = .009) than in cats without these characteristics (0.45 [0.12-1.70] and 0.35 [0.015-0.96] ng/mL). The in-hospital case fatality rate was 29%. Neither serum cTnI concentration for all critically ill cats (area-under-the-curve 0.567 [95% CI 0.454-0.680], n = 119) or subgroups (0.625 [0.387-0.863], n = 27; 0.506 [0.360-0.652], n = 86), nor APPLE scores (fast 0.568 [0.453-0.682], full 0.585 [0.470-0.699], n = 100), were significant prognosticators for death. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Abnormally high serum cTnI concentration was common in critically ill cats. Unlike in dogs, cTnI did not confer prognostic information regarding death.

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