Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 45.282
Filtrar
1.
Psychooncology ; 31(1): 107-115, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425036

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: CanCope is an internet-delivered, cognitive-behavioural intervention adapted from the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders to improve emotion regulation and support the mental health of cancer survivors. Four separate pilot studies evaluated each of CanCope's modules for (1) feasibility and participant satisfaction, and changes in (2) module-specific outcomes, and (3) global measures of emotion dysregulation and anxiety and depressive symptoms, from pre-to-post module delivery. METHODS: Eligible cancer survivors self-selected into one two-week online module designed to improve a specific aspect of emotion regulation ([1] understanding emotions, [2] mindfulness of emotions, [3] cognitive reappraisals, [4] challenging emotion-driven behaviours). RESULTS: Across modules, post-intervention surveys were completed by 17-19 participants, (58.1%-90.5% completion rate for participants who received the intervention). Each module was feasible and participants reported high satisfaction. Moderate-to-large pre-to-post effect sizes in mean differences were observed in module-specific target outcomes (p's < 0.05). Emotion dysregulation significantly decreased across modules 1 to 3 (p's < 0.05) with a non-significant decrease for module 4 (p = 0.13). Anxiety symptoms significantly decreased across all modules (p's < 0.05). Depressive symptoms significantly decreased across modules 1 and 3 (p's < 0.05), with non-significant decreases across modules 2 (p = 0.08) and 4 (p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Each CanCope module demonstrated promise in targeting emotion regulation skills and supporting the mental health of cancer survivors. Randomised controlled trials are required to test the efficacy of CanCope as an intervention in its entirety.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Neoplasias , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Neoplasias/terapia
2.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(4): e122-e124, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939843

RESUMO

A 49-year-old patient with a history of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease presented with carotid artery injury following revision functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Carotid artery injury is a rare but catastrophic complication of this surgery. The patient was transferred to our tertiary facility with interventional radiology for immediate management of the carotid artery injury. This case reaffirms that any surgery can have disastrous complications and highlights the importance of multidisciplinary management of complications such as carotid artery injury.


Assuntos
Lesões das Artérias Carótidas , Sinusite , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/etiologia , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Carótida Interna/cirurgia , Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Front Glob Womens Health ; 3: 841427, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35368996

RESUMO

Background: Be a Mom is a self-guided web-based intervention developed to prevent postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms and to promote maternal wellbeing, respectively among high and low-risk new mothers. This study aims to examine and compare (1) Be a Mom's patterns of usage and (2) Be a Mom's acceptability among women presenting high and low risk for PPD. Methods: The sample was composed by 800 women who were randomized to Be a Mom [542 presenting high-risk (Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised ≥ 5.5) and 258 presenting low-risk for PPD]. Data regarding patterns of usage were collected through the Be a Mom website. Acceptability data were collected through a brief questionnaire. Results: 27.9% of high-risk and 36.3% of low-risk women completed the program. A higher proportion of participants in the low-risk group completed Be a Mom [ X(1)2 = 5.29, p = 0.021] and completed more modules [t (723) = -3.01, p = 0.003]. No significant differences were found between the groups in number of logins, minutes spent on the program, exercises completed and number of times audios were played. a higher proportion of women in the high-risk group considered that participating in Be a Mom was too demanding [ X(1)2 = 8.21, p = 0.004]. Conclusions: Despite the low rates of completion, Be a Mom appears to be an acceptable option for both women with high-risk and low-risk for PPD. Lack of time seems to be the main reason for non-completion, so it is important to develop briefer versions of the program and introduce engagement strategies that may increase completion rate.

4.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662675

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is associated with poor prognosis when left untreated, and a growing number of studies on transcatheter tricuspid valve repair (TTVr) have been published over the last few months. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive systematic review of published literature providing clinical data on TTVr for patients with significant TR. Early and mid-term clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were evaluated. Risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD) were obtained when comparing pre- and postprocedural data. A sensitivity analysis was also performed according to the main approach for repair (edge-to-edge vs annuloplasty). RESULTS: A total of 19 studies (all observational or single-arm trials) and 991 patients who underwent isolated TTVr were included. Thirty-day mortality and stroke rates were 2.8% and 0.2%, respectively. Pooled random-effects resulted in a significant reduction of ≥ severe TR (RR, 0.33; 95%CI, 0.26-0.42; P < .001), vena contracta width (MD, 5.9mm; 95%CI, 4-7.9; P <.001), right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (MD, 3.5mm; 95%CI, 2.5-4.5; P <.001), and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV at last follow-up (RR, 0.32; 95%CI, 0.27-0.37; P <.001). Bleeding complications and residual ≥ severe TR were numerically higher in the annuloplasty-like group compared with edge-to-edge repair (13.3% vs 3.8% for bleeding and 40.4% vs 27.9% for residual severe TR). CONCLUSIONS: Among 991 patients comprising the early experience for several TTVr devices, there was a statistically significant reduction in ≥ severe TR, NYHA class III-IV, vena contracta width and right ventricular end-diastolic diameter after TTVr. Thus far, the edge-to-edge approach seems to be associated with a better safety profile.

5.
Clin Nutr ; 41(7): 1605-1612, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We evaluated the effect of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cognition in type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: In this randomised parallel trial, 72 adults with T2D and overweight/obesity (mean ± SD, HbA1c: 57 ± 8 mmol/mol and BMI: 33 ± 5 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet (CRHP: C30E%-P30E%-F40E%) or conventional diabetes diet (CD: C50E%-P17E%-F33E%) for 6 weeks, targeting a 6% weight loss. HRQoL was assessed from the short form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire, including physical and mental component summary (PCS and MCS) scores; global cognition, verbal memory, attention and psychomotor speed, and executive function were assessed from a neuropsychological test battery. RESULTS: Both diet groups achieved a 5.8 kg weight loss and improved PCS (median [25th;75th percentiles], CD: 2.7 [1.1; 4.2] vs. CRHP: 2.1 [0.7; 3.7]), with no difference between diets. The CRHP diet resulted in a clinically relevant improvement of MCS, albeit non-significantly different compared with the change after the CD diet (2.0 [-0.7; 4.8], p = 0.15). Global cognition, attention, and verbal memory were unaffected by the CRHP diet, which selectively worsened the Symbol Digit Modality Test assessing psychomotor speed when compared with the CD diet (-4.1 [-7.2;-1.1], p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Physical health improved by weight loss independently of macronutrient distribution, while mental health and cognition may be affected by the amount of carbohydrate, protein and fat in the diet. Collectively, our data suggest that weight loss through moderate carbohydrate restriction has no clinically important impact on HRQoL and global cognition in patients with T2D. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT03814694.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Cognição , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Carboidratos da Dieta , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Perda de Peso
6.
J Med Econ ; 25(1): 880-887, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antiproliferative therapies based on paclitaxel have been developed to extend the durability of endovascular interventions for lower-extremity atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease, resulting in improved primary vessel patency and fewer target lesion revascularizations. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the sustained-release, paclitaxel-eluting Eluvia stent (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA) versus the paclitaxel-coated Zilver PTX stent (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN) for endovascular intervention in the superficial femoral or proximal popliteal artery. DESIGN: A microsimulation model was constructed from a United States Medicare perspective with a 24-month time horizon. Patients entering the model were assigned to initial endovascular intervention with either Eluvia or Zilver PTX. Each month patients were exposed to the risks of primary vessel patency loss, target lesion revascularization, amputation, and death. Clinical input parameters were taken from a randomized trial (IMPERIAL) comparing the two interventions at 24-months follow-up. Cost parameters were obtained from analyses of Medicare administrative and claims data. Cost-effectiveness analysis entailed sampling a complete set of clinical and cost parameters from their respective distributions, and then running cohorts of 10,000 patients through each intervention arm of the model. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: In the base case microsimulation, at 24 months, the modeled target lesion revascularization was 11.6% for Eluvia and 19.0% for Zilver PTX, and the mean total direct costs were $20,010 and $21,356, respectively (Eluvia average savings=$1,346). In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, Eluvia was cost-effective in 87.8% of all simulations at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $10,000 per target lesion revascularization prevented. Eluvia was more effective and less costly (dominant) than Zilver PTX in 73.6% of simulations. CONCLUSIONS: In this comparison of a paclitaxel-eluting to a paclitaxel-coated stent for endovascular femoropopliteal intervention, Eluvia was more effective and less costly (dominant) than Zilver PTX from a US Medicare perspective. These findings should be considered when formulating reimbursement policy and clinical practice guidelines.


Paclitaxel is a drug used in the treatment of peripheral artery disease (PAD) to help maintain primary vessel patency and reduce the need for revascularization procedures. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the paclitaxel-eluting Eluvia stent (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA) versus the paclitaxel-coated Zilver PTX stent (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN) in Medicare patients with PAD. Cost-effectiveness is defined as the degree to which a particular treatment option is effective relative to its costs. Therefore, this study compared both the effectiveness, in terms of target lesion revascularization rates, and the costs of Eluvia versus Zilver PTX over 24 months.A microsimulation model was developed from a United States Medicare perspective with a 24-month time horizon. Simulated patients entered the model and were assigned to receive either Eluvia or Zilver PTX. Monthly, patients were exposed to the risks of primary vessel patency loss, target lesion revascularization (TLR), amputation, and death. These risks were taken from a randomized controlled trial that compared Eluvia and Zilver PTX over 24 months. Patients also accrued costs over time. The costs used in the model were obtained from Medicare administrative and claims data analyses.In health economics, a treatment is considered to be the dominant treatment option if it is both more effective and less costly than the alternative treatment. In this case, Eluvia was found to be dominant over Zilver PTX because it was associated with lower TLR rates and lower costs. These findings should be considered when formulating reimbursement policy and clinical practice guidelines.

7.
Atherosclerosis ; 352: 69-75, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not clearly established. This study purposed to compare clinical outcomes of patients with 6-12 (standard) versus 12-24 months (prolonged) DAPT according to CKD. METHODS: Using a nationwide, claim-based database, we retrospectively evaluated association between DAPT duration and clinical outcomes including death, composite ischemic event, and composite bleeding event between 1 and 3 years after PCI. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Of 73,941 eligible patients, 13,425 (18.2%) had CKD and 49,019 (66%) were prescribed prolonged DAPT. Prolonged DAPT had no significant impact on the risk of clinical outcomes in patients with normal renal function. RESULTS: In patients with CKD, prolonged DAPT was associated with a lower risk of all-cause death (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.76-0.95) and composite ischemic events (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.78-0.96) and a higher risk of composite bleeding events (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.37). Benefit of prolonged DAPT on reducing composite ischemic event increased significantly in patients with worsened renal dysfunction (pinteraction = 0.02) while there was no significant interaction between its bleeding risk and renal dysfunction (pinteraction = 0.22). CONCLUSIONS: While standard DAPT would be recommended in patients with normal renal function, tailored decision for DAPT duration would be considered in those with CKD to balance between ischemic and bleeding risks.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Stents Farmacológicos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/induzido quimicamente , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(6)2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750431

RESUMO

Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is defined as short DNA sequences shed by tumour cells into the systemic circulation. A promising use of ctDNA includes the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) and is currently being studied in multiple types of solid tumours. Literature for the use of individualised ctDNA in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is not available, although circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA level is validated as a prognostic factor. We present a man in his 40s diagnosed with stage IV NPC who was started on chemotherapy with cis-platinum and gemcitabine. Serial monitoring of ctDNA completed to aid in detecting MRD after treatment demonstrated initial up-trending values correlating with subsequent imaging findings showing progression. Reinitiation of a different chemotherapy regimen significantly improved the ctDNA level, with corresponding imaging exhibiting a similar response. This case provides insight into the potential use of ctDNA in NPC and the benefit of serial ctDNA monitoring during treatment.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Residual
9.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 19(3): 14791641221111252, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750483

RESUMO

AIMS: To summarize methods used to account for antihyperglycemic medication changes in randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of dietary and physical activity interventions on glycemia among adults with diabetes. METHODS: Using studies included in two recently published systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials examining the glycemic effects of dietary and physical activity interventions, we evaluated how each study accounted for antihyperglycemic medication changes. Data were analyzed using summary statistics, stratified by the type of intervention studied, and each was assigned a score from 0 to 6 reflecting the strength of medication controls employed. RESULTS: We evaluated 22 physical activity focused and 27 dietary focused articles. Our scoring system yielded a mean concurrent medication adjustment score of 3.9/6 for the physical activity studies and a score of 1.7/6 (p < 0.001) for the dietary studies. CONCLUSIONS: We found that randomized controlled trials included in recent systematic reviews of physical activity and dietary interventions did not robustly account or control for changes in antihyperglycemic medications, with physical activity interventions doing so more robustly than dietary interventions. This is a threat to the validity of study findings, as observed glycemic changes may in fact be attributable to imbalances in concurrent medication adjustments between groups.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Hipoglicemiantes , Glicemia , Dieta , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos
10.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 115, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The residual SYNTAX score (rSS), a quantitative measure of angiographic completeness of revascularization after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and the triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index), a reliable surrogate marker of insulin resistance, have been regarded as independent predictors of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) after PCI. Whether a combination of the rSS and the TyG index improves the predictive ability for MACEs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) undergoing PCI remains unknown. METHODS: A total of 633 consecutive patients with T2DM who underwent PCI were included in the present analyses. Patients were stratified according to the optimal cutoff point value of the TyG index, or the rSS determined by receiver­operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The primary endpoint was the composite of MACEs, including all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and unplanned repeat revascularization. Cumulative curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression was used to identify predictors of MACEs. The predictive value of the TyG index combined with the rSS was estimated by the area under the ROC curve, continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 18.83 months, 99 patients developed MACEs, more frequently in the patients with a higher TyG index or rSS. Multivariate Cox hazards regression analysis revealed that both the TyG index and rSS were independent predictors of MACEs (hazard ratio 1.8004; 95% CI 1.2603-2.5718; P = 0.0012; 1.0423; 95% CI 1.0088-1.0769; P = 0.0129, respectively). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that both the TyG index and the rSS were significantly associated with an increased risk of MACEs (log-rank, all P < 0.01). The addition of the rSS and the TyG index to the baseline risk model had an incremental effect on the predictive value for MACE (increase in C-statistic value from 0.660 to 0.732; IDI 0.018; NRI 0.274; all P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The TyG index predicts intermediate-term MACE after PCI in patients with T2DM independent of known cardiovascular risk factors. Adjustment of the rSS by the TyG index further improves the predictive ability for MACEs in patients with T2DM undergoing PCI.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Glucose , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 244, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic large bowel diarrhea is common in dogs and can have a significant impact on their overall health and well being. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a therapeutic food with select dietary plant fibers known to contain antioxidant and polyphenol compounds on clinical signs in dogs with chronic diarrhea. METHODS: A prospective clinical study was conducted in 31 adult dogs currently experiencing chronic diarrhea from private veterinary practices in the United States. Enrolled dogs were switched to a complete and balanced dry therapeutic food containing whole grains and polyphenol-containing fiber sources for 56 days. Veterinarians evaluated changes from baseline in overall clinical signs, recurrence of clinical signs, and stool parameters at Days 2, 3, 4, 28, and 56. Dog owners evaluated stool consistency daily and nausea/vomiting, quality of life (QoL), and stooling behaviors at Days 1, 14, 28, and 56. Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed-effects model with Day as a fixed-effect. RESULTS: Assessments of overall clinical response and stool parameters indicated that diarrhea improved significantly within 1 day of initiating the therapeutic food. Veterinarians reported that 68% of dogs had complete resolution of their clinical signs by Day 56 and the remaining 32% experienced improvement (P < 0.05), with no cases of recurrence. Veterinarians also reported improvement in stool consistency (P < 0.001) and reductions of blood and mucus in stool (P < 0.001). Significant improvements in nausea/vomiting, stooling behaviors, and quality of life (QoL) were reported by dog owners after 28 days and were sustained through day 56 (P < 0.05). The therapeutic food was safe and well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: In dogs with chronic large bowel diarrhea, the therapeutic food rapidly improved stool consistency, resolved clinical signs, and improved stooling behaviors and QoL. Therapeutic foods supplemented with fiber sources rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds contribute to rapid resolution of chronic diarrhea without recurrence and may contribute to long term health.


Assuntos
Polifenóis , Qualidade de Vida , Animais , Antioxidantes , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Cães , Náusea/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Vômito/veterinária
12.
Trials ; 23(1): 529, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inequality in health can have profound effects on a child's opportunities later in life. To prevent these downstream effects in families at increased risk of adversity, programs are needed to provide support and improve well-being across several domains. The present trial is aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the Minding the Baby® (MTB) home visiting intervention in improving the mother-child relationship, parental reflective functioning, well-being, and mental health, as well as child development and well-being in families at known risk of adverse health, relational, and developmental outcomes. METHODS: The study is a pragmatic, prospective, quasi-cluster-randomized controlled trial in which seven Danish municipalities were randomized to MTB training in either 2018 or 2019. A total of 250 pregnant women at increased risk of adversity will be recruited (75 care as usual families and 175 intervention families). Care as usual families will be recruited before and after the MTB training. The MTB intervention is an attachment-based, interdisciplinary home visiting intervention offered from the third trimester of pregnancy until the child is 2 years old. The participants are assessed at baseline, and when the infant is 3, 12, and 24 months old. The primary outcome is maternal sensitivity measured by the Coding Interactive Behavior scale applied to video recordings of mother-infant interactions. Secondary outcomes include parent-child interaction, parental reflective functioning, parental mental health, maternal satisfaction, parental stress, and child development and well-being. The treatment effect is estimated as a fixed effect using a binary indicator of MTB treatment, and cluster-robust standard errors based on wild bootstrap are used for inference. DISCUSSION: This is the first trial of MTB in a Scandinavian context and will include the largest sample yet in a trial of MTB. The trial is expected to contribute to knowledge about the effect of early support for pregnant women, their infants, and their families at increased risk of adversity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03495895 . The study was registered on April 12, 2018.


Assuntos
Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Feminino , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Lactente , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 245, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic large bowel diarrhea is a common occurrence in pet dogs. While nutritional intervention is considered the primary therapy, the metabolic and gut microfloral effects of fiber and polyphenol-enriched therapeutic foods are poorly understood. METHODS: This prospective clinical study enrolled 31 adult dogs from private veterinary practices with chronic, active large bowel diarrhea. Enrolled dogs received a complete and balanced dry therapeutic food containing a proprietary fiber bundle for 56 days. Metagenomic and metabolomic profiling were performed on fecal samples at Days 1, 2, 3, 14, 28, and 56; metabolomic analysis was conducted on serum samples taken at Days 1, 2, 3, 28, and 56. RESULTS: The dietary intervention improved clinical signs and had a clear effect on the gut microfloral metabolic output of canines with chronic diarrhea, shifting gut metabolism from a predominantly proteolytic to saccharolytic fermentative state. Microbial metabolism of tryptophan to beneficial indole postbiotics and the conversion of plant-derived phenolics into bioavailable postbiotics were observed. The intervention altered the endocannabinoid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, and sphingolipid profiles, suggesting a modulation in gastrointestinal inflammation. Changes in membrane phospholipid and collagen signatures were indicative of improved gut function and possible alleviation of the pathophysiology related to chronic diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: In dogs with chronic diarrhea, feeding specific dietary fibers increased gut saccharolysis and bioavailable phenolic and indole-related compounds, while suppressing putrefaction. These changes were associated with improved markers of gut inflammation and stool quality.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Microbiota , Animais , Diarreia/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Fezes , Indóis , Inflamação/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(6): 1158-1165, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of digital health technologies in the management of chronic pain. METHODS: The systematic review comprised search for randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials involving patients with chronic pain published between 2010 and 2020. The search was conducted on PubMed, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, National Centre for Biotechnology Information, and National Library of Medicine databases. Risk bias tool was used to evaluate the biasness in the studies and Pedro scale was used to assess the quality of the included articles. RESULTS: Of the 33 articles fully assessed, 14(42.42%) were analysed. All the studies analysed were randomised controlled trials and scored 6-10 on the Pedro scale which showed high quality of methodology. The studies typically reported statistically significant benefits of digital health technologies in the management of chronic pain. One of the main benefits was enhanced pain coping skills of the patients. Additionally, majority of the studies included increased adherence to exercise as an essential advantage. CONCLUSIONS: All the studies analysed reported favourable conclusions regarding the use of digital intervention for chronic pain management.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Dor Crônica/terapia , Tecnologia Digital , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Humanos
15.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(6): 1175-1178, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751330

RESUMO

Suicide is considered one of the major causes of death across the globe. The rate of suicide has increased in the recent past and has become a serious problem globally, with nearly one million people committing suicide every year which represents a global standardised rate of 11.4 per 100,000 population i.e., 15 for males and 8 for females.1 From 2000 to 2016, the age-adjusted suicide rate has grown by 30%. Individuals generally have history of mental trauma and distress before attempting suicide. Rate of suicidal ideation is more than that of committing suicide. It is evident that the topic of suicide needs to have a global priority. As clinicians and researchers, it is pivotal responsibility of mental health professionals to establish prevention and intervention programmes to reduce the risk of suicides.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Tentativa de Suicídio
16.
Int J Med Educ ; 13: 158-170, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752175

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effects, and timing of, a video educational intervention on medical student performance in manikin-based simulation patient encounters. Methods: This prospective mixed-methods study was conducted as part of the University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences undergraduate medical curriculum. One hundred sixty-six students second-year students participated in two simulations on a single day in September 2021. A 7-minute video intervention outlining the clinical diagnostic approach to pulmonary complaints was implemented. Students were randomized into 32 groups which were divided into two cohorts. One received the video prior to simulation-1 (n=83) and the other between simulation-1 and simulation-2 (n=83). Each simulation was recorded and assessed using a 44-point standardized checklist. Comparative analysis to determine differences in performance scores was performed using independent t-tests and paired t-tests. Results: Independent t-tests revealed the video-prior cohort performed better in simulation-1 (t(30)= 2.27, p= .03), however in simulation-2 no significant difference was observed between the cohorts. Paired t-test analysis revealed the video-between cohort had significant improvement from simulation-1 to simulation-2 (t(15)= 3.06, p = .01); no significant difference was found for the video-prior cohort. Less prompting was seen in simulation-2 among both the video-prior (t(15)= -2.83, p= .01) and video-between cohorts (t(15)= -2.18, p= .04). Conclusions: Simulation training, and targeted educational interventions, facilitate medical students to become clinically competent practitioners. Our findings indicate that guided video instruction advances students' clinical performance greater than learning through simulation alone. To confirm these findings, similar investigations in other clinical training exercises should be considered.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Simulação de Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 290, 2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This prospective, multi-center, intensive monitoring study aimed to systematically assess the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs), especially thrombocytopenia and bleeding, as well as their risk factors in Chinese ST-segment elevation myocardial infraction (STEMI) patients receiving bivalirudin as anticoagulant for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: In total, 1244 STEMI patients undergoing PCI and receiving bivalirudin as anticoagulant were enrolled in the present study. Safety data were collected from hospital admission to 72 h after bivalirudin administration; in addition, patients were further followed up at the 30th day with safety data collected at that time. RESULTS: AEs, severe AEs, ADRs and severe ADRs were reported in 224 (18.0%), 15 (1.2%), 49 (3.9%) and 5 (0.4%) patients, respectively. Importantly, 4 (0.3%) patients were submitted to hospitalization and 6 (0.5%) patients died due to AEs, while 1 (0.1%) patient was submitted to hospitalization but no (0.0%) patient died due to ADRs. Meanwhile, thrombocytopenia and bleeding occurred in 24 (1.9%) and 21 (1.7%) patients, respectively. Further multivariate logistic analysis identified several important independent factors related to AEs, ADRs, thrombocytopenia or bleeding, which included history of cardiac surgery and renal function impairment, high CRUSADE risk stratification, elective operation and combination with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Moreover, 4 multivariate models were constructed based on the above-mentioned factors, which all showed acceptable predictive value for AEs, ADRs, thrombocytopenia and bleeding, respectively. CONCLUSION: Bivalirudin is a well-tolerant anticoagulant in Chinese STEMI patients undergoing PCI procedure.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Trombocitopenia , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Hirudinas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 826, 2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of genetic counseling and testing, uptake of cancer genetic services is generally low and Black/African American (Black) women are substantially less likely to receive genetic services than non-Hispanic White women. Our team developed a culturally sensitive, narrative decision aid video to promote uptake of genetic counseling among Black women at risk for a hereditary breast cancer syndrome that can be incorporated in conjunction with population-based cancer risk assessment in a clinical setting. We report here a pilot study to demonstrate changes in intention to access genetic counseling and intervention satisfaction. METHODS: Black women who were personally unaffected by breast cancer and were recommended for genetic counseling based on family history screening in a mammography center were recruited at the time of the mammogram. A prospective, pre-post survey study design, guided by theoretical constructs, was used to evaluate baseline and immediate post-intervention psychosocial factors, including intention to participate in genetic counseling and intervention satisfaction. RESULTS: Pilot recruitment goals were met (n = 30). Pre-intervention, 50% of participants indicated that they were extremely likely to make a genetic counseling appointment, compared with 70% post-intervention (p = 0.05). After watching the intervention, 50% of participants indicated that the video changed their mind regarding genetic counseling. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated cultural satisfaction with a decision aid intervention designed to motivate Black women with hereditary breast cancer risk to attend a genetic counseling appointment. Our study showed that intention may be a specific and key construct to target in interventions designed to support decision-making about genetic services. Study results informed the design of a subsequent large scale, randomized implementation study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04082117 . Registered September 9, 2019. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Aconselhamento Genético , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético/psicologia , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 250, 2022 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With further understanding of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, hyperthyroidism has gradually been revealed as a rare predisposing factor for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, which may present as more compact clots and resistance to fibrinolysis, also known as a predictor of worse outcomes. For patients with severe cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, proper treatment method should be initiated as soon as possible since they may deteriorate rapidly. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case report, we present a 32-year-old Mongoloid woman admitted with progressive headache, impaired consciousness, and right limb weakness, diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis caused by hyperthyroidism. A cerebrovascular intervention with local thrombolytic infusion was performed at the site of thrombosis, followed by dilatation with balloon and thrombus aspiration in venous sinus, with partial recanalization observed and anticoagulation given as a next step. After cerebrovascular intervention, the patient's condition improved rapidly and she was discharged with her National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score being decreased from 17 to 2. CONCLUSIONS: When patients with hyperthyroidism suffer from headache, progressive disturbance of consciousness, seizures, and other symptoms, the presence of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis should be considered and corresponding examinations should be performed as soon as possible. For patients with severe cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, cerebrovascular intervention might be a safe and effective approach if conventional management fails.


Assuntos
Hipertireoidismo , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos , Adulto , Cavidades Cranianas , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Cefaleia/etiologia , Cefaleia/terapia , Humanos , Hipertireoidismo/complicações , Hipertireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/etiologia
20.
AIDS Res Ther ; 19(1): 28, 2022 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35754038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) represents a proven biomedical strategy to prevent HIV transmissions among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States (US). Despite the design and implementation of various PrEP-focus interventions in the US, aggregated evidence for enhancing PrEP uptake and adherence is lacking. The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize and evaluate interventions aimed to improve PrEP uptake and adherence among MSM in the US, and identify gaps with opportunities to inform the design and implementation of future PrEP interventions for these priority populations. METHODS: We followed the PRISMA guidelines and conducted a systematic review of articles (published by November 28, 2021) with a focus on PrEP-related interventions by searching multiple databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science and PsycINFO). Details of PrEP interventions were characterized based on their socioecological level(s), implementation modalities, and stage(s) of PrEP cascade continuum. RESULTS: Among the 1363 articles retrieved from multiple databases, 42 interventions identified from 47 publications met the inclusion criteria for this review. Most individual-level interventions were delivered via text messages and/or apps and incorporated personalized elements to tailor the intervention content on participants' demographic characteristics or HIV risk behaviors. Interpersonal-level interventions often employed peer mentors or social network strategies to enhance PrEP adoption among MSM of minority race. However, few interventions were implemented at the community-, healthcare/institution- or multiple levels. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that incorporate multiple socioecological levels hold promise to facilitate PrEP adoption and adherence among MSM in the US given their acceptability, feasibility, efficacy and effectiveness. Future PrEP interventions that simultaneously address PrEP-related barriers/facilitators across multiple socioecological levels should be enhanced with a focus to tackle contextual and structural barriers (e.g., social determinants of health, stigma or medical mistrust) at the community- and healthcare/institution-level to effectively promote PrEP use for MSM of color.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Confiança , Estados Unidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...