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1.
Anim Microbiome ; 6(1): 38, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951941

RESUMO

To promote sustainable aquaculture, the formulation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeds has changed in recent decades, focusing on replacing standard marine-based ingredients with plant-based alternatives, increasingly demonstrating successful outcomes in terms of fish performance. However, little is known about how these plant-based diets may impact the gut microbiota at first feeding and onwards. Nutritional programming (NP) is one strategy applied for exposing fish to a plant-based (V) diet at an early stage in life to promote full utilisation of plant-based ingredients and prevent potential adverse impacts of exposure to a plant-rich diet later in life. We investigated the impact of NP on gut microbiota by introducing fish to plant ingredients (V fish) during first feeding for a brief period of two weeks (stimulus phase) and compared those to fish fed a marine-based diet (M fish). Results demonstrated that V fish not only maintained growth performance at 16 (intermediate phase) and 22 (challenge phase) weeks post first feeding (wpff) when compared to M fish but also modulated gut microbiota. PERMANOVA general effects revealed gut microbiota dissimilarity by fish group (V vs. M fish) and phases (stimulus vs. intermediate vs. challenge). However, no interaction effect of both groups and phases was demonstrated, suggesting a sustained impact of V diet (nutritional history) on fish across time points/phases. Moreover, the V diet exerted a significant cumulative modulatory effect on the Atlantic salmon gut microbiota at 16 wpff that was not demonstrated at two wpff, although both fish groups were fed the M diet at 16 wpff. The nutritional history/dietary regime is the main NP influencing factor, whereas environmental and host factors significantly impacted microbiota composition in M fish. Microbial metabolic reactions of amino acid metabolism were higher in M fish when compared to V fish at two wpff suggesting microbiota played a role in digesting the essential amino acids of M feed. The excessive mucin O-degradation revealed in V fish at two wpff was mitigated in later life stages after NP, suggesting physiological adaptability and tolerance to V diet. Future studies are required to explore more fully how the microbiota functionally contributes to the NP.

2.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; : 109739, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38960108

RESUMO

Lauric acid (LA), a saturated fatty acid with 12 carbon atoms, is widely regarded as a healthy fatty acid that plays an important role in disease resistance and improving immune physiological function. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary lauric acid on the growth performance, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immunity and intestinal microbiology, and evaluate the potential of lauric acids an environmentally friendly additive in swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) culture. A total of 192 swimming crabs with an initial body weight of 11.68 ± 0.02 g were fed six different dietary lauric acid levels, the analytical values of lauric acid were 0.09, 0.44, 0.80, 1.00, 1.53, 2.91 mg/g, respectively. There were four replicates per treatment and 8 juvenile swimming crabs per replicate. The results indicated that final weight, percent weight gain, specific growth rate, survival and feed intake were not significantly affected by dietary lauric acid levels; however, crabs fed diets with 0.80 and 1.00 mg/g lauric acid showed the lowest feed efficiency among all treatments. Proximate composition in hepatopancreas and muscle were not significantly affected by dietary lauric acid levels. The highest activities of amylase and lipase in hepatopancreas and intestine were found at crabs fed diet with 0.80 mg/g lauric acid (P<0.05), the activity of carnitine palmityl transferase (CPT) in hepatopancreas and intestine significantly decreased with dietary lauric acid levels increasing from 0.09 to 2.91 mg/g (P<0.05). The lowest concentration of glucose and total protein and the activity of alkaline phosphatase in hemolymph were observed at crabs fed diets with 0.80 and 1.00 mg/g lauric acid among all treatments. The activity of GSH-Px in hepatopancreas significantly increased with dietary lauric acid increasing from 0.09 to 1.53 mg/g, MDA in hepatopancreas and hemolymph was not significantly influenced by dietary lauric acid levels. The highest expression of cat and gpx in hepatopancreas were exhibited in crabs fed diet with 1.00 mg/g lauric acid, however, the expression of genes related to the inflammatory signaling pathway (relish, myd88, traf6, nf-κB ) were up-regulated in the hepatopancreas with dietary lauric acid levels increasing from 0.09 to 1.00 mg/g, moreover, the expression of genes related to intestinal inflammatory, immune and antioxidant were significantly affected by dietary lauric acid levels (P<0.05). Crabs fed diet without lauric acid supplementation exhibited higher lipid drop area in hepatopancreas than those fed the other diets (P<0.05). The expression of genes related to lipid catabolism was up-regulated, however, and the expression of genes related to lipid synthesis was down-regulated in the hepatopancreas of crabs fed with 0.80 mg/g lauric acid. Lauric acid improved hepatic tubular integrity, and enhanced intestinal barrier function by increasing peritrophic membrane (PM) thickness and upregulating the expression of structural factors (per44, zo-1) and intestinal immunity-related genes. In addition, dietary 1.00 mg/g lauric acid significantly improved the microbiota composition of the intestinal, increased the abundance of Actinobacteria and Rhodobacteraceae, and decreased the abundance of Vibrio, thus maintaining the microbiota balance of the intestine. The correlation analysis showed that there was a relationship between intestinal microbiota and immune-antioxidant function. In conclusion, the dietary 1.00 mg/g lauric acid is beneficial to improve the antioxidant capacity and intestinal health of swimming crab.

3.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 14(1): 41, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955923

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of sea buckthorn oil (SBO), fish oil (FO) and an enzymatically synthesized structured lipid (SL) on serum, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and intestinal microbiota in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were investigated. The results demonstrated that FO, SBO, and SL effectively reduced the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum of SD rats. SBO increased serum triglyceride levels, while FO elevated total cholesterol levels. Furthermore, all three dietary lipids decreased short-chain fatty acid production and enhanced intestinal microbiota diversity. FO increased the abundance of intestinal microbiota including Romboutsia, Lactobacillus, Escherichia-Shigella, and Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group. Conversely, all three dietary lipids reduced the abundance of Klebsiella and Blautia. These findings provide a foundation for understanding the functionality of SBO and FO as well as their potential application in synthesizing novel SLs to regulate intestinal microbiota.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 15: 1394332, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946904

RESUMO

Introduction: As a symbiotic probiotic for the host, Clostridium butyricum (CB) has the potential to strengthen the body's immune system and improve intestinal health. However, the probiotic mechanism of CB is not completely understood. The Clostridium butyricum CBX 2021 strain isolated by our team from a health pig independently exhibits strong butyric acid production ability and stress resistance. Therefore, this study comprehensively investigated the efficacy of CBX 2021 in pigs and its mechanism of improving pig health. Methods: In this study, we systematically revealed the probiotic effect and potential mechanism of the strain by using various methods such as microbiome, metabolites and transcriptome through animal experiments in vivo and cell experiments in vitro. Results: Our in vivo study showed that CBX 2021 improved growth indicators such as daily weight gain in weaned piglets and also reduced diarrhea rates. Meanwhile, CBX 2021 significantly increased immunoglobulin levels in piglets, reduced contents of inflammatory factors and improved the intestinal barrier. Subsequently, 16S rRNA sequencing showed that CBX 2021 treatment implanted more butyric acid-producing bacteria (such as Faecalibacterium) in piglets and reduced the number of potentially pathogenic bacteria (like Rikenellaceae RC9_gut_group). With significant changes in the microbial community, CBX 2021 improved tryptophan metabolism and several alkaloids synthesis in piglets. Further in vitro experiments showed that CBX 2021 adhesion directly promoted the proliferation of a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2). Moreover, transcriptome analysis revealed that bacterial adhesion increased the expression of intracellular G protein-coupled receptors, inhibited the Notch signaling pathway, and led to a decrease in intracellular pro-inflammatory molecules. Discussion: These results suggest that CBX 2021 may accelerate piglet growth by optimizing the intestinal microbiota, improving metabolic function and enhancing intestinal health.

5.
J Pharmacopuncture ; 27(2): 59-69, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948310

RESUMO

This study investigates the therapeutic potential of Indigo Naturalis (IN) in treating a Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The objective is to comprehensively examine the effects and pharmacological mechanisms of IN on IBD, assessing its potential as an novel treatment for IBD. Analysis of 11 selected papers is conducted to understand the effects of IN, focusing on compounds like indirubin, isatin, indigo, and tryptanthrin. This study evaluates their impact on Disease Activity Index (DAI) score, colon length, mucosal damage, and macrophage infiltration in Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. Additionally, It investigate into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms, including Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) pathway activation, Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB)/nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3)/Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) inhibition, and modulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88)/NF-κB and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways. Immunomodulatory effects on T helper 17 (Th17)/regulatory T cell (Treg cell) balance and Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3-ß) expression are also explored. Furthermore, the study addresses the role of IN in restoring intestinal microbiota diversity, reducing pathogenic bacteria, and increasing beneficial bacteria. The findings reveal that IN, particularly indirubin and indigo, demonstrates significant improvements in DAI score, colon length, mucosal damage, and macrophage infiltration in DSS-induced colitis mice. The anti-inflammatory effects are attributed to the activation of the AhR pathway, inhibition of inflammatory pathways, and modulation of immune responses. These results exhibit the potential of IN in IBD treatment. Notably, the restoration of intestinal microbiota diversity and balance further supports its efficacy. IN emerges as a promising and effective treatment for IBD, demonstrating anti-inflammatory effects and positive outcomes in preclinical studies. However, potential side effects necessitate further investigation for safe therapeutic development. The study underscores the need for future research to explore a broader range of active ingredients in IN to enhance therapeutic efficacy and safety.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 946: 174428, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38964390

RESUMO

Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), a chlorinated organophosphate ester, is commonly found in aquatic environments. Due to its various toxic effects, it may pose a risk to the health of aquatic organisms. However, the potential impacts of TCEP exposure on the intestinal microbiota and hepatic function in amphibians have not been reported. This study investigated the impact of long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of TCEP (0, 3, and 90 µg/L) on the intestinal microbiota and hepatic transcriptome of Polypedates megacephalus tadpoles. The results showed that the body size of the tadpoles decreased significantly with an increase in TCEP concentration. Additionally, TCEP exposure affected the diversity and composition of the intestinal microbiota in tadpoles, leading to significant changes in the relative abundance of certain bacterial groups (the genera Aeromonas decreased and Citrobacter increased) and potentially promoting a more even distribution of microbial species, as indicated by a significant increase in the Simpson index. Moreover, the impact of TCEP on hepatic gene expression profiles in tadpoles was significant, with the majority of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (709 out of 906 total DEGs in 3 µg/L of TCEP versus control, and 344 out of 387 DEGs in 90 µg/L of TCEP versus control) being significantly down-regulated, which were primarily related to immune response and immune system process. Notably, exposure to TCEP significantly reduced the relative abundance of the genera Aeromonas and Cetobacterium in the tadpole intestine. This reduction was positively correlated with the down-regulated expression of immune-related genes in the liver of corresponding tadpoles. In summary, these findings provide empirical evidence of the potential health risks to tadpoles exposed to TCEP at environmentally relevant concentrations.

7.
J Fish Dis ; : e13997, 2024 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38973153

RESUMO

With the emergence of diseases, the U.S. catfish industry is under challenge. Current trends prefer autochthonous bacteria as potential probiotic candidates owing to their adaptability and capacity to effectively colonize the host's intestine, which can enhance production performance and bolster disease resistance. The objective of this study was to isolate an autochthonous bacterium as probiotic for hybrid catfish. Initially, an analysis of the intestinal microbiota of hybrid catfish reared in earthen ponds was conducted for subsequent probiotic development. Twenty lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the digesta of overperforming catfish, and most of the candidates demonstrated probiotic traits, including proteolytic and lipolytic abilities; antagonistic inhibition of catfish enteric bacterial pathogens, negative haemolytic activity and antibiotic susceptibility. Subsequent to this screening process, an isolate of Lactococcus lactis (MA5) was deemed the most promising probiotic candidate. In silico analyses were conducted, and several potential probiotic functions were predicted, including essential amino acids and vitamin synthesis. Moreover, genes for three bacteriocins, lactococcin A, enterolysin A and sactipeptide BmbF, were identified. Lastly, various protectant media for lyophilization of MA5 were assessed. These findings suggest that Lactococcus lactis MA5 can be an autochthonous probiotic from hybrid catfish, holding promise to be further tested in feeding trials.

8.
Ecol Evol ; 14(7): e11617, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952660

RESUMO

Migratory birds experience changes in their environment and diet during seasonal migrations, thus requiring interactions between diet and gut microbes. Understanding the co-evolution of the host and gut microbiota is critical for elucidating the rapid adaptations of avian gut microbiota. However, dynamics of gut microbial adaptations concerning elevational migratory behavior, which is prevalent but understudied in montane birds remain poorly understood. We focused on the Himalayan bluetail (Tarsiger rufilatus) in the montane forests of Mt. Gongga to understand the diet-gut microbial adaptations of elevational migratory birds. Our findings indicate that elevational migratory movements can rapidly alter gut microbial composition and function within a month. There was a significant interaction between an animal-based diet and gut microbiota across migration stages, underscoring the importance of diet in shaping microbial communities. Furthermore, the gut microbial composition of T. rufilatus may be potentially altered by high-altitude acclimatization. An increase in fatty acid and amino acid metabolism was observed in response to low temperatures and limited resources, resulting in enhanced energy extraction and nutrient utilization. Moreover, microbial communities in distinct gut segments varied in relative abundance and responses to environmental changes. While the bird jejunum exhibited greater susceptibility to food and environmental fluctuations, there was no significant difference in metabolic capacity among gut segments. This study provides initial evidence of rapid diet-gut microbial changes in distinct gut segments of elevational migratory birds and highlights the importance of seasonal sample collection. Our findings provide a deeper understanding of the unique high-altitude adaptation patterns of the gut microbiota for montane elevational migratory birds.

9.
J Environ Manage ; 365: 121632, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38950506

RESUMO

Hermetia illucens larvae showcases remarkable bioremediation capabilities for both antibiotics and heavy metal contaminants. However, the distinctions in larval intestinal microbiota arising from the single and combined effects of antibiotics and heavy metals remain poorly elucidated. In this study, we delved into the details of larval intestinal bacterial communities and microbial metabolites when exposed to single and combined contaminants of oxytetracycline (OTC) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). After conversion, single contaminant-spiked substrate showed 75.5% of OTC degradation and 95.2% of Cr(VI) reductiuon, while combined contaminant-spiked substrate exhibited 71.3% of OTC degradation and 93.4% of Cr(VI) reductiuon. Single and combined effects led to differences in intestinal bacterial communities, mainly reflected in the genera of Enterococcus, Pseudogracilibacillus, Gracilibacillus, Wohlfahrtiimonas, Sporosarcina, Lysinibacillus, and Myroide. Moreover, these effects also induced differences across various categories of microbial metabolites, which categorized into amino acid and its metabolites, benzene and substituted derivatives, carbohydrates and its metabolites, heterocyclic compounds, hormones and hormone-related compounds, nucleotide and its metabolites, and organic acid and its derivatives. In particular, the differences induced OTC was greater than that of Cr(VI), and combined effects increased the complexity of microbial metabolism compared to that of single contaminant. Correlation analysis indicated that the bacterial genera, Preudogracilibacillus, Enterococcus, Sporosarcina, Lysinibacillus, Wohlfahrtiimonas, Ignatzschineria, and Fusobacterium exhibited significant correlation with significant differential metabolites, these might be used as indicators for the resistance and bioremediation of OTC and Cr(VI) contaminants. These findings are conducive to further understanding that the metabolism of intestinal microbiota determines the resistance of Hermetia illucens to antibiotics and heavy metals.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Larva , Metais Pesados , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromo/metabolismo
10.
Heliyon ; 10(12): e32789, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38975065

RESUMO

Huoxiang Zhengqi San (HXZQS), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, enjoys widespread use in Chinese medicine to treat diarrhea with cold-dampness trapped spleen syndrome (CDSS), which is induced by exposure to cold and high humidity stress. This study aimed to explore its therapeutic mechanisms in mice, particularly focusing on the intestinal microbiota. Forty male SPF-grade KM mice were allocated into two groups: the normal control group (H-Cc, n = 10) and the CDSS group (H-Mc, n = 30). After modeling, H-Mc was subdivided into H-Mc (n = 15) and HXZQS treatment (H-Tc, n = 15) groups. Intestinal samples were analyzed for enzyme activity and microbiota composition. Our findings demonstrated a notable reduction in intestinal lactase activity post-HXZQS treatment (P < 0.05). Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus murinus emerged as the main dominant species across most groups. However, in the H-Mc group, Clostridium sensu stricto 1 was identified as the exclusive dominant bacteria. LEfSe analysis highlighted Clostridiales vadinBB60 group and Corynebacterium as differential bacteria in the H-Tc group, and Cyanobacteria unidentified specie in the H-Mc group. Predicted microbiota functions aligned with changes in abundance, notably in cofactors and vitamins metabolism. The collinear results of the intestinal microbiota interaction network showed that HXZQS restored cooperative interactions among rare bacteria by mitigating their mutual promotion. The HXZQS decoction effectively alleviates diarrhea with CDSS by regulating intestinal microbiota, digestive enzyme activity, and microbiota interaction. Notably, it enhances Clostridium vadinBB60 and suppresses Cyanobacteria unidentified specie, warranting further study.

11.
Pathol Res Pract ; 260: 155448, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39004000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Tight junctions maintain gut homeostasis by forming a physical barrier that protects the gut from invasion by microbiota. Cldn-7 is an important component involved in this protection, but the relationship between Cldn-7, intestinal inflammation, and gut microbiota has not been clarified. Here, we hypothesize that Cldn-7 depletion affects intestinal inflammation by altering the gut microbiota. METHODS: Based on the induced intestinal condition of Cldn-7 knockout mice (Cldn7fl/fl;villin-CreaERT2), we established the intestinal flora depletion model and colitis model by antibiotic drinking and feeding with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The environment of Cldn-7 gene deletion mice was changed by co-housing experiment. AB-PAS staining and Muc2 were used to detect the effect of co-housing and Cldn-7 deficiency on the mucus layer after flora depletion. qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of intestinal inflammatory factors and AMPs in mice. Feces were collected and proportions of microbiota were analyzed by 16 S rRNA amplicon sequencing. RESULTS: Mice in the co-housing experiment had altered intestinal microbiota, including diversity, composition, and functional prediction, compared to controls. Intestinal inflammation was restored to some extent following altered intestinal microbiota. The intestinal inflammation caused by Cldn-7 deficiency and susceptibility to DSS could be reduced after antibiotic administration compared to controls, in terms of phenotype, pathological changes, inflammatory factors, mucus barrier, and expression of AMPs. CONCLUSIONS: In analyses of intestinal tissues, colitis induction, and gut microbiota in mice with intestinal disruption of Cldn-7, we found this protein to prevent intestinal inflammation by regulating the gut microbiota. Cldn-7might therefore be an important mediator of host-microbiome interactions. Our research has revealed that Cldn-7 plays an indispensable role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis by regulating the gut microbiota and impacting intestinal inflammation. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.

12.
Nutrients ; 16(13)2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38999802

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that microbiota plays a crucial role in the development, progression, and therapeutic options in obesity and its comorbidities. This study assessed preoperative probiotic therapy's impact on bariatric treatment outcomes. A 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 48 patients undergoing bariatric surgery was conducted. Participants received probiotics-Sanprobi Barrier-which contained nine strains of bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum W23, Bifidobacterium lactis W51 and W52, Lactobacillus acidophilus W37, Levilactobacillus brevis W63, Lacticaseibacillus casei W56, Ligilactobacillus salivarius W24, Lactococcus lactis W19, and Lactococcus lactis W58. Primary outcomes included excess body weight loss, body weight loss, and excess body mass index loss, with secondary objectives focusing on metabolic profiles. Surgical treatment of obesity significantly improved anthropometric and metabolic parameters. No significant differences were observed in primary outcomes or in secondary outcomes between groups at any time point post-surgery. Preoperative probiotics administration did not affect clinical outcomes 1, 3, or 6 months following bariatric surgery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Probióticos , Redução de Peso , Humanos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/cirurgia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Resultado do Tratamento , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Peso Corporal
13.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 138: 112610, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese medicine, JianpiJiedu decoction (JPJDF), has been utilized in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment for over forty years. The potential of JPJDF to inhibit CRC through modulation of intestinal microbiota and their metabolites remains uncertain. AIMS: This study aims to further investigate the therapeutic mechanisms of JPJDF in CRC. METHODS: CAC mouse models were developed using azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Intestinal tissues and contents underwent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and untargeted metabolomics analysis. Serum levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α were measured using ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was utilized to assess the expression of Ki67, ZO-1, Occludin, CD68, and CD206. Furthermore, western blotting was performed to evaluate the protein expression of AhR and NF-κB. RESULTS: JPJDF inhibited colorectal tumourigenesis in AOM/DSS treated mice, while also suppressing tumor cell proliferation and upregulating the expression of tight junction proteins. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed that JPJDF altered intestinal microbiota composition by increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria. Additionally, JPJDF reduced tryptophan metabolites, effectively alleviating inflammation and significantly restoring intestinal barrier function in CAC mice. Molecular biology experiments confirmed that JPJDF suppressed the expression levels of AhR and M2-type tumor-associated macrophages, thereby promoting anti-tumor immunity and exerting inhibitory effects on CAC growth. CONCLUSION: JPJDF can regulate the tryptophan metabolism-AhR pathway by modulating the gut microbiota, reducing intestinal inflammation, improving intestinal barrier function, enhancing anti-tumor immunity, and effectively inhibiting CAC growth.

14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 151: 109750, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969153

RESUMO

The largemouth bass has become one of the economically fish in China, according to the latest China Fishery Statistical Yearbook. The farming scale is constantly increasing. Salidroside has been found in past studies to have oxidative stress reducing and immune boosting properties. In this study, the addition of six different levels of salidroside supplements were 0、40、80、120、160 and 200 mg/kg. A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of salidroside on the intestinal health, immune parameters and intestinal microbiota composition of largemouth bass. Dietary addition of salidroside significantly affected the Keap-1ß/Nrf-2 pathway as well as significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities resulting in a significant increase in antioxidant capacity of largemouth bass. Dietary SLR significantly reduced feed coefficients. The genes related to tight junction proteins (Occludin, ZO-1, Claudin-4, Claudin-5) were found to be significantly upregulated in the diet supplemented with salidroside, indicating that salidroside can improve the intestinal barrier function (p < 0.05). The dietary administration of salidroside was found to significantly reduce the transcription levels of intestinal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, salidroside was observed to reduce the transcription levels of intestinal apoptosis factor Bcl-2 associated death promoter (BAD) and recombinant Tumor Protein p53 (P53) (p < 0.05). Concomitantly, the beneficial bacteria, Fusobacteriota and Cetobacterium, was significantly increased in the SLR12 group, while that of pathogenic bacteria, Proteobacteria, was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the medium-sized largemouth bass optimal dosage of salidroside in the diet is 120mg/kg-1.

15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; : 133725, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38986994

RESUMO

This study investigated the hypoglycemic mechanism of guava polysaccharides (GP) through the gut microbiota (GM) and related metabolites. Our findings demonstrated that GP significantly mitigated high-fat diet- and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, elevated alanine aminotransferase, high hepatic inflammation levels, and prevented pancreatic atrophy and hepatomegaly. Interestingly, the benefits of GP were attributed to alterations in the GM. GP decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, significantly inhibiting deleterious bacteria, including Uncultured_f_Desulfovibrionaceae, Bilophila, and Desulfovibrio, while promoting the proliferation of probiotic Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides. In addition, GP promoted the generation of short-chain fatty acids. Notably, the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism pathway was enriched in liver metabolites. GP significantly elevated hepatic AA and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, while reducing prostaglandin E2 and 5- and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. This modulation is accompanied by the downregulation of hepatic cyclooxygenase-1, 12-lipoxygenase, P38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase mRNA expression, and the upregulation of cytochrome P4502J5 and insulin receptor substrate 1/2 mRNA expression. However, GP antibiotic treatment did not induce significant alterations in FBG and AA levels or gene expression. Overall, our findings suggest that the hypoglycemic effect of GP may be intricately linked to alterations in AA metabolism, which depends on the GM.

16.
Genes Genomics ; 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38990271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 3rd most common cancer in the world and colonic carcinogenesis is a multifactorial disease that involves environmental and genetic factors. Gut microbiota plays a critical role in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis. Increasing evidence shows that the gut microbiome plays a role in CRC development and may be a biomarker for early diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the clinical prognostic significance of gut microbiota in CRC patients in the Turkish population by metagenomic analysis and to determine the microbial composition in tumor tissue biopsy samples. METHODS: Tissue biopsies were taken from the participants with sterile forceps during colonoscopy and stored at -80 °C. Then, DNA isolation was performed from the tissue samples and the V3-V4 region of the 16 S rRNA gene was sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Quality control of the obtained sequence data was performed. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were classified according to the Greengenes database. Alpha diversity (Shannon index) and beta diversity (Bray-Curtis distance) analyses were performed. The most common bacterial species in CRC patients and healthy controls were determined and whether there were statistically significant differences between the groups was tested. RESULTS: A total of 40 individuals, 13 CRC patients and 20 healthy control individuals were included in our metagenomic study. The mean age of the patients was 64.83 and BMI was 25.85. In CRC patients, the level of Bacteroidetes at the phylum taxonomy was significantly increased (p = 0.04), the level of Clostridia at the class taxonomy was increased (p = 0.23), and the level of Enterococcus at the genus taxonomy was significantly increased (p = 0.01). When CRC patients were compared with the control group, significant increases were detected in the species of Gemmiger formicilis (p = 0.15), Prevotella copri (p = 0.02) and Ruminococcus bromii (p = 0.001) at the species taxonomy. CONCLUSIONS: Metagenomic analysis of intestinal microbiota composition in CRC patients provides important data for determining the treatment options for these patients. The results of this study suggest that it may be beneficial in terms of early diagnosis, poor prognosis and survival rates in CRC patients. In addition, this metagenomic study is the first study on the colon microbiome associated with CRC mucosa in the Turkish population.

17.
Ageing Res Rev ; 99: 102405, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971321

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic condition affecting around 537 million individuals worldwide, poses significant challenges, particularly among the elderly population. The etiopathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) depends on a combination of the effects driven by advancing age, genetic background, and lifestyle habits, e.g. overnutrition. These factors influence the development of T2D differently in men and women, with an obvious sexual dimorphism possibly underlying the diverse clinical features of the disease in different sexes. More recently, environmental pollution, estimated to cause 9 million deaths every year, is emerging as a novel risk factor for the development of T2D. Indeed, exposure to atmospheric pollutants such as PM2.5, O3, NO2, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP)s, along with their combination and bioaccumulation, is associated with the development of T2D and obesity, with a 15 % excess risk in case of exposure to very high levels of PM2.5. Similar data are available for plasticizer molecules, e.g. bisphenol A and phthalates, emerging endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Even though causality is still debated at this stage, preclinical evidence sustains the ability of multiple pollutants to affect pancreatic function, promote insulin resistance, and alter lipid metabolism, possibly contributing to T2D onset and progression. In addition, preclinical findings suggest a possible role also for plastic itself in the development of T2D. Indeed, pioneeristic studies evidenced that micro- or nanoplastics (MNP)s, particles in the micro- or nano- range, promote cellular damage, senescence, inflammation, and metabolic disturbances, leading to insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism in animal and/or in vitro models. Here we synthesize recent knowledge relative to the association between air-related or plastic-derived pollutants and the incidence of T2D, discussing also the possible mechanistic links suggested by the available literature. We then anticipate the need for future studies in the field of candidate therapeutic strategies limiting pollution-induced damage in preclinical models, such as SGLT-2 inhibitors. We finally postulate that future guidelines for T2D prevention should consider pollution and sex an additional risk factors to limit the diabetes pandemic.

18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 275(Pt 2): 133718, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977052

RESUMO

The polysaccharide glucan was extracted from Gastrodia elata Blume, and its structural characterizations and beneficial effects against acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis were investigated. The results showed that a polysaccharide GP with a molecular weight of 811.0 kDa was isolated from G. elata Blume. It had a backbone of α-D-1,4-linked glucan with branches of α-d-glucose linked to the C-6 position. GP exhibited protective effects against DSS-induced ulcerative colitis, and reflected in ameliorating weight loss and pathological damages in mice, increasing colon length, inhibiting the expression of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), decreasing the levels of inflammatory related proteins NLRP3 and ASC, and elevating the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) level in mouse colon tissues. GP supplementation also reinforced the intestinal barrier by promoting the expression of ZO-1, Occludin, and MUC2 of colon tissues, and positively regulated intestinal microbiota. Thus, GP treatment possessed a significant improvement in ulcerative colitis in mice, and it was expected to be developed as a functional food.

19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15677, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977718

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is an important pathological process in chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Recent studies have found a close association between intestinal microbiota and the development of liver fibrosis. To determine whether there are differences in the intestinal microbiota between rhesus macaques with liver fibrosis (MG) and normal rhesus macaques (MN), fecal samples were collected from 8 male MG and 12 male MN. The biological composition of the intestinal microbiota was then detected using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed statistically significant differences in ASVs and Chao1 in the alpha-diversity and the beta-diversity of intestinal microbiota between MG and MN. Both groups shared Prevotella and Lactobacillus as common dominant microbiota. However, beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus were significantly less abundant in MG (P = 0.02). Predictive functional analysis using PICRUSt2 gene prediction revealed that MG exhibited a higher relative abundance of functions related to substance transport and metabolic pathways. This study may provide insight into further exploration of the mechanisms by which intestinal microbiota affect liver fibrosis and its potential future use in treating liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Cirrose Hepática , Macaca mulatta , Metagenômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Animais , Macaca mulatta/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Cirrose Hepática/microbiologia , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , Metagenoma , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
20.
Vopr Pitan ; 93(3): 14-22, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39024167

RESUMO

The problem of the increasing obesity among children and adolescents is urgent. One of the most interesting and promising directions in this area is to study the correlation of individual microorganisms with the presence and absence of obesity. The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between the isolation frequency of individual microorganisms and the presence of obesity in children and adolescents and to identify possible associations between different groups of microorganisms in obese patients. Material and methods. 156 male and female patients aged from 7 to 17 years were included in the study. The patients were divided into a control group (n=23) (healthy patients), a group of children with exogenous constitutional obesity without complications (n=25), a group of children who had one or more complications of obesity (n=108). For all patients body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Additional examination included a cultural study of the intestinal microbiota. Fecal samples of patients were used as the material. Preparation of the material for inoculation, inoculation and subsequent incubation of the Petri plates were carried out under anaerobic conditions. The isolated microorganisms were identified using the MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry method. Results. When analyzing the correlation between obesity and individual taxa, statistically significant differences were obtained only for Bifidobacterium spp. (p=0.045). The analysis of the correlation between obesity and the isolation of individual microorganisms has shown that Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum (p=0.012), Candida albicans (p=0.012), Streptococcus salivarius (p=0.016), Bifidobacterium breve (p=0.003), Veillonella parvula (p=0.013), Haemophilus parainfluenzae (p=0.003), Streptococcus oralis (p=0.001), Weissella confusa (p=0.036), Enterococcus mundtii (p=0.036) were isolated less often in patients with obesity than in control group. Conclusion. The results of the study has demonstrated that only one taxon, Bifidobacterium spp., had a significant correlation with the absence of obesity. At the same time, a reliable correlation with the absence of obesity was also established for individual microorganisms, including several microorganisms from Bifidobacterium spp. and Streptococcus spp., which may enable to establish certain microbiological predictors of obesity and its complications.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Obesidade/microbiologia , Bactérias Anaeróbias/isolamento & purificação , Obesidade Infantil/microbiologia
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