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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0150622, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35762783

RESUMO

The Latin American Coalition for Escherichia coli Research (LACER) was created as a network of investigators using One Health approaches trying to understand infections caused by regional E. coli isolates and to sound the alarm due to the evolution of strains that are multiresistant to antibiotics (resistome) that also display different virulence profiles (virulome). After the COVID19 pandemic, a major concern by investigators has been the appearance of more virulent and resistant strains. Recently, a paper published in Microbiology Spectrum by Brazilian investigators (Fuga B., et al. Microbiol Spectr 10:e0125621, 2022, https://doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.01256-21) has used a genomic approach to demonstrate that during a period of 45 years, a wide resistome and virulome has converged, resulting in the appearance and persistence of high-risk clones affecting humans, animals and the environment, and its rapid dissemination is becoming an unattended international threat.

3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(8): 106599, 2022 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare thrombolysis outcomes from the Costa Rican Stroke Registry Program (CRSRP) with published individual patient data from NINDS and CLOTBUST-ER trials using matching and outcome modeling from randomized clinical trials (RCTs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study matching subjects on baseline characteristics, from the CRSRP, the control arm of CLOTBUST-ER, and the interventional arm of NINDS trials. Day 7-10/discharge modified Rankin Score (mRS), and early mortality was compared between matched subjects. A mortality model derived from RCTs was developed, and outcomes were compared at similar baseline NIHSS scores. CRSRP symptomatic hemorrhage (SICH) rate was compared with an Ibero-American cohort (IAC). RESULTS: Of 540 CRSRP patients, 351 received rt-PA under 3 hours and were matched with NINDS subjects yielding 292 pairs; 161 CRSRP subjects treated within 4.5 hours were matched with CLOTBUST-ER subjects resulting in 151 pairs. The proportion of patients achieving excellent outcomes (mRS 0-1) did not differ between CRSRP and either NINDS or CLOTBUST-ER (CRSRP vs NINDS: 36.6% vs 32.9%, p=0.3; CRSRP vs CLOTBUST-ER: 26.5% vs 24.5%, p=0.8). Mortality was higher for CRSRP vs CLOTBUST-ER (7.3% vs 0.7%, p=0.006), but not vs NINDS (6.5% vs 4.5%, p=0.4). A pooled mortality model derived from 15 RCTs representing 4410 patients (R2=0.39) showed CRSRP and NINDS within expected mortality, while CLOTBUST-ER showed lower than expected mortality. CRSRP SICH rate equaled IAC (5.7% vs 5.7%; p=0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Functional outcomes and SICH of thrombolysed Costa Rican patients compared favorably with published datasets, with a potential increase in early mortality.

4.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 58, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are among those regions most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has strained health systems in the region. In this context of severe healthcare resource constraints, there is a need for systematic priority-setting to support decision-making which ensures the best use of resources while considering the needs of the most vulnerable groups. The aim of this paper was to provide a critical description and analysis of how health systems considered priority-setting in the COVID-19 response and preparedness plans of a sample of 14 LAC countries; and to identify the associated research gaps. METHODS: A documentary analysis of COVID-19 preparedness and response plans was performed in a sample of 14 countries in the LAC region. We assessed the degree to which the documented priority-setting processes adhered to established quality indicators of effective priority-setting included in the Kapiriri and Martin framework. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the degree to which the reports addressed the quality parameters for each individual country, as well as a cross-country comparison to explore whether parameters varied according to independent variables. RESULTS: While all plans were led and supported by the national governments, most included only a limited number of quality indicators for effective priority-setting. There was no systematic pattern between the number of quality indicators and the country's health system and political contexts; however, the countries that had the least number of quality indicators tended to be economically disadvantaged. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the literature by providing the first descriptive analysis of the inclusion of priority-setting during a pandemic, using the case of COVID-19 response and preparedness plans in the LAC region. The analysis found that despite the strong evidence of political will and stakeholder participation, none of the plans presented a clear priority-setting process, or used a formal priority-setting framework, to define interventions, populations, geographical regions, healthcare setting or resources prioritized. There is need for case studies that analyse how priority-setting actually occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic and the degree to which the implementation reflected the plans and the parameters of effective priority-setting, as well as the impact of the prioritization processes on population health, with a focus on the most vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Atenção à Saúde , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , América Latina
5.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 131, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the global debate around transactional sex little attention has concentrated on Brazil, despite ranking fourth globally in absolute number of girls married or co-habiting by the age of 15 years, and evidence showing that these unions often begin as age-disparate transactional sex (ADTS). This article contributes to filling this gap by exploring the personal beliefs and social norms related to ADTS in urban (favela) communities of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil between adult men (> 18 years) and girls and adolescents (G/A) (< 18 years) with a minimum 5-year age disparity. The primary objective of this study was to identify the social norms that promote and prevent ADTS, and the dynamics between individual beliefs and social norms, to provide contextualized recommendations to prevent ADTS in this setting. METHODS: An exploratory, sequential, mixed-methods design was used, starting with a qualitative phase that included semi-structured, in-depth interviews and focus groups, and a subsequent quantitative phase comprising of a community survey. The items for the quantitative questionnaires were developed based on the qualitative results. RESULTS: Mixed methods results indicate that in these communities ADTS is normalised and not considered exploitative. We identified three themes related to the reasons ADTS occurs: girls' responsibility, male desires and benefits of ADTS. Men's role in ADTS was largely minimised because of a general acceptance of a notion of masculinity characterised by hypersexuality and lack of impulse control. Individual beliefs, however, did not tend to align with these social norms. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, personal beliefs and social norms often did not align, suggesting that initiatives working to change personal or attitudes regarding ADTS may not lead to meaningful change in ADTS behaviours, and social norms interventions may be more effective. Our findings reinforce the need to develop programs tailored to local understandings of ADTS, targeting not only girls but also a wide range of actors. Interventions could also consider the structural factors acting in local and global contexts that promote or prevent ADTS.


This article explores the personal beliefs and social norms related to the exchange of sexual favours or relationships for material favours, gifts and/or support in some form, between adult men (> 18 years) and girls and adolescents (< 18 years) with a minimum 5-year age difference. We used interviews, focus groups and questionnaires to understand the factors that promote and prevent these sexual relationships between men and girls. Motivators for these relationships were often related to girls' responsibilities, male desires and the benefits of these relationships. Men's responsibility for their participation in these relationships with girls were often minimised due to a general acceptance of men as overly sexual and lacking impulse control. In this study, personal beliefs and social norms were often not aligned, suggesting that interventions focused on changing personal beliefs or attitudes about these sexual relationships may not be enough to change social norms. The findings highlight the need to develop solutions that consider a wider range of actors, instead of interventions focused only on girls. The study findings also support the need to further investigate how communities and shared expectations can influence sexual relationships in exchange for goods between adult men and girls and adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual , Normas Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento
6.
EJNMMI Radiopharm Chem ; 7(1): 14, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697950

RESUMO

This review presents the results of a survey conducted by the International Atomic Energy Agency on cyclotrons and related infrastructure used for radionuclide and radiopharmaceutical production which are supporting PET imaging applications in Latin America and the Caribbean region.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35754190
8.
Sex Educ ; 22(3): 289-303, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35756501

RESUMO

Educational efforts to reduce global rates of adolescent pregnancy vary widely with a significant deficiency found in the domain of sex education facilitator training. In this study, we sought to establish a pilot approach to comprehensive sex education facilitator training as applied in Riobamba, Ecuador. The approach was aligned with UNESCO recommendations for training facilitators using an adapted version of the U.S.-based Big Decisions curriculum. Four internationally recruited bilingual instructors led a six-day (27-hour) intensive training-of-facilitators programme with twenty trainees using the Big Decisions sex education curriculum. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted using various approaches: anonymised and pre/post-self-assessments, daily feedback surveys of self and instructors, and facilitation practice evaluations. Responses to anonymised surveys indicated improved self-perceived confidence in teaching each curriculum section. More objective pre- and post-teach-back evaluations showed improved ability to teach randomly assigned lessons as assessed by trainers. The pedagogy of facilitator training in comprehensive sex education seeks to combine evidence-informed and culturally appropriate approaches to training facilitators under unique local conditions using adapted assessment tools. This project revealed important culturally relevant insights that would be beneficial to the future training of comprehensive sex education facilitators working within culturally conservative communities, and Latin America in particular.

9.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 921880, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35757135

RESUMO

Objective: COVID-19 infections have shown a different behavior in children than in adults. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pediatric patients seen at a reference hospital in Colombia. Method: A descriptive, observational study in patients under the age of 18 years with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 infection (RT-PCR or antigen) between April 2020 and March 2021. Multiple variables were studied, including demographic data, clinical characteristics, lab measurements, treatments administered, intensive care unit admission, and mortality. Results: A total of 361 patients were included of whom 196 (54%) were males. The median age was 3 years. Of all the patients, 65 (18%) were asymptomatic. The majority of patients had no comorbidities (n = 225, 76%). In those who were symptomatic (n = 296, 82%), the most frequent complaints were fever (n = 178, 60%), nasal congestion (n = 164, 55%) and cough (n = 149, 50%). Chest x-rays were normal in 73 patients (50%). When abnormalities were found, interstitial (29%) and alveolar (12%) patterns were the most prevalent. One hundred and fifty-seven children (53%) required general ward hospitalization, and 24 patients (8%) required pediatric intensive care admission. The global mortality was 0.8% (3 patients). Conclusions: The majority of cases were asymptomatic or mild. However, a significant percentage of patients required general ward admission, and some even required intensive care. The main symptom of COVID-19 infections in newborns was apnea. A second COVID-19 RT-PCR may be necessary to detect infections in critically ill patients with a high clinical suspicion of the disease if an initial test was negative.

10.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 31: 142-147, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to critically review the decision-making (DM) processes for new vaccines introduction in Latin America's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPIs) and role of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs). METHODS: An online survey was conducted between August and December 2019 to Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) EPI managers, participants of the National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG). Information about criteria to introduce the most recent vaccine was asked. CEA role in that decision and technical knowledge of informants were investigated. Frequencies of categorical data were calculated. Bar plots and stacked bar plots were used to visualize the data. RESULTS: A total of 26 EPI managers and stakeholders participated in the survey from 14 LAC countries. Respondents worked at the Ministry of Health and the Pan American Health Organization. Most recent vaccines included were human papillomavirus (42.3%), injectable polio (26.9%), and varicella (15.4%). High burden of disease and cost-effectiveness/cost-utility were identified as the main a priori criteria used to new vaccine introduction, but not all inputs are available or good quality. Discussion about vaccine introduction was conducted at NITAG meetings, reported as independent by most countries. Nevertheless, NITAG members did not master the essential CEAs concepts. CONCLUSIONS: DM of vaccine introduction in LAC is reported by EPI managers as a process of discussion with participation of several actors where economic rationalities had a high role in the decision. It is necessary to strengthen the technical capacity to understand economical inputs to inform DM and advocate to include other rationalities as important in the discussion.

11.
IJID Reg ; 2: 110-117, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35721440

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in selected health clinics in the three largest urban areas in Nicaragua, where data regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) testing, morbidity and mortality is severely limited. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and were tested for antibodies using immunoassays. A questionnaire recorded subjects' COVID-19-associated symptoms and risk factors. Data were collected from 22 February to 19 March 2021, 1 year after the first confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 in Nicaragua. Study participants were enrolled while attending routine check-ups or seeking care unrelated to COVID-19. Study participation was random and voluntary. All patients were eligible to participate. Symptom history was not part of the eligibility criteria. Results: The prevalence of current SARS-CoV-2 infection was high (14%, LAMP-positive/seronegative). Antibody testing showed higher overall seroprevalence (38%). Cough was the symptom most strongly associated with being LAMP-positive (odds ratio 3.57, 95% confidence interval 2.65-4.81). Loss of smell had the highest positive predictive value, and was significantly associated with being LAMP-positive. Conclusion: The prevalence of current SARS-CoV-2 infection and seropositivity were fairly high. More than half of the sample population had evidence of current or past infection. Knowledge of this previously unknown elevated level of infection is crucial for healthcare providers and policy makers.

12.
Front Digit Health ; 4: 866155, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35721795

RESUMO

Global technological progress has generated alternatives for psychological assistance, both for the evaluation and for the treatment of different emotional disorders. Evidence suggests that Internet-based treatments are effective for the treatment of anxiety and depression disorders. However, in Latin America online treatments are still scarce compared to developed countries and have similar problems as developed countries, such as high dropout rate. One possible solution to help decrease the dropout rate is to design and develop online interventions based on the needs and characteristics of the users. The user-centered design (UCD) is a fundamental concept to develop successful online interventions. The objective of this article is to provide a perspective overview on how UCD could improve the impact of self-applied psychological interventions in low- or middle-income countries in Latin America; however this proposal can also be applied in low- and middle-income countries in other regions of the world. The literature on UCD has demonstrated its efficacy when properly applied in online interventions; however, it is not common to see how this methodology has been applied in research in online interventions, and regarding Latin America, this is even more scarce with a very limited number of articles implementing the principles of UCD.

13.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(6)2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35736974

RESUMO

Users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) have a lower intention to receive vaccines. Furthermore, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region are among the most affected areas by the COVID-19 pandemics and present a high proportion of CAM users. Therefore, this study evaluates the association between the consumption of herbal supplements or homeopathic remedies to prevent COVID-19 and the intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 in the LAC region. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) survey with Facebook to assess COVID-19 beliefs, behaviours, and norms. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using generalized linear models of the Poisson family with the log link function. The prevalence of the use of products to prevent COVID-19 was the following: consumption of herbal supplements (7.2%), use of homeopathic remedies (4.8%), and consumption of garlic, ginger, and lemon (11.8%). An association was found between using herbal supplements (19.0% vs. 12.8%; aPR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.30-1.58), the use of homeopathic remedies (20.3% vs. 12.3%; aPR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.25-1.98), and the consumption of garlic, ginger, and lemon (18.9% vs. 11.9%; aPR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.50-1.61) and non-intention to vaccinate against COVID-19. In the LAC population, there is an association between using herbal supplements, using homeopathic remedies and consuming garlic, ginger, and lemon to prevent infection by COVID-19 and non-intention to vaccinate against this disease. Therefore, it is necessary to design targeted strategies for groups that consume these products as preventive measures against COVID-19 to increase vaccination coverage and expand the information regarding transmission and prevention strategies for SARS-CoV-2.

14.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e65, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35747470

RESUMO

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) in Latin America and the effect of interventions targeting health systems, health workers, patients, and communities on MOV. Methods: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and LILACS electronic databases and relevant organizations were contacted, including the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), to identify studies meeting eligibility criteria. A pair of reviewers identified 27 randomized and non-randomized studies quantifying the effectiveness of any intervention for reducing MOV and 5 studies assessing the rate of MOV in Latin America. Results are reported narratively when criteria to pool results were not met, and the certainty of this evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Results: Evidence suggests the rate of MOV in Latin America ranged from 5% to 37% with a pooled estimate of 17% (95% CI [9, 32]) (low certainty) and that monetary incentives to healthcare teams, training for healthcare teams on how to communicate with patients, and educational interventions for caregivers probably reduce MOV (moderate to very low certainty). Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence supporting the implementation of any intervention as policy based only on the potential reduction of MOV without considering several factors, including costs, feasibility, acceptability, and equity.

15.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e73, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35747471

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate the burden of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Treponema pallidum (TP), and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections among people aged 10 to 25 in Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS databases were searched, as well as documents from regional organizations or national health Institutions. Population-based studies that reported prevalence or incidence of CT, NG, TP, and HPV detected through confirmatory tests in adolescents and young people were included. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data. The quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled estimators were calculated in cases where heterogeneity was <70%; when not feasible, prevalence ranges were reported. Results: Out of a total of 3 583 references, 15 prevalence studies complied with the inclusion criteria. Due to substantial heterogeneity (>70%), it was not possible to pool frequency estimators. Among the general population, the prevalence of CT infection ranged between 2.1% and 30.1% (9 studies, 5 670 participants); for NG, prevalence ranged between 0% and 2.9% (8 studies, 5 855 participants); for TP, prevalence varied between 0% and 0.7% (3 studies, 11 208 participants), and for HPV infection, prevalence ranged between 25.1% and 55.6% (8 studies, 3 831 participants). Conclusions: Reliable, population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in adolescents and youth in Latin America and the Caribbean are limited. Additional studies are needed to better understand the burden of STIs in this population. However, given the substantial prevalence of STIs detected, countries need public health policies for prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of STIs in young people.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742448

RESUMO

This scoping review aims to explore the interplay between substance use (SU) and HIV in Latin America (LA). Database searches yielded 3481 references; 196 were included. HIV prevalence among people who used substances (PWUS) ranged from 2.8-15.2%. SU definitions were variable throughout studies, and thus data were not easily comparable. In 2019, only 2% of new HIV infections were attributed to injection drug use (IDU) in LA. Factors associated with HIV among PWUS included being female, IDU and homelessness, and PWUS were likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors, start antiretroviral treatment late, have poor adherence, have treatment failure, be lost to follow-up, have comorbidities, and experience higher mortality rates and lower quality of life, as has been reported in PLWH with SU in other regions. Five intervention studies were identified, and only one was effective at reducing HIV incidence in PWUS. Interventions in other regions have varying success depending on context-specific characteristics, highlighting the need to conduct more research in the LA region. Though progress has been made in establishing SU as a major concern in people living with HIV (PLWH), much more is yet to be done to reduce the burden of HIV and SU in LA.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sexual , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
17.
Front Res Metr Anal ; 7: 893593, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35663098

RESUMO

The current knowledge society has driven an unprecedented mobility of people, especially scientists, from emerging economies to developed countries. This mobility can allow the development of human talent and the access to first class infrastructure and resources, but it can also mean a loss for emerging economies due to the phenomenon of brain drain. To counteract this situation, some countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have developed models for the articulation of their scientific diaspora in projects and programs, with the aim of exchanging knowledge and capitalizing on human and technical resources to advance science, technology and innovation systems. Likewise, science diplomacy has become a tool for interlinking the work of various actors in order to advance the solution of national, transnational or global problems through scientific advice. Scientific diasporas are vital in new structures of cooperation, enabling them to innovate and solve problems jointly, advising their countries of origin and articulating policies and programs. This research seeks to analyze the interactions and initiatives identified between the organized scientific diaspora from Latin America and the Caribbean and their countries of origin in relation to science diplomacy processes, providing recommendations and proposals for public policy to improve the interaction between the diaspora and the governments of their countries of origin. Results show that diaspora organizations from Latin America and the Caribbean engage with governmental and non-state actors and are active science diplomacy stakeholders promoting the scientific developments of their country or their researchers, as well as enabling access to research resources creating alliances for scientific, institutional and academic collaborations. In the cases studied, these efforts are planned and executed by the diaspora without responding to any science diplomacy strategy of the country. Policies and programs are needed to effectively link the scientific diaspora organizations to the interests of the countries.

18.
Obes Sci Pract ; 8(3): 352-362, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664241

RESUMO

Rationale: To inform future policies, the study objectives were to determine to what extent the policies included in the 5-year Plan of Action for the Prevention of Obesity in Children and Adolescents-proposed by Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and signed by 19 Latin America countries in 2014-have been implemented and evaluated. Methods: A scoping review of the Governmental websites for Latin American countries and a literature review was conducted to identify whether policies have been implemented and evaluated. Key information was abstracted. Results: The review identified 115 PAHO policies/interventions implemented (43% implemented after signing the proposed plan in 2014). Nearly all (18/19) countries implemented food guidelines or school feeding programs, but fiscal and marketing policies were less commonly implemented (6/19). Through the review, 44 evaluations of PAHO policies were identified of which 23% were qualitative and 77% quantitative. The results of these evaluations were in general positive (e.g., decrease in sugar-sweetened beverages consumption following tax implementation) but no studies evaluated the outcome of reduced obesity. Conclusions: PAHO recommended policies have been implemented to various degrees in Latin America since 2014 and more research is required to understand their impacts on child and adolescent obesity.

19.
Comp Econ Stud ; : 1-36, 2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668911

RESUMO

In this paper, we examine the consequences of populist government for long-term economic growth and development. To this end, we estimate the long-term growth impact of the Juan Péron's political rule in Argentina, which led to a comprehensive overhaul of the institutional framework laid by the Argentine founding fathers in the 1853 Constitution. Our hypothesis is that the progressive substitution of a growth-enhancing institutional framework by exclusionary growth-distorting frameworks explains Argentina's economic decline from one the world's richest countries on the eve of World War I to an underdeveloped nation in the present day. We emphasize the erosion of the rule of law and restraint of economic freedom during Perón's first government (1943-1955) as two fundamental coadjutant causes of Argentina's decline. The populist legal reforms of Perón had long-lasting adverse economic effects. By comparing Argentina's pre-Péron growth trajectory with a donor pool of 58 countries for the period 1860-2015, we estimate the counterfactual scenario without Péron's reforms. A variety of synthetic control estimates uncover substantial negative effects of the weakening of the rule of law and the populist reforms that began in 1940s on the trajectory of economic growth and development. The populist overhaul negated the economic growth advantages inherent in the 1853 Alberdian constitution. Without the short-sighted populist Peron episodes, Argentina would be a rich country down to the present day with per capita income comparable to southern European countries. We also perform a series of randomization inferences and a battery of placebo analyses, which confirm our results. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1057/s41294-022-00193-4.

20.
Trials ; 23(1): 450, 2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are highly prevalent among university students and predict impaired college performance and later life role functioning. Yet most students do not receive treatment, especially in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). We aim to evaluate the effects of expanding treatment using scalable and inexpensive Internet-delivered transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) among college students with symptoms of MDD and/or GAD in two LMICs in Latin America (Colombia and Mexico) and to investigate the feasibility of creating a precision treatment rule (PTR) to predict for whom iCBT is most effective. METHODS: We will first carry out a multi-site randomized pragmatic clinical trial (N = 1500) of students seeking treatment at student mental health clinics in participating universities or responding to an email offering services. Students on wait lists for clinic services will be randomized to unguided iCBT (33%), guided iCBT (33%), and treatment as usual (TAU) (33%). iCBT will be provided immediately whereas TAU will be whenever a clinic appointment is available. Short-term aggregate effects will be assessed at 90 days and longer-term effects 12 months after randomization. We will use ensemble machine learning to predict heterogeneity of treatment effects of unguided versus guided iCBT versus TAU and develop a precision treatment rule (PTR) to optimize individual student outcome. We will then conduct a second and third trial with separate samples (n = 500 per arm), but with unequal allocation across two arms: 25% will be assigned to the treatment determined to yield optimal outcomes based on the PTR developed in the first trial (PTR for optimal short-term outcomes for Trial 2 and 12-month outcomes for Trial 3), whereas the remaining 75% will be assigned with equal allocation across all three treatment arms. DISCUSSION: By collecting comprehensive baseline characteristics to evaluate heterogeneity of treatment effects, we will provide valuable and innovative information to optimize treatment effects and guide university mental health treatment planning. Such an effort could have enormous public-health implications for the region by increasing the reach of treatment, decreasing unmet need and clinic wait times, and serving as a model of evidence-based intervention planning and implementation. TRIAL STATUS: IRB Approval of Protocol Version 1.0; June 3, 2020. Recruitment began on March 1, 2021. Recruitment is tentatively scheduled to be completed on May 30, 2024. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04780542 . First submission date: February 28, 2021.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Internet , América Latina , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudantes/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Universidades
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