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1.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-8, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213892

RESUMO

Background: The number of ex-prisoners worldwide has constantly been increasing in recent years. Currently, little is known about post-release daily adaptation, not to mention valid and reliable instruments for post-release daily routines pertinent to mental health. Objective: This study aims to develop and validate a self-report instrument, hereafter referred to as Post Release Living Inventory for Ex-prisoners (PORLI-ex). Methods: Three separate samples of ex-prisoners were recruited to complete an online survey (N=1,277, age range=17–89 years, 53.2% male, 72% white). Results: The final model evidenced acceptable goodness-of-fit and consisted of 45 items on nine dimensions, which loaded on three second-order factors: Consolidation (three dimensions; e.g., Institutional Routines), Replacement (two dimensions; e.g., Maladaptive Behaviors), and Addition (four dimensions; e.g., Socializing with Ex-prisoner Friends) (α=.695–.915). Convergent validity was demonstrated in the positive correlations with IADL, SOLI, MLQ, GSE-6, and MSPSS. Discriminant validity was demonstrated in the weak correlations with the LEC-5 and perceived social and personal cost of punishment. Criterion-related validity was demonstrated in the correlations with psychiatric symptoms and crime-related outcomes and incremental validity in the correlations with these measures independent of the scores on IADL, SOLI, MLQ, GSE-6, and MSPSS. Conclusion: This study calls for more resources on fostering psychological strengths and resilience through regularizing basic daily life experiences on top of traditional interventions for risk management among the ex-prisoners. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Saúde Mental , Prisioneiros , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(1): 1-8, ene.-abr. 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213097

RESUMO

Background: Worldwide, approximately 24% of all adults smoke, but smoking is up to twice as prevalent in people with mental ill-health. There is growing evidence that smoking may be a causal risk factor in the development of mental illness, and that smoking cessation leads to improved mental health. Methods: In this scholarly review we have: (1) used a modern adaptation of the Bradford-Hill criteria to bolster the argument that smoking could cause mental ill-health and that smoking cessation could reverse these effects, and (2) by considering psychological, biological, and environmental factors, we have structured the evidence to-date into a stress-diathesis model. Results: Our model suggests that smoking is a psychobiological stressor, but that the magnitude of this effect is mediated and modulated by the individual's diathesis to develop mental ill-health and other vulnerability and protective factors. We explore biological mechanisms that underpin the model, such as tobacco induced damage to neurological systems and oxidative stress pathways. Furthermore, we discuss evidence indicating that it is likely that these systems repair after smoking cessation, leading to better mental health. Conclusion: Based on a large body of literature including experimental, observational, and novel causal inference studies, there is consistent evidence showing that smoking can negatively affect the brain and mental health, and that smoking cessation could reverse the mental ill-health caused by smoking. Our model suggests that smoking prevention and treatment strategies have a role in preventing and treating mental illness as well as physical illness. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar Tabaco , Saúde Mental , Tabagismo , Estresse Psicológico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças
3.
Autism ; : 13623613221144353, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36588296

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: This study used administrative data from Ontario, Canada to compare the health conditions and service use of autistic women and men with adults with other developmental disabilities and with adults without developmental disabilities. Autistic women and men were more likely to have physical and mental health conditions compared to adults without developmental disabilities. Rates of health conditions were similar or lower among autistic adults compared to adults with other developmental disabilities, except more autistic adults had psychiatric conditions. Autistic women and men used higher rates of psychiatric services compared to all other groups. When comparing autistic women with same aged autistic men, sex differences were found for specific physical (Crohn's disease/colitis, rheumatoid arthritis) and psychiatric conditions (psychotic disorders, non-psychotic disorders), as well differences in service use (emergency department visits, hospitalizations, family doctor and neurologist visits). These results further highlight the high health needs and service use of autistic women and men, as well as adults with other developmental disabilities. It is critical for future research to focus on mental health support for autistic adults and to better understand how to tailor supports to best serve autistic women.

4.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 207640221143914, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36591697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years it could be shown that psychosocial working conditions and mental health of employees are closely correlated. One well-established instrument to measure psychosocial stress at work is the COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, German Standard Version). It is an 84 item self-rating instrument addressing several domains of psychosocial working conditions and is generally used for risk assessments in companies. AIMS: To examine associations between COPSOQ ratings with clinical features and symptoms of employees who currently suffer from an episode of a mental illness requiring inpatient treatment. METHOD: For 265 inpatients with mental disorders who participated in a cluster randomized trial (RETURN-study) COPSOQ-data were available as part of the baseline data acquisition. These data were compared with the German COPSOQ validation sample of the Freiburg research center for occupational sciences (FFAW; approximately 250,000 participants). For subdomains of the COPSOQ that showed major and significant differences between the two samples regression analyses were done to predict COPSOQ scores within the RETURN-sample. RESULTS: Psychiatric inpatients did not assess their working conditions significantly different compared to the population based FFAW sample. However, with regard to the effects of working conditions (general health, burnout, presenteeism, and intention to leave the job) there were major differences between the two samples with the clinical sample expressing more negative views. In the RETURN sample these were predicted by a greater expression of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The linkage between work and mental wellbeing is complex. Mental illness is not necessarily a result of poor working conditions, while good working conditions may not in every case prevent symptoms of bad health, even if such associations exist.

5.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 207640221143915, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36591726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Italian anti-institutional psychiatric movement is closely associated with the name of F. Basaglia, whom Szasz in his 188-page essay on antipsychiatry labels a 'real phony' (in similar terms to others considered antipsychiatrists such as D. Cooper, R. Laing, E. Goffman and M. Foucault). Specifically, Szasz says of Basaglia and his work in psychiatry that it's a 'prevarication-illusion about the end of asylum psychiatry in Italy'. AIM/OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to determine whether Szasz's assessments were reliably based on scholarly knowledge of Basaglia's psychiatric work, or can better be attributed to Szasz's misrepresentation of his Italian colleague. METHODS: In considering this question, the paper is timely but, more importantly, it is also unique in considering Basaglia and Szasz together. It is beyond the scope of this article to examine Basaglia's career in detail, and references to it will be made only to clarify Szasz's assertions regarding Basaglia. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: As I will show here, Szasz misconstrued the Basaglian project for a new kind of psychiatry, and for the transformation and closure of the old asylum system. This erroneous view of Basaglia by Szasz is partly associated with his idea that Basaglia and other antipsychiatrists were supported by the modern socialist-therapeutic State.

6.
J Pastoral Care Counsel ; : 15423050221146510, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36591899

RESUMO

This mixed-methods pilot study explored the psychological and emotional experiences of chaplains and the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of workshops designed to support chaplain well-being. After the workshops, scores on a measure of self-compassion increased, while secondary traumatic stress and burnout scores decreased. Qualitative data reflected the range of experiences of chaplaincy as well as the benefits of the workshops. This pilot study supports further exploration of organizational interventions to promote chaplain well-being.

7.
Cult Health Sex ; : 1-16, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592099

RESUMO

To deepen our understanding of sex work stigma, and to its drivers and their interrelation, we conducted an analysis using structural equation modelling of the South African National Sex Worker Survey. We enrolled 3005 women in sex work using multi-stage sampling across all South Africa's provinces. Experience of external/enacted and internalised stigma was widespread. Non-partner rape, intimate partner violence and partner controlling behaviour (often expressions of external/enacted stigma) compounded internalised stigma. These experiences of violence, other manifestations of external/enacted stigma and food insecurity, were key drivers of internalised stigma, and often had an impact on mental health. We found that considerable protection against stigma emanated from viewing sex work positively. This resistance to stigma provided opportunities to shift the narrative. Reducing sex workers' exposure to external/enacted stigmatising behaviour, including by enabling more to work indoors, and providing greater protection from partner violence and rape, are critical for better health and well-being. Ending the criminalisation of sex work is foundational for safer working conditions and better health outcomes for sex workers, similarly providing adequately funded mental and physical health and social care through sex work specific programmes.

8.
J Behav Addict ; 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592331

RESUMO

Background: Video gaming is a popular activity among young people. Time spent with gaming was found to be only moderately associated with gaming disorder. However, patterns of binge gaming (playing more than 5 h consecutively) were rarely considered in research on gaming. This study explores how binge gaming frequency is related with gaming disorder and mental health. Methods: The sample came from the Cohort study on substance use risk factors (C-SURF) and comprised 5,358 young men aged 28.26 years (SD = 1.27). ANCOVA was conducted to estimate the association between binge gaming frequency (gaming at least 5 h consecutively) and gaming disorder (measured with the Game Addiction Scale) as well as indicators of mental health. Results: A total of 33.3% of the sample engaged in binge gaming at least once in the previous year, and 6.1% at least weekly. Frequency of binge gaming was associated with gaming disorder score in a linear dose-response relationship (linear trend = 2.30 [2.14, 2.46]) even if adjusted for time spent gaming (linear trend = 1.24 [1.03, 1.45). More frequent binge gaming was associated with lower life satisfaction and sleep quality, and with more major depression and social anxiety disorder symptoms. Conclusions: Binge gaming patterns, especially daily or almost daily binge gaming, are important to consider with regard to gaming disorder and mental health. Asking about binge gaming may be a promising screening question for gaming related problems. Encouraging regular breaks from gaming may be a valuable prevention strategy to reduce negative outcomes of gaming.

9.
SSM Popul Health ; 21: 101319, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36589276

RESUMO

This quasi-experimental study examined whether "sanctuary city" policies are an effective mechanism for reducing mental health inequalities by immigrant origin status in Latinx populations in California. Ample evidence indicates that people experience mental health problems when restrictive immigration policies are imposed. It remains unclear whether sanctuary city policies can improve population mental health in the groups targeted by restrictive immigration policies: undocumented immigrant Latinxs, documented immigrant Latinxs, and native-born Latinxs. We combined data on California's 482 cities concerning whether and when they implemented a sanctuary policy with health data on approximately 142,000 adults, 6400 adolescents and 13,000 children from the multi-year California Health Interview Survey. After using propensity score matching to identify non-sanctuary cities comparable to sanctuary cities, we estimated respondent-level difference-in-differences models to determine whether sanctuary city policies had beneficial mental health effects on three age groups: adults, adolescents, and children during the period 2007-2018. There was a trend toward improved mental health in sanctuary cities after policy enactment, but the patterns of mental health in the three Latinx immigration sub-groups of each age group did not conform to our hypotheses. Buffering the adverse effects of harsh federal immigration policies may need to involve other approaches, such as expanded local mental health care access. We discuss these results in terms of alternative treatment interference, residents' policy awareness, the policy's capacity to address past health impacts, methodological issues, and potential policy momentum.

10.
JMIR Form Res ; 7: e40135, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mindfulness and meditation have a rich historical tradition, and a growing scientific base of evidence supports their use in creating positive psychological and neuroplastic changes for practitioners. Although meditation can be taught in various ways, the scientific community has yet to systematically study the impact of different types of meditation on neuropsychological outcomes, especially as it pertains to digital implementation. Therefore, it is critical that the instruction of mindfulness be evidence based because meditation is being used in both scientific and clinical settings. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the use of teacher cueing and the integration of neuroscience education into a meditation program. Compassion cueing was chosen as the element of experimental manipulation because traditional lineages of Buddhist meditation teach compassion for self and others as one of the primary outcomes of meditation. We hypothesized that participants receiving compassion cueing would have enhanced neuropsychological outcomes compared with those receiving functional cueing and that gains in neuroscience knowledge would relate to positive neuropsychological outcomes. METHODS: Participants (n=89) were randomized to receive either functional cueing (control group) or compassion cueing (experimental group) and engaged with five 10-minute meditation sessions a week for 4 weeks. All intervention sessions were administered through digital presentation. All participants completed ecological momentary assessments before and after the daily intervention, as well as pre- and postintervention questionnaires. RESULTS: Participants demonstrated significant benefits over time, including increased mindfulness and self-compassion, decreased depression, and gains in neuroscience content (all P<.001); however, no significant between-group differences were found. Daily scores from each day of the intervention showed a statistically significant shift from active toward settled. Importantly, long-term increases in mindfulness were positively correlated to changes in compassion (r=0.326; P=.009) and self-compassion (r=0.424; P<.001) and negatively correlated to changes in anxiety (r=-0.266; P=.03) and depression (r=-0.271; P=.03). Finally, the acute effects of meditation were significantly correlated to the longitudinal outcomes (with a small-to-medium effect size), especially those relevant to mindfulness. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a novel neuroscience-based education-meditation program that enhanced self-regulation as evidenced by improved mindfulness, self-compassion, and mood state. Our findings demonstrate the behavioral importance of engaging with mindfulness meditation and reinforce the idea that the benefits of meditation are independent of teacher cueing behavior. Future studies will need to investigate the brain-based changes underlying these meditation-induced outcomes.

11.
JMIR Form Res ; 7: e38831, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recommender systems have great potential in mental health care to personalize self-guided content for patients, allowing them to supplement their mental health treatment in a scalable way. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we describe and evaluate 2 knowledge-based content recommendation systems as parts of Ginger, an on-demand mental health platform, to bolster engagement in self-guided mental health content. METHODS: We developed two algorithms to provide content recommendations in the Ginger mental health smartphone app: (1) one that uses users' responses to app onboarding questions to recommend content cards and (2) one that uses the semantic similarity between the transcript of a coaching conversation and the description of content cards to make recommendations after every session. As a measure of success for these recommendation algorithms, we examined the relevance of content cards to users' conversations with their coach and completion rates of selected content within the app measured over 14,018 users. RESULTS: In a real-world setting, content consumed in the recommendations section (or "Explore" in the app) had the highest completion rates (3353/7871, 42.6%) compared to other sections of the app, which had an average completion rate of 37.35% (21,982/58,614; P<.001). Within the app's recommendations section, conversation-based content recommendations had 11.4% (1108/2364) higher completion rates per card than onboarding response-based recommendations (1712/4067; P=.003) and 26.1% higher than random recommendations (534/1440; P=.005). Studied via subject matter experts' annotations, conversation-based recommendations had a 16.1% higher relevance rate for the top 5 recommended cards, averaged across sessions of varying lengths, compared to a random control (110 conversational sessions). Finally, it was observed that both age and gender variables were sensitive to different recommendation methods, with responsiveness to personalized recommendations being higher if the users were older than 35 years or identified as male. CONCLUSIONS: Recommender systems can help scale and supplement digital mental health care with personalized content and self-care recommendations. Onboarding-based recommendations are ideal for "cold starting" the process of recommending content for new users and users that tend to use the app just for content but not for therapy or coaching. The conversation-based recommendation algorithm allows for dynamic recommendations based on information gathered during coaching sessions, which is a critical capability, given the changing nature of mental health needs during treatment. The proposed algorithms are just one step toward the direction of outcome-driven personalization in mental health. Our future work will involve a robust causal evaluation of these algorithms using randomized controlled trials, along with consumer feedback-driven improvement of these algorithms, to drive better clinical outcomes.

12.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 12: e38597, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health has become an increasingly significant issue in the workplace. Non-health care workers are experiencing increased levels of psychological symptoms in their workplaces, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, which limited social interactions and health service access. These conditions have a negative effect on employees' mental health and may also be associated with work-related outcomes, such as reduced levels of work engagement. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the most effective methods used for treating workers with mental illness and preventing work-related psychological outcomes. The delivery of internet-based CBT (iCBT) has been established as a result of both technological improvements that have influenced health promotion and prevention components, and limited social contact and health service access. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available evidence concerning the preventive effect of iCBT on employees. METHODS: A systematic search will be conducted across 12 electronic databases, including a hand search for main journals and reference lists. Randomized controlled trials testing the effects of iCBT on psychological outcomes and work engagement among employees will be eligible. Initial keywords will cover the concepts of employees, workers, non-health care personnel, internet-based, web-based, eHealth cognitive behavioral interventions, stress, depression, anxiety, and work engagement, and then a full search strategy will be developed. Following titles, abstracts and the full text will be screened for assessment against the inclusion criteria for the review. Search results will be fully reported and presented per Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Two independent reviewers will screen and extract data, appraise methodological quality using the Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tool, and assess overall quality of evidence with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. A random effects meta-analysis and standardized mean differences using review manager software will be applied to synthesize the effect of iCBT based on similar outcomes. RESULTS: This protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews in March 2022 and is now an ongoing process. The data will be analyzed in August 2022, and the review process should be completed by December 2022. All included studies will be synthesized and presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of iCBT in decreasing psychological distress and optimizing work engagement outcomes among employees. CONCLUSIONS: According to the findings of this study, iCBT therapies will be used to promote mental health concerns such as depressive symptoms, anxiety, psychological distress, stress, insomnia, and resilience among non-health care professionals. In addition, the results will be used to ensure the policy related to reducing psychological distress and optimizing work engagement in the workplace. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/38597.

14.
J Child Sex Abus ; : 1-3, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658774

RESUMO

The author replies to a critique of his paper about false memories in an effort to clarify issues on which there is disagreement. A key point made is that the validity of dissociation as a phenomenon, that is, as reported symptoms, does not depend on theories about the mechanisms of dissociation. There are no proven mechanisms for any mental health symptoms or DSM-5 diagnoses including anxiety, depression, psychosis and substance use disorders.

15.
Pain Med ; 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36661333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that chronic pain patients with mental illness are more likely to receive long-term opioid treatment (LTOT) and at higher doses, but are also at increased risk for opioid-related harm. This study investigates LTOT and its relationship to mental illness in the setting of a university-based outpatient pain clinic with liaison psychiatric care. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of chronic pain patients admitted between 2011 and 2015. After a one-year treatment period, patients with non-opioid treatment, guideline-recommended and high-dose LTOT were compared and multiple regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of higher opioid dosage. RESULTS: Of 769 patients, 46% received LTOT (opioids >90 consecutive days), 13% at high dosage (≥120 oral morphine milligram equivalents (MME)/day). Two-thirds of all patients had mental illness. The prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses and prescription rate of psychotropic medication did not significantly differ between groups. Pain chronicity stages, antidepressants and sex significantly predicted MME/day but explained only a minor part of the variance. The association with antidepressants can be attributed to the prescription of antidepressants for analgesic purposes rather than for treating depression. No association with any other type of psychiatric disorders was observed. CONCLUSION: This study shows that mental health comorbidity is highly prevalent but that the prescribed opioid dosage is independent of it in the clinical setting of this study. The concept of liaison psychiatric care may have essentially contributed to the "detachment" of opioid prescription and psychiatric conditions but cannot be isolated from other potentially contributing factors within this single-center observational study.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662598

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies on PIU are mostly on the non-clinical population. Understanding the experiences of adolescents with problematic internet use (PIU) is critical in shaping nursing interventions and improving the quality of care. AIMS: A comprehensive description of the experiences of adolescents with problematic internet use. METHODS: In the study, descriptive phenomenology design, one of the qualitative research methods, was used. Data were collected using a personal information form and a semi-structured interview form and analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological method (n = 11). RESULTS: As a result of the content analysis, five main themes were identified: reasons of problematic internet use, internet-related perceptions, experiences in accessing the internet, experiences in not being able to access the internet, and consequences of internet use. DISCUSSION: Different from previous studies, adolescents stated that they use the internet because of their lack of activity and their need to spend time with their friends. They stated that when they could not access the internet, they thought they could never live without the internet and started quarrel. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Mental health nurses can use family process maintenance, behavior modification: social skills, mood management, activity therapy and cognitive restructuring interventions when caring for adolescents with PIU.

17.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 125: 107080, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621595

RESUMO

Latino communities within the U.S. are disproportionately affected by persistent, high levels of untreated mental illness. Limited mental health literacy, stigma, and cultural factors are major contributors to Latino mental health treatment disparities. Although Latino individuals may be reluctant to seek out mental health professionals, they often rely on religious congregations when confronted with mental illness. However, religious congregations report major obstacles to collaborating with the mental health sector including the lack of mental health training, staffing, and resources. Strategic partnerships between religious congregations and community-based organizations can be leveraged to target sources of Latino mental health treatment disparities. The National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization, has developed a host of programs tailored to the different needs and segments of the community affected by mental illness, including programs designed to address culturally diverse and faith-based communities. This cluster-randomized controlled trial leverages the collective resources of NAMI and the Diocese of San Bernardino to deliver and evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-level, parish-based, intervention to decrease stigma, increase mental health literacy, and improve access to mental health services among Latino parishioners. This study will enroll 1400 participants from 14 parishes that will be randomly assigned to receive the intervention immediately or a wait-list control condition. The intervention could enrich awareness of mental health issues, shape norms about mental illness, facilitate treatment access, and add support from religious congregations to target Latino mental health disparities using culturally and faith-based tailored approaches.

18.
Gut Microbes ; 15(1): 2162306, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651663

RESUMO

The prevalence of anxiety and depression soared following the COVID-19 pandemic. To effectively treat these conditions, a comprehensive understanding of all etiological factors is needed. This study investigated fecal microbial features associated with mental health outcomes (symptoms of anxiety, depression, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)) in a Spanish cohort in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. Microbial communities from stool samples were profiled in 198 individuals who completed validated, self-report questionnaires. 16S ribosomal RNA gene V3-4 amplicon sequencing was performed. Microbial diversity and community structure were analyzed, together with relative taxonomic abundance. In our cohort of N=198, 17.17% reported depressive symptoms, 37.37% state anxiety symptoms, 40.90% trait anxiety symptoms, and 8.08% PTSD symptoms, with high levels of comorbidity. Individuals with trait anxiety had lower Simpson's diversity. Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans was reduced in individuals with comorbid PTSD + depression + state and trait anxiety symptoms, whilst an expansion of Proteobacteria and depletion of Synergistetes phyla were noted in individuals with depressive symptoms. The relative abundance of Anaerostipes was positively correlated with childhood trauma, and higher levels of Turicibacter sanguinis and lower levels of Lentisphaerae were found in individuals who experienced life-threatening traumas. COVID-19 infection and vaccination influenced the overall microbial composition and were associated with distinct relative taxonomic abundance profiles. These findings will help lay the foundation for future studies to identify microbial role players in symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD and provide future therapeutic targets to improve mental health outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Humanos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/microbiologia , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/microbiologia , Encéfalo
19.
Arch Public Health ; 81(1): 8, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the medicines for mental disorders included in national essential medicines lists with the World Health Organization (WHO) essential medicines list and assess the extent to which economic status and WHO Region account for the differences. METHODS: We searched WHO repository and government sites for national essential medicines lists and we abstracted medicines for mental disorders. We calculated the proportion of WHO essential medicines included, the total number of differences (counting both additions and deletions) between national and WHO model list and the proportion of lists including one second-generation oral antipsychotic plus one new-generation antidepressant. Non-parametric statistics was used to investigate whether these indicators were dependent on economic status and WHO Region. RESULTS: Amongst the 121 identified national lists, the total number of medicines for mental disorders ranged from 2 to 63 (median: 18; IQR: 14 to 25). The median proportion of WHO essential medicines for mental disorders included was 86% (IQR: 71-93%), with 16 countries (13%, 95% CI 7.75-20.5%) including all WHO essential medicines, while the median number of differences with the WHO EML was 11 (IQR: 7 to 15). Country economic level was positively associated with both the proportion of WHO essential medicines included (Spearman's rho = 0.417, p < 0.001) and the number of differences (Spearman's rho = 0.345, p < 0.001), implying that countries with higher income level included more WHO essential medicines, but also more additional medicines. Significant differences were observed in relation to WHO Region, with the African and Western Pacific Region showing the lowest proportions of WHO essential medicines, and the European Region showing the highest median number of differences. Overall, 88 national lists (73%, 95% CI 63-80%) included at least one second-generation oral antipsychotic and new-generation antidepressant, with differences by income level and WHO Region. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of alignment of national lists with the WHO model list is substantial, but there are considerable differences in relation to economic status and WHO Region. These findings may help decision-makers to identify opportunities to improve national lists, aiming to increase access to essential medicines for mental disorders.

20.
SSM Popul Health ; 21: 101321, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36660175

RESUMO

We examine the extent to which residential relocation within and between tenure types is associated with changes in mental health. We focus on four types of housing transition - rent-to-own, own-to-rent, own-to-own, and rent-to-rent - using Australian and UK panel data sets from 2001 to 2017. In both countries, transitions into homeownership and moves away from the mortgaged edges toward the unburdened mainstream of outright ownership are positively associated with mental health. On the other hand, shifts by mortgagors towards more precarious positions on the edges of ownership precipitate dips in mental health when there is exposure to high levels of payment and investment risks. Clearly, residential moves can both alleviate and introduce different kinds of risks that affect affordability. Moreover, tenure transitions have impacts on mental health beyond the impacts of payment and investment risks. However, we observe some cross-national differences in findings. In Australia, loss of homeownership has a negative impact on mental health that outweighs the mental health impacts of attaining ownership. In the UK, these findings are reversed. Acute housing affordability problems following moves in Australia, but not in the UK, are a significant driver of mental health outcomes. These differences have institutional explanations.

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