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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(2): 299-305, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900407

RESUMO

Currently, there is no cure for traumatic spinal cord injury but one therapeutic approach showing promise is gene therapy. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aim to assess the efficacy of gene therapies in pre-clinical models of spinal cord injury and the risk of bias. In this meta-analysis, registered at PROSPERO (Registration ID: CRD42020185008), we identified relevant controlled in vivo studies published in English by searching the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases. No restrictions of the year of publication were applied and the last literature search was conducted on August 3, 2020. We then conducted a random-effects meta-analysis using the restricted maximum likelihood estimator. A total of 71 studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Our results showed that overall, gene therapies were associated with improvements in locomotor score (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68-2.47, Tau2 = 2.13, I2 = 83.6%) and axonal regrowth (SMD: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.92-3.65, Tau2 = 4.13, I2 = 85.5%). There was significant asymmetry in the funnel plots of both outcome measures indicating the presence of publication bias. We used a modified CAMARADES (Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data in Experimental Studies) checklist to assess the risk of bias, finding that the median score was 4 (IQR: 3-5). In particular, reports of allocation concealment and sample size calculations were lacking. In conclusion, gene therapies are showing promise as therapies for spinal cord injury repair, but there is no consensus on which gene or genes should be targeted.

2.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 147: 105969, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335755

RESUMO

Pregnancy and the early postpartum signify a period of high stress. Perinatal stress can include psychological distress (PD), such as anxiety, depression, and stress, as well as neuroendocrine stress, indexed by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the production of the hormone cortisol. Elevated PD and cortisol levels during the perinatal period can have long-term implications for the mother and child. Methodological advances have enabled the sampling of cortisol from hair, to provide a retrospective marker of HPA axis activity over several months. Despite knowing that maternal PD and HPA activity during the perinatal period independently impact health and development, research to date is unclear as to the association between maternal PD and hair cortisol. The present meta-analysis included 29 studies to assess the strength of the relation between maternal PD and hair cortisol levels during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Several sample and methodological factors were assessed as moderators of this effect. Analyses were conducted using multilevel meta-analysis. Results of the multilevel meta-analysis indicated that the overall effect size between PD and HCC was small but not significant z = 0.039, 95% CI [- 0.001, 0.079]. Moderator analyses indicated that the strength of the association between PD and hair cortisol was moderated by pregnancy status (i.e., effects were stronger in pregnant compared to postpartum samples), timing of HCC and PD measurements (i.e., effects were larger when PD was measured before HCC) and geographic location (i.e., effects were larger in North American studies). The findings advance our understanding of the link between PD and HPA activity during the perinatal period, a time of critical impact to child development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Angústia Psicológica , Feminino , Criança , Gravidez , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/química , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/química , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estresse Psicológico , Cabelo/química , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Parto
3.
Heart Lung ; 57: 69-74, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The results of studies comparing the outcomes of catheter ablation (CA) to those of medical therapy (MT) for atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart failure (HF) patients are contradictory. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis that included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared these two therapy options for AF in HF patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library for eligible studies. After reviewing all potential studies, we conducted this meta-analysis with the remaining 10 RCTs. We used a modified Jadad scale to assess the publications' quality, and we used the Risk of Bias 2 tool to assess the RCTs' bias risk. RESULTS: The meta-analysis comprised 2,187 patients. Patients treated with CA had a lower risk of all-cause mortality than patients treated with MT (RR=0.64 [0.5, 0.82]; p < 0.01). The CA group had greater improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) than the MT group (mean difference [MD]=5.38 [1.80, 8.97]; p < 0.01). Patients in the CA group had longer 6-min walking distances than patients in the MT group (MD=20.3 [-4.37, 44.9], p < 0.01). Compared to the MT group, the CAD group demonstrated a greater reduction in scores on the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MD= -9.59 [-16.72, -2.45], p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis highlights the importance of CA in terms of all-cause mortality and includes the highest number of patients of any study on this topic. Moreover, compared to MT, CA therapy is associated with greater improvements in LVEF and quality of life.

4.
BJOG ; 130(2): 143-152, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fifteen percent of patients with endometrial cancer (EC) have advanced stage disease or develop a recurrence. Progestins have been applied as systemic treatment for decades, but there is limited evidence on response prediction with biomarkers and toxicity. OBJECTIVES: To review the response and toxicity of progestin therapy and stratify response to progesterone receptor (PR) expression and tumour grade. SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the search terms 'Endometrial cancer', 'Progestins', 'Disease progression', 'Recurrence' and related terms in Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies on patients with advanced stage or recurrent EC treated with progestin monotherapy were included. Studies on adjuvant therapy, with fewer than ten cases and with sarcoma histology were excluded. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Evaluation for bias was performed with the Revised Cochrane RoB2 tool for randomised studies and the ROBINS-I tool for non-randomised studies. A random effects meta-analysis was performed with the overall response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate and toxicity as primary outcome measures. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-six studies (1639 patients) were included. The ORR of progestin therapy was 30% (95% CI 25-36), the clinical benefit rate was 52% (95% CI 42-61). In PR-positive EC, the ORR was 55%, compared with 12% in PR-negative disease (risk difference 43%, 95% CI 15-71). Severe toxicity occurred in 6.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Progestin therapy is a viable treatment option in patients with advanced stage and recurrent EC with low toxicity and high ORR in PR-positive disease. The role of PR expression in relation to progression-free survival and overall survival is unclear.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 2): 159621, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280069

RESUMO

Moderate grazing has been widely proven to improve ecosystem functioning and have profound effects on the carbon cycling and storage in grassland ecosystems, which highly depend on grazing duration and grassland type. However, the effects of moderate grazing durations on carbon sequestration with different grassland types over broad geographic scales across China remain underexplored in the context of striving for carbon neutrality. Here, we explored the probably different responses of carbon sequestration to moderate grazing duration for temperate and alpine grasslands based on 129 published literatures regarding the China's grasslands. The results showed the soil organic carbon stocks were significantly increased during short-term (<5 years) grazing duration, while significantly decreased during medium- (5-10 years) and long-term (≥ 10 years) grazing durations in temperate grasslands. However, the soil organic carbon stocks were significantly decreased during short-term grazing duration, while showed no significant changes during medium- and long-term grazing durations in alpine grasslands. The changes in soil organic stock were significantly positively correlated with the changes in belowground biomass, root:shoot, and microbial biomass carbon (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the temperate grasslands change from carbon sink to carbon source with moderate grazing duration increasing, while the alpine grasslands present an opposite change pattern from carbon source to carbon sink, regulated by grazing-altered carbon input and microbial activities. Our study might have significant implications for future sustainable management practices for carbon sequestration of China's grasslands.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pradaria , Carbono/análise , Sequestro de Carbono , Solo , Poaceae , Biomassa , China
6.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 44(1): 103548, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283163

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical studies exploring the association between antenatal corticosteroids exposure and hearing loss in preterm infants. METHOD: PubMed, Cochrane library, and EMBASE databases from the inception dates to December 22, 2020 without language restriction. Key search terms included hearing loss, cortisol steroid, and antenatal. Included studies were case control or cohort studies examining preterm (<37 weeks' gestation) or very low-birth-weight (<1500 g) infants and reporting primary data that could be used to explore the association between antenatal corticosteroids exposure and the development of hearing outcomes. This meta-analysis follows the reporting guidelines (MOOSE) for observational studies. Data were independently extracted by 2 researchers. A fixed effects model was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % CI. Subgroup analysis was conducted according to different types of antenatal steroids exposure (dexamethasone vs betamethasone) and subgroup analyses based on betamethasone and betamethasone combined with magnesium sulfate (betamethasone vs betamethasone combined with magnesium sulfate). RESULTS: A total of 110 potentially relevant studies were found, of which 7 met the inclusion criteria (A total of 8130 preterm infants were included. 5337 preterm infants were exposed to antenatal corticosteroids, and 2793 preterm infants were not exposed to antenatal corticosteroids.). Meta-analysis showed that antenatal corticosteroids exposure was significantly associated with hearing loss in preterm infants. (OR, 0.64; 95 % CI, 0.48-0.87; P = 0.004) In addition, significant differences were found between antenatal betamethasone exposure and antenatal dexamethasone exposure. (OR, 0.27; 95 % CI, 0.10-0.77; P = 0.01) Betamethasone and betamethasone combined with magnesium sulfate showed that the difference was no statistically significant. (OR, 1.34; 95 % CI, 0.74-2.43; P = 0.33). CONCLUSION: The results of this study confirm that among preterm infants, exposure to antenatal corticosteroids exposure is associated with a lower risk of developing hearing impairment. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO 2021 CRD42021255665.


Assuntos
Surdez , Perda Auditiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Sulfato de Magnésio , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Betametasona/efeitos adversos , Perda Auditiva/induzido quimicamente , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva/prevenção & controle , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
7.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 78: 101777, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Guided and unguided self-help prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders delivered via traditional book format or internet delivery have been widely researched, but no reviews have focused specifically on young people. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of randomised controlled trials of self-help interventions for eating disorders in young people with a mean age between 13 and 24 years. METHODS: A total of 8 intervention groups across 7 publications of self-help interventions which were prevention and treatment trials for eating disorders, were identified (N = 985 participants; mean pooled age = âˆ¼19 years). RESULTS: There was a significant very small effect (pooled g = -0.17) of self-help interventions at post-treatment which was non-significant at follow-up (pooled g = -0.14). No evidence of publication bias was found. LIMITATIONS: There were limitations of the review, including a lack of active treatment comparisons, a small number of trials included, and few studies included an age range. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this preliminary meta-analysis suggest very small but significant effects, however further studies are required to determine whether self-help approaches are effective for prevention and treatment of eating disorder symptoms in young people. Future meta-analyses should include a larger number of trials, and younger age range of children to examine the efficacy of self-help interventions for eating disorders in young people.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 2): 120614, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356885

RESUMO

Over the last century, human activities have increased the amount of nutrients inputs to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These activities have altered nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling, causing substantial changes in ecosystem function such as provision of clean air and water. Strategies that reduce and remove excess nutrients are urgently needed to remediate impacted systems. Reef-forming shellfish (oysters and mussels) can play a crucial role in nutrient cycling, particularly in N removal from aquatic systems by providing substrate for microbial colonisation and enhancing microbial denitrification in the surrounding sediments. However, the potential for shellfish to enhance nutrient cycling (and denitrification) will likely vary spatially and in response to several environmental factors. Here, we used 1) a qualitative analysis to review nutrient processes occurring on shellfish; and 2) a meta-analysis to evaluate the influence of shellfish on benthic metabolism and nutrient cycling in surrounding sediments, and how that is influenced by environmental factors such as grain size, seasonality, water body type, and tidal position. Overall, we found that shellfish increased oxygen consumption, with consequent release of ammonia (NH4+) and phosphate (PO43-) from shellfish and their surrounding sediments. These parameters did not depend on grain size, water body type and tidal height, but the release of PO43- was variable between seasons, being highest during summer and autumn. Shellfish presence also enhanced denitrification measured as dinitrogen gas (N2) efflux on both reefs and sediments. Denitrification was highest in lagoons; in sandy sediments; and during the warmest season (summer). Thus, our findings highlight that environmental context can mediate the effects of shellfish reefs on sediment function. This information is important for managers seeking to use these animals as an effective bioremediation tool.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Animais , Humanos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Frutos do Mar , Água
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 302(Pt A): 115860, 2023 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341813

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbs in the world for the treatment of various diseases, and ginsenoside is the representative bioactive component in ginseng. There have been many in vivo studies on ginsenoside for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN), the most common diabetic microvascular complication and the main cause of diabetic morbidity and mortality. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of ginsenosides on DN by preclinical evidence and meta-analysis. Meanwhile, the main possible action mechanisms of ginsenosides against DN were also summarized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, WOS, Embase, Cochrane, WanFang, Cqvip, CNKI and CBM databases from January 1, 2000, to November 15, 2021, to evaluate the animal experiments of ginsenosides for the treatment of DN. Finally, 30 animal experiments were included. Twelve outcome measures, including renal function indicators (24-h urine protein, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, uric acid, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio), oxidative stress biomarkers (GPX, MDA, SOD), inflammatory factors (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α) were obtained by using RevMan 5.4 software for meta-analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that except for no significant difference in CCr, other indicators such as 24h UP, SCr, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and UACR were significantly decreased. It showed that ginsenoside could improve renal function in diabetes. Meanwhile ginsenoside significantly up-regulated antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPX, down-regulated MDA and inflammatory factors IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α, indicating that ginsenoside may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. CONCLUSION: Ginsenoside can protect against the renal failure in diabetes through anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-renal fibrosis, anti-apoptosis/pyroptosis, regulation of blood glucose/lipid metabolism, etc. Which provides preclinical evidence for the application of ginsenoside in the treatment of DN.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Creatinina , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-1 , Interleucina-6 , Superóxido Dismutase , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Ácido Úrico
10.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1868): 20210438, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36440556

RESUMO

Past research hypothesized that men and women differ in their tendency to cooperate with strangers in situations that involve a conflict of interests. However, recent empirical research has provided converging evidence that men and women cooperate to a similar extent, and that differences in cooperation can emerge in response to specific situational and societal contexts. Here we analyse six decades of empirical research on human cooperation using social dilemmas (1961-2017, k = 126) conducted across 20 industrialized societies, testing pre-registered hypotheses derived from evolutionary theory and social role theory. Overall, our findings revealed little-to-no evidence for an association between gender and cooperation using different meta-analytic approaches. We did not find within-study differences in cooperation between men and women (d = 0.011, 95% CI [-0.038, 0.060]). However, cooperation was slightly higher across studies with predominantly female samples (k = 972). In addition, contrary to our predictions, gender differences in cooperation did not emerge in response to the degree of conflicting interests in the situation, and societal levels of gender equality and economic development. We discuss the implications of these findings for our understanding of gender differences in cooperation. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cooperation among women: evolutionary and cross-cultural perspectives'.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 1): 159808, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341851

RESUMO

Anthropogenic activities have increased atmospheric N, precipitation, and temperature events in terrestrial ecosystems globally, with N deposition increasing by 3- to 5-fold during the previous century. Despite decades of scientific research, no consensus has been achieved on the impact of climate conditions on soil respiration (Rs). Here, we reconstructed 110 published studies across diverse biomes, magnitudes, and driving variables to evaluate how Rs responds to N addition, altered precipitation (both enhanced and reduced precipitation or precipitation changes), and warming. Our findings show that N addition significantly increased Rs by 44 % in forests and decreased it by 19 % and 26 % in croplands and grasslands, respectively (P < 0.05). In forests and croplands, altered precipitation significantly increased Rs by 51 % and 17 % (all, P < 0.05), respectively, whereas impacts on grassland were insignificant. In comparison, warming stimulated Rs by 62 % in forests but inhibited it by 10 % in croplands (all, P < 0.05), whereas impacts on grassland were again insignificant. In addition, across all biomes, the responses of Rs to altered precipitation and warming followed a Gaussian response, increasing up to a threshold of 1800 mm and 25 °C, respectively, above which respiration rates decreased with further increases in precipitation and temperature. Our work suggests that the dual interaction of warming × altered precipitation promotes belowground CO2 emission, thus enhancing global warming. In general, the interactive effect of N addition × altered precipitation decreases Rs. Soil moisture was identified as a primary driver of Rs. Given these findings, we recommend future research on warming vs. changed precipitation to better forecast and understand the interaction between Rs and climate change.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Nitrogênio , Mudança Climática , Respiração , Pradaria
12.
Addiction ; 118(1): 7-16, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35815384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A total of 2.4 million adults in England were dispensed a benzodiazepine or Z-drug (BZRA) in 2017/18, and more than 250 000 patients in the UK take BZRAs beyond the recommended duration. Deprescribing is a clinician-guided process of withdrawing inappropriate drugs. This review aimed to evaluate the evidence base supporting the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of all forms of deprescribing initiatives used to discontinue long-term (≥ 4 weeks) BZRAs. METHOD: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials evaluating BZRAs deprescribing among adults in community, primary or outpatient settings. MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO were searched from inception to February 2021. Primary outcomes were successful discontinuation in the short (< 4 weeks) or long term (≥ 4 weeks) and the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms, behavioural or psychological symptoms. Studies were categorized as pharmacological or non-pharmacological supported interventions. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Where appropriate, risk ratios (RRs), mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and Mantel-Haenszel methods using the random-effect meta-analysis was undertaken to calculate summary effect estimates. RESULTS: Ten studies were included (n = 1431 participants). Heterogeneity in study design and effect was observed. Benzodiazepines were successfully deprescribed when gradually tapered with non-pharmacological support compared with gradual tapering alone in the short term (n = 124; RR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.41, 2.89) and long term (n = 123; RR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.56, 3.85). Benzodiazepine deprescribing was more successful when supported by non-pharmacological methods versus routine care (n = 189; RR = 3.26; 95% CI = 2.36, 4.51). Quality of evidence reporting effectiveness was very low to low. CONCLUSIONS: It may be feasible to deprescribe benzodiazepines depending on the process and support mechanisms employed.


Assuntos
Desprescrições , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Adulto , Humanos , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Atten Disord ; 27(2): 182-200, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36278436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Utilizing a multi-level meta-analytic approach, this review is the first to systematically quantify the efficacy of reading interventions for school-aged children with ADHD and identify potential factors that may increase the success of reading-related interventions for these children. METHOD: 18 studies (15 peer-reviewed articles, 3 dissertations) published from 1986 to 2020 (N = 564) were meta-analyzed. RESULTS: Findings revealed reading interventions are highly effective for improving reading skills based on both study-developed/curriculum-based measures (g = 1.91) and standardized/norm-referenced achievement tests (g = 1.11) in high-quality studies of children with rigorously-diagnosed ADHD. Reading interventions that include at least 30 hours of intervention targeting decoding/phonemic awareness meet all benchmarks to be considered a Level 1 (Well-Established) Evidence-Based Practice with Strong Research Support for children with ADHD based on clinical and special education criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings collectively indicate that reading interventions should be the first-line treatment for reading difficulties among at-risk readers with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Leitura , Criança , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Logro , Educação Especial
14.
J Atten Disord ; 27(2): 124-144, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of ADHD, but associations between risk factors and ADHD symptom severity in affected children remain unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesizes evidence on the association between familial factors and symptom severity in children with ADHD (PROSPERO CRD42020076440). METHOD: PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for eligible studies. RESULTS: Forty-three studies (N = 11,123 participants) were meta-analyzed. Five additional studies (N = 2,643 participants) were considered in the supplemental review. Parenting stress (r = .25), negative parenting practices (r = .19), broken parental partnership (r = .19), critical life events (r = .17), parental psychopathologies (r = .14-.16), socioeconomic status (r = -.10), and single-parent family (r = .10) were significantly associated with ADHD symptom severity. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that psychosocial familial factors show small but significant associations with symptom severity in children with ADHD. Implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Poder Familiar
15.
Surv Ophthalmol ; 68(1): 126-141, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988744

RESUMO

We estimated the proportion of children with stereopsis following surgery in congenital and developmental cataracts by systematic review and meta-analysis and also considered the factors influencing stereopsis, such as intervention age and presence of strabismus. Stereopsis is directly related to quality of life, and investigating its levels following cataract surgery in children may help decide the right time to intervene, particularly in the context of brain plasticity. We conducted a systematic literature search using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science and found 25 case series, 3 cohorts, and 3 clinical trial studies from 1/1/1995 to 31/12/2020. Study-specific proportions of stereopsis from 923 children were pooled using a random-effects model, and stratified analyses were conducted based on intervention age and pre-existing strabismus as a confounder. We appraised the risk of bias using tools published by National Institutes of Health and evaluated publication bias with funnel plots and the Egger test. The pooled proportions of stereopsis based on 8 unilateral and 6 bilateral congenital cataract studies were 0.37 (95% CIs: [0.24, 0.53]) and 0.45 (95% CIs: [0.24,0.68]) when patients with preexisting strabismus were excluded as a confounder. When the intervention age was ≤6 months, proportions in unilateral congenital cataract group significantly increased to 0.52 (95% CIs: [0.37, 0.66]; P = 0.49) compared to 0.26 (95% CIs: [0.14, 0.44]; P = 0.16) otherwise. A similar increase in proportions was found when intervention age ≤4 months. In both unilateral and bilateral congenital cataract groups, proportions increased significantly when the confounder was excluded. Overall, proportions in bilateral congenital cataracts were significantly greater than unilateral cases (irrespective of confounder). Eight unilateral and 5 bilateral developmental cataract studies resulted in pooled proportions of 0.62 (95% CIs: [0.27, 0.88] and 0.82 (95% CIs: [0.4, 0.97]), respectively. Although proportions for bilateral developmental cataracts were greater than unilateral cataracts (irrespective of confounder), results were not statistically significant. Finally, proportions in unilateral developmental cataracts were significantly greater than unilateral congenital cataracts (Z = 7.413, P = 6.173694e-14). We conclude that surgical intervention within first 4-6 months can significantly affect postoperative outcomes in unilateral congenital cataracts. Analysis of existing data does not show a significant effect of intervention age on stereopsis outcomes for developmental cataracts.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Catarata , Estrabismo , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Qualidade de Vida , Acuidade Visual , Extração de Catarata/métodos , Percepção de Profundidade , Catarata/complicações , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seguimentos
16.
J Environ Manage ; 326(Pt B): 116692, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435140

RESUMO

Previous original research focused on wetland loss and finding out its drivers across different regional units of the world. A few reports also tried to account world's condition on wetland loss. A couple of review articles articulated the causes of wetland loss and services. The present study intended to explore the linkage between wetland loss rate and processes concerning socio-ecological well-being parameters to highlight alternative ways to adopt wetland conservation policies. A total of 132 pieces of Scopus index literature were taken analysing loss rate and drivers of loss from 22 sample countries where publication frequency is relatively high. Meta-analysis was done to explain the publication trend and spatial change in publication polarity. Results distinctly revealed that the rate of wetland loss varies from 0.06% to 4.81% annually, with substantially low in developed countries (DC) than in developing (DeV) and least developed countries (LDC). Six drivers, such as agricultural land expansion, the built-up area, the conversion to grassland area, construction of the dam, climate change and tourism, were the primary drivers. But all these are not equally active across the DC, DeV and LDC. Climate change, tourism development in DC, agriculture and built-up expansions in the Dev and LDC appeared as the major causes behind wetland loss. Socio-ecological well-being parameters like human development, environmental performance, social progression, and economic status were found to be significantly negatively (-0.48 to -0.57), and the poverty rate was positively (0.27) associated with the rates of wetland loss. Drivers also varied with respect to the socio-ecological conditions. These findings are not merely added knowledge to the state-of-arts but are also helpful in re-directing global policies toward wetland conservation.

17.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 247: 114079, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke remains the second cause of death worldwide. The mechanisms underlying the adverse association of exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) with overall cardiovascular disease may also apply to stroke. Our objective was to systematically evaluate the epidemiological evidence regarding the associations of long-term exposure to TRAP with stroke. METHODS: PubMed and LUDOK electronic databases were searched systematically for observational epidemiological studies from 1980 through 2019 on long-term exposure to TRAP and stroke with an update in January 2022. TRAP was defined according to a comprehensive protocol based on pollutant and exposure assessment methods or proximity metrics. Study selection, data extraction, risk of bias (RoB) and confidence assessments were conducted according to standardized protocols. We performed meta-analyses using random effects models; sensitivity analyses were assessed by geographic area, RoB, fatality, traffic specificity and new studies. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were included. The meta-analytic relative risks (and 95% confidence intervals) were: 1.03 (0.98-1.09) per 1 µg/m3 EC, 1.09 (0.96-1.23) per 10 µg/m3 PM10, 1.08 (0.89-1.32) per 5 µg/m3 PM2.5, 0.98 (0.92; 1.05) per 10 µg/m3 NO2 and 0.99 (0.94; 1.04) per 20 µg/m3 NOx with little to moderate heterogeneity based on 6, 5, 4, 7 and 8 studies, respectively. The confidence assessments regarding the quality of the body of evidence and separately regarding the presence of an association of TRAP with stroke considering all available evidence were rated low and moderate, respectively. CONCLUSION: The available literature provides low to moderate evidence for an association of TRAP with stroke.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158688, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108836

RESUMO

Zero-waste biochar is an emerging tool for carbon neutralization, but the role of biochar in reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from CWs were controversy and uncertainty. Yet, no previous study has integrated multiple research systems to quantitatively examine biochar-mediated GHGs emission reduction potential in CWs. Here we synthesized 114 studies to quantify biochar-induced declines ability of GHGs in the CWs by using the multi-level meta-analysis, reveal the variation of GHGs emission effect in different biochar-CWs and its response relationship with biochar, and identify the moderating variables that had a strong explanatory effect on the emission reduction effect of biochar. We showed that biochar remarkably affect CO2 mitigation (p < 0.05), but has insignificant and heterogeneous effects on CH4 and N2O. Pyrolysis time, influent dissolved oxygen (DO), influent NO3--N concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and wetland type can significantly affect the effect of biochar on CH4 emission reduction. Particularly, the importance of HRT and wetland type was 0.89 and 0.85, respectively. Specially, the surface batch CWs modified by biochar could significantly promote the emission of CH4 (p < 0.001), and the effect size was up to 89.59. For N2O, biochar diameter, biochar addition ratio, influent COD/TN ratio, plant name, and removal efficiency of NO3--N/TN/COD were significant moderators. Among them, influent COD/TN ratio and plant name showed a stronger explanation. Planting Cyperus alternifolius L. significantly enhanced the N2O emission reduction capacity by biochar (p < 0.001), and effect size was as low as -24.32. 700-900 °C biochar can promote CH4 flux but inhibit N2O flux. This study provides an important theoretical basis and valuable strategic guidance for more accurate estimation and improvement of synergistic emission reduction benefits between CH4 and N2O of biochar in CWs.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Metano/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise
19.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 104: 104837, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of rhythmic movement interventions on the physical and cognitive functions among cognitively healthy older adults. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang Data, and VIP databases from inception to March 30, 2022. The inclusion criteria were: ① randomized controlled trials (RCTs); ② older adults (aged ≥ 60 years) without cognitive impairments or neurological or neurodegenerative diseases; ③ intervention: rhythmic movement (rhythmic exercise or physical activities performed to music); ④ outcomes: physical or cognitive function. Overall, 44 RCTs across 20 countries (n = 2752 participants) were included. RESULTS: An association was found between rhythmic movement and improved physical function (mobility, cardiopulmonary endurance, muscle strength, flexibility, and balance), global cognitive function, and quality of life (QOL). The physical function outcomes suggested additional significant benefits when using control groups with no exercise than when using control groups with exercise. No significant improvement was found in executive function. CONCLUSION: Regular rhythmic movement likely improves physical function, global cognitive function, and QOL in healthy older adults. The effect of rhythmic movement on the physical function in older adults is similar to that of routine exercise. Further studies on cognitive function of healthy older adults using larger samples of populations with more balanced sex ratios with long-term follow-up are particularly encouraged.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Idoso , Cognição/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Força Muscular
20.
Phytomedicine ; 108: 154531, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (OS), a medicinal fungus, has been made into OS preparations, which are frequently used as adjunctive therapy for patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD) in China. It is necessary to assess the efficacy and safety of OS preparations in the adjunctive treatment of DKD by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: Ophiocordyceps sinensis preparations were evaluated for their efficacy and safety as adjunctive therapy to conventional drugs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)) for DKD. METHODS: We searched seven electronic literature databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ACEI/ARB and OS combined with ACEI/ARB from inception up to March 2022. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias independently. Evidence certainty was rated using the GRADE system. Standardized mean difference (SMD) or mean difference (MD) was pooled with random effects models and was reported with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Meta-analysis, sensitivity analysis and Egger's test were performed using R software (version 14.2) (PROSPERO registration no. CRD42021248634). RESULTS: Thirty eight RCTs involving 3167 patients met the inclusion criteria. No trials were reported with outcomes about kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events. In meta-analysis, compared with the control group of ACEI/ARB alone, OS combined with ACEI/ARB can achieve better effects in the treatment of DKD on reducing serum creatinine (Scr) [MDScr =-11.48 95% CI [-15.78, -7.18], p < 0.01], blood urea nitrogen (BUN) [MDBUN= -1.00, 95% CI [-1.44, -0.55], p < 0.01], ß2-microglobulin (ß2-MG) [SMDß2-MG= -1.32, 95% CI [-2.27, -0.37], p < 0.01], cystatin C (CysC) [MDCysC=-0.64, 95% CI [-0.83, -0.45], p < 0.01], 24-h urine proteinuria (24hUP) [SMD24hUP= -1.99, 95% CI [-2.68; -1.31], p < 0.01], urine microalbumin (UALB) [MDUALB= -37.41, 95% CI [-44.76, -30.06], p < 0.01] and decreasing urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) [MDUAER= -24.11, 95% CI [-30.54, -17.68], p < 0.01] and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) [SMDACR = 1.01, 95% CI [-1.73, -0.29], p < 0.01]. The OS adjuvant treatment also improved outcomes of blood pressure, blood glucose, blood lipid, inflammation and oxidative stress. No significant change in fasting blood glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), malondialdehyde (MDA), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1) was detected. Yet, no significant difference was found about the adverse events between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Ophiocordyceps sinensis preparation combined with ACEI/ARB has beneficial influence on renal function, decrease proteinuria, dyslipidemia, and even oxidative stress and inflammation in DKD patients. However, there is no trial that evaluated outcomes of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events. Future study should move beyond surrogate endpoints to actual cardiovascular or renal outcome benefits with an aim to explore effects of OS preparation in the long-term.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Cordyceps , Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Humanos , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Inflamação , Albuminas
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