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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 147: 617-629, 2025 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003076

RESUMO

The manganese-cobalt mixed oxide nanorods were fabricated using a hydrothermal method with different metal precursors (KMnO4 and MnSO4·H2O for MnOx and Co(NO3)2⋅6H2O and CoCl2⋅6H2O for Co3O4). Bamboo-like MnO2⋅Co3O4 (B-MnO2⋅Co3O4 (S)) was derived from repeated hydrothermal treatments with Co3O4@MnO2 and MnSO4⋅H2O, whereas Co3O4@MnO2 nanorods were derived from hydrothermal treatment with Co3O4 nanorods and KMnO4. The study shows that manganese oxide was tetragonal, while the cobalt oxide was found to be cubic in the crystalline arrangement. Mn surface ions were present in multiple oxidation states (e.g., Mn4+ and Mn3+) and surface oxygen deficiencies. The content of adsorbed oxygen species and reducibility at low temperature declined in the sequence of B-MnO2⋅Co3O4 (S) > Co3O4@MnO2 > MnO2 > Co3O4, matching the changing trend in activity. Among all the samples, B-MnO2⋅Co3O4 (S) showed the preeminent catalytic performance for the oxidation of toluene (T10% = 187°C, T50% = 276°C, and T90% = 339°C). In addition, the B-MnO2⋅Co3O4 (S) sample also exhibited good H2O-, CO2-, and SO2-resistant performance. The good catalytic performance of B-MnO2⋅Co3O4 (S) is due to the high concentration of adsorbed oxygen species and good reducibility at low temperature. Toluene oxidation over B-MnO2⋅Co3O4 (S) proceeds through the adsorption of O2 and toluene to form O*, OH*, and H2C(C6H5)* species, which then react to produce benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid, and benzaldehyde, ultimately converting to CO2 and H2O. The findings suggest that B-MnO2⋅Co3O4 (S) has promising potential for use as an effective catalyst in practical applications.


Assuntos
Cobalto , Compostos de Manganês , Oxirredução , Óxidos , Tolueno , Óxidos/química , Compostos de Manganês/química , Catálise , Cobalto/química , Tolueno/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 947: 174743, 2024 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39004353

RESUMO

Coastal soft cliffs are subject to changes related to both marine and subaerial processes. It is imperative to comprehend the processes governing cliff erosion and develop predictive models for effective coastal protection. The primary objective of this study was to bridge the existing knowledge gap by elucidating the intricate relationship between changes in cliff system morphology and the driving forces behind these changes, all within the context of ongoing climate change. Therefore in this study, we employed various quantitative numerical methods to investigate the factors influencing coastal cliffs and the adjacent beaches. Our analysis involved the extraction of several morphological indicators, derived from terrestrial laser scanning data, which were then used to assess how cliffs respond to extreme weather events. The data span two winter storm seasons (2016-2018) and encompass three soft-cliff systems situated along the southern Baltic Sea, each characterized by distinct beach and cliff morphology. We conducted a detailed analysis of short-term cliff responses using various data mining techniques, revealing intricate mechanisms that govern beach and cliff changes. This comprehensive analysis has enabled the development of a classification system for soft cliff dynamics. Our statistical analysis highlights that each study area exhibits a unique conditional dependency between erosion processes and hydrometeorological conditions, both during and between storm events. Furthermore, our findings underscore the vulnerability of cliff coastlines to extreme water levels and episodes of intense precipitation.

3.
FASEB Bioadv ; 6(7): 207-221, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38974113

RESUMO

The tree-like morphology of neurons and glia is a key cellular determinant of circuit connectivity and metabolic function in the nervous system of essentially all animals. To elucidate the contribution of specific cell types to both physiological and pathological brain states, it is important to access detailed neuroanatomy data for quantitative analysis and computational modeling. NeuroMorpho.Org is the largest online collection of freely available digital neural reconstructions and related metadata and is continuously updated with new uploads. Earlier in the project, we released multiple datasets together yearly, but this process caused an average delay of several months in making the data public. Moreover, in the past 5 years, >80% of invited authors agreed to share their data with the community via NeuroMorpho.Org, up from <20% in the first 5 years of the project. In the same period, the average number of reconstructions per publication increased 600%, creating the need for automatic processing to release more reconstructions in less time. The progressive automation of our pipeline enabled the transition to agile releases of individual datasets as soon as they are ready. The overall time from data identification to public sharing decreased by 63.7%; 78% of the datasets are now released in less than 3 months with an average workflow duration below 40 days. Furthermore, the mean processing time per reconstruction dropped from 3 h to 2 min. With these continuous improvements, NeuroMorpho.Org strives to forge a positive culture of open data. Most importantly, the new, original research enabled through reuse of datasets across the world has a multiplicative effect on science discovery, benefiting both authors and users.

4.
Syst Biol Reprod Med ; 70(1): 218-227, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39013025

RESUMO

Sperm-derived genetic material contributes half of the genome to the embryo, hence it's crucial to investigate which sperm parameter influences blastocyst formation in the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with severe male infertility. The retrospective study analyzed 296 ICSI cycles with severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) and 99 ICSI cycles with preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A). Following the correlation analysis, data stratifications were performed in the OAT ICSI subgroup. The results showed that the matching blastocyst in the OAT ICSI cycles had inferior sperm parameters. DFI and sperm morphology had an influence on the blastocyst formation rate and the high-quality blastocysts formation rate on Day6, but no significant effect on the blastocyst development on Day 5. The high-quality blastocysts formation rate and ratio of high-quality blastocyst on Day 6 were demonstrably better in the subgroup of the teratozoospermic morphology when DFI was within the normal range. In the case of the normal sperm morphology, no statistically significant difference was found in blastocyst development, although there were numerical differences within different DFI subgroups. It was concluded that the blastocyst quality and development declined with the decreased sperm qualities.


Assuntos
Blastocisto , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Espermatozoides , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Adulto , Infertilidade Masculina/terapia , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Oligospermia/terapia , Oligospermia/fisiopatologia
5.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2405716, 2024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39013077

RESUMO

Achieving efficient and large-area organic solar modules via non-halogenated solution processing is vital for the commercialization yet challenging. The primary hurdle is the conservation of the ideal film-formation kinetics and bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) morphology of large-area organic solar cells (OSCs). A cutting-edge non-fullerene acceptor (NFA), Y6, shows efficient power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) when processed with toxic halogenated solvents, but exhibits poor solubility in non-halogenated solvents, resulting in suboptimal morphology. Therefore, in this study, the impact of modifying the inner and outer side-chains of Y6 on OSC performance is investigated. The study reveals that blending a polymer donor, PM6, with one of the modified NFAs, namely N-HD, achieved an impressive PCE of 18.3% on a small-area OSC. This modified NFA displays improved solubility in o-xylene at room temperature, which facilitated the formation of a favorable BHJ morphology. A large-area (55 cm2) sub-module delivered an impressive PCE of 12.2% based on N-HD using o-xylene under ambient conditions. These findings underscore the significant impact of the modified Y6 derivatives on structural arrangements and film processing over a large-area module at room temperature. Consequently, these results are poised to deepen the comprehension of the scaling challenges encountered in OSCs and may contribute to their commercialization.

6.
World Neurosurg ; 2024 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39013499

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) due to venous compression is far less common than that due to arterial compression, and its pathogenesis is less clear. We investigated the clinical and imaging features of TN caused by solely venous compression by measuring the morphologies of the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) and the trigeminal nerve. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of TN patients who underwent microvascular decompression at our institution and extracted cases with solely arterial or solely venous compression. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging was used to find the length (Y), width (X), height (Z), and volume (V) of the PCF, the angle between the trigeminal nerve and pons (TPA), and the distance between Meckel's cave and the root entry zone (REZ) of the trigeminal nerve. RESULTS: Of 152 patients, 24 had TN caused solely by venous compression. The value of Y was significantly smaller in the venous group than the arterial group (P<0.01). The TPA was significantly smaller in the venous group (P<0.01). We hypothesized that TN patients with solely venous compression had a characteristic PCF morphology with a short anteroposterior diameter (Y), such that age-related changes in brain morphology could alter the course of the trigeminal nerve and cause compression by a vein. CONCLUSIONS: The morphological features of the PCF differed between patients with TN of venous and those with TN of arterial etiology. Age-related changes in brain morphology and changes of course of the trigeminal nerve may also add to the possibility of developing TN, especially of venous etiology.

7.
J Fish Biol ; 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39016103

RESUMO

The current study aims to uncover the early life-history stages of Systomus sarana, a medium-sized smiliogastrin cyprinid important for aquaculture in South Asia. The fish were effectively bred in captivity by administering 0.25 mL of breeding hormone per kilogram of fish. The spawning occurred 8.54 ± 0.55 h after the injection, and the eggs were phyto-lithophilic with a pale yellow color and a diameter of 1.49 ± 0.04 mm. Hatching occurred 17 h after fertilization, and the yolk-sac larvae of 3.43 ± 0.08 mm total length (TL) were adhering to the plant parts and other substrata with the cement glands on the forehead. On the third day, with complete absorption of the yolk sac and the disappearance of the attachment organ, the pre-flexion larvae measured 5.3 ± 0.11 mm TL. On the eighth day, the flexion larvae measured 6 ± 0.4 mm TL with a well-inflated posterior swim bladder, and the post-flexion larvae, at 11 days post-hatching (dph), developed a two-chambered gas bladder. The juvenile stage, on day 21 post-hatching, was marked by the loss of the median finfolds and the appearance of black blotches on the caudal, subdorsal, and supra-anal regions. The commencement of squamation and the appearance of the rudiments of maxillary barbels distinguished the juvenile stage. The subadults measuring 4.6 ± 0.36 cm TL had finished squamation and completely lost the subdorsal and supra-anal blotches. We propose that the presence of subdorsal blotches is a distinctive ontogenetic and systematic feature of larval and juvenile forms of smiliogastrin barbs.

8.
Chemphyschem ; : e202400580, 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39016162

RESUMO

In formulas employed for analysis of organic electronic devices, the relative dielectric constant value of the semiconductor organic films is often assumed rather than measured, even though it is a fundamental parameter for a correct interpretation. This is particularly true for ultrathin films made of discrete molecular layers. In this work, Spectroscopy Ellipsometry and Scanning Capacitance Microscopy were used to study thin films made of N,N'-bis(n-octyl)-x:y,dicyanoperylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide). The relative dielectric constant presents a non-monotonic trend with thickness: it is equal to 2.1 for one molecular layer, saturating at 3.2 for increasing thickness. This maximum value, equivalent to the bulk one, occurs when the coverage is in between the third to the fourth layer. In this range, the growth switches from a Frank-Van der Merwe (2D growth) to a Volmer-Weber mode (3D growth); in addition, the molecular configuration assumes a bent/distorted geometry with respect to the initial edge-on one. These results establish a morphological dependence of the dielectric constant, especially in the vicinity of the substrate interface, that disappears at a certain distance from it.

9.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39017691

RESUMO

To evaluate the feasibility of acquiring vertebral height from chest low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) images using an artificial intelligence (AI) system based on 3D U-Net vertebral segmentation technology and the correlation and features of vertebral morphology with sex and age of the Chinese population. Patients who underwent chest LDCT between September 2020 and April 2023 were enrolled. The Altman and Pearson's correlation analyses were used to compare the correlation and consistency between the AI software and manual measurement of vertebral height. The anterior height (Ha), middle height (Hm), posterior height (Hp), and vertebral height ratios (VHRs) (Ha/Hp and Hm/Hp) were measured from T1 to L2 using an AI system. The VHR is the ratio of Ha to Hp or the ratio of Hm to Hp of the vertebrae, which can reflect the shape of the anterior wedge and biconcave vertebrae. Changes in these parameters, particularly the VHR, were analysed at different vertebral levels in different age and sex groups. The results of the AI methods were highly consistent and correlated with manual measurements. The Pearson's correlation coefficients were 0.855, 0.919, and 0.846, respectively. The trend of VHRs showed troughs at T7 and T11 and a peak at T9; however, Hm/Hp showed slight fluctuations. Regarding the VHR, significant sex differences were found at L1 and L2 in all age bands. This innovative study focuses on vertebral morphology for opportunistic analysis in the mainland Chinese population and the distribution tendency of vertebral morphology with ageing using a chest LDCT aided by an AI system based on 3D U-Net vertebral segmentation technology. The AI system demonstrates the potential to automatically perform opportunistic vertebral morphology analyses using LDCT scans obtained during lung cancer screening. We advocate the use of age-, sex-, and vertebral level-specific criteria for the morphometric evaluation of vertebral osteoporotic fractures for a more accurate diagnosis of vertebral fractures and spinal pathologies.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39014140

RESUMO

The PM2.5 and PM10 particles were characterized in terms of morphology (size and shape) and surface elemental composition at two different (traffic and industrial) locations in urban region of India and further linked to different morphological defining parameters. The overall PM2.5 and PM10 showed significant daily variability indicating higher PM10 as compared to PM2.5. PM2.5/PM10 ratio was found to be 0.58 ± 0.10 indicating the abundance of PM2.5. Soot aggregates, aluminosilicates, and brochosomes particles were classified based on morphology, aspect ratio (AR), and surface elemental composition of single particles. The linear regression analysis indicates the significant correlation between area equivalent (Daeq) and feret diameter (Dfd) (R2 0.86-0.98). Higher aspect ratio (1.48 ± 0.87-1.43 ± 0.50) was noted at traffic site as compared to industrial site (1.33 ± 0.58-1.29 ± 0.30), while circularity showed the opposite trend. Fractal dimension (Df) of soot aggregates estimated by the soot parameters method (SPM) were found to be 1.70, 1.72, and 1.88, mainly attributed to vehicular emissions, biomass, and industrial emission/coal burning, respectively. This further inferred that freshly emitted soot particles exhibited lacey in nature with spherical shape (Df 1.70) at traffic site, while at industrial location, they were different with compact shapes (Df 1.88) due to particle aging processes. This study inferred the synoptic changes in mass, chemical characteristics, and morphology of aerosol particles which provide the new insights into individual atmospheric particle and their dynamic nature.

11.
Front Plant Sci ; 15: 1391846, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39015294

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the repercussions of magnetopriming on the root system architecture of soybean plants subjected to arsenic toxicity using synchrotron radiation source based micro-computed tomography (SR-µCT). This will be used evey where as abbreviation for the technique for three-dimensional imaging. Seeds of soybean were exposed to the static magnetic field (SMF) of strength (200 mT) for 1h prior to sowing. Magnetoprimed and non-primed seeds were grown for 1 month in a soil-sand mixture containing four different levels of sodium arsenate (0, 5, 10, and 50 mg As kg-1 soil). The results showed that arsenic adversely affects the root growth in non-primed plants by reducing their root length, root biomass, root hair, size and number of root nodules, where the damaging effect of As was observed maximum at higher concentrations (10 and 50 mg As kg-1 soil). However, a significant improvement in root morphology was detected in magnetoprimed plants where SMF pretreatment enhanced the root length, root biomass, pore diameter of cortical cells, root hair formation, lateral roots branching, and size of root nodules and girth of primary roots. Qualitative analysis of x-ray micro-CT images showed that arsenic toxicity damaged the epidermal and cortical layers of the root as well as reduced the pore diameter of the cortical cells. However, the diameter of cortical cells pores in magnetoprimed plants was observed higher as compared to plants emerged from non-primed seeds at all level of As toxicity. Thus, the study suggested that magnetopriming has the potential to attenuate the toxic effect of As and could be employed as a pre-sowing treatment to reduce the phytotoxic effects of metal ions in plants by improving root architecture and root tolerance index. This study is the very first exploration of the potential benefits of magnetopriming in mitigating the toxicity of metals (As) in plant roots utilizing the micro-CT technique.

12.
J Exp Orthop ; 11(3): e12082, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39015343

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the location where the femoral artery contacts the vastus medialis at the adductor tendon hiatus, which is important when using the subvastus approach in medial closed wedge distal femoral osteotomy. We evaluated the correlation between differences in height, vastus medialis morphology, and lower limb alignment. Methods: Sixty knees (16 male, 44 female) that underwent plain computer tomography (CT) were included. Using the radiographic hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle as a reference, the knees were divided into three groups of 20 knees: valgus, varus, and neutral. The mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA) and distance from the medial femoral epicondyle to the centre of the femoral head (D1) were measured on full-length weight-bearing anteroposterior radiographs. The first cross-section on CT where the vastus medialis muscle and femoral artery connect was defined as the cross-sectional image for measurement. The direct distance from the medial epicondyle to the measured cross-sectional image (D2) was measured in the coronal view. The ratio of the vastus medialis muscle width to the femoral posterior wall width was defined as the vastus medialis muscle coverage ratio (CR). Correlations between each measurement and group were evaluated. Results: There was a positive correlation between D1 and D2 in the overall, neutral, and varus groups; however, there was no correlation in the valgus group. A positive correlation was observed in terms of the relationship between CR and D2 in the overall and valgus groups. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the correlation between the mLDFA and D2, with patient height as a control variable overall and in all groups. Conclusion: In the valgus group, distance to the adductor hiatus was correlated with vastus medialis coverage. Overhang of the vastus medialis may be an important influencing factor of femoral and popliteus artery position. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective cohort study.

13.
J Biomed Opt ; 29(Suppl 2): S22712, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39015510

RESUMO

Significance: Label-free quantitative phase imaging can potentially measure cellular dynamics with minimal perturbation, motivating efforts to develop faster and more sensitive instrumentation. We characterize fast, single-shot quantitative phase gradient microscopy (ss-QPGM) that simultaneously acquires multiple polarization components required to reconstruct phase images. We integrate a computationally efficient least squares algorithm to provide real-time, video-rate imaging (up to 75 frames / s ). The developed instrument was used to observe changes in cellular morphology and correlate these to molecular measures commonly obtained by staining. Aim: We aim to characterize a fast approach to ss-QPGM and record morphological changes in single-cell phase images. We also correlate these with biochemical changes indicating cell death using concurrently acquired fluorescence images. Approach: Here, we examine nutrient deprivation and anticancer drug-induced cell death in two different breast cell lines, viz., M2 and MCF7. Our approach involves in-line measurements of ss-QPGM and fluorescence imaging of the cells biochemically labeled for viability. Results: We validate the accuracy of the phase measurement using a USAF1951 pattern phase target. The ss-QPGM system resolves 912.3 lp / mm , and our analysis scheme accurately retrieves the phase with a high correlation coefficient ( ∼ 0.99 ), as measured by calibrated sample thicknesses. Analyzing the contrast in phase, we estimate the spatial resolution achievable to be 0.55 µ m for this microscope. ss-QPGM time-lapse live-cell imaging reveals multiple intracellular and morphological changes during biochemically induced cell death. Inferences from co-registered images of quantitative phase and fluorescence suggest the possibility of necrosis, which agrees with previous findings. Conclusions: Label-free ss-QPGM with high-temporal resolution and high spatial fidelity is demonstrated. Its application for monitoring dynamic changes in live cells offers promising prospects.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase/métodos , Células MCF-7 , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos
14.
J Mol Model ; 30(8): 254, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970669

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Ammonium perchlorate (NH4ClO4, abbreviated as AP) has the advantages of high oxygen content, high density, and good compatibility, and has significant application prospects in the field of energetic materials. The crystal morphology has a great influence on the properties and sensibility of energetic materials, and a single experimental means is difficult in exploring the crystals; therefore, the crystal morphology of AP is investigated using molecular dynamics simulation complemented with experiments, to theoretically analyze the differences in AP crystal habit and the interactions between solvent molecules and the main growing crystal surfaces of AP. The results show that AP crystal is mainly composed of five independent crystal surfaces (0 0 1), (0 1 0), (1 0 0), (1 0 1), and (1 0 -1) in vacuum using the BFDH laws, with (0 0 1) surface being the main growth crystal surface. In contrast, in H2O solvent, the (1 0 1) and (1 0 -1) surfaces disappear, and the AP mainly consists of (0 0 1), (0 1 0), and (1 0 0) surfaces with a rectangular shape. The crystal morphology obtained from theoretical prediction is in good agreement with that obtained from experimental culture. This paper can provide a new idea for the cultivation and preparation of AP large crystals, and promote the application of AP crystals in energetic materials. METHODS: The crystal morphologies of AP in vacuum and H2O solvent under Dreiding force field were predicted based on attachment energy model by using molecular dynamics method in Materials Studio 2019 software. The entire molecular dynamics simulation was carried out under the NTV system, the temperature control method was selected as Anderson, and the system temperature was set to 298 K. The simulation time was set to 40 ps, the step size was set to 1 fs, and the data were outputted every 5000 steps.

15.
Theriogenology ; 226: 369-377, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970923

RESUMO

Breeding soundness evaluation (BSE) is the best methodology to estimate the fertility potential of future bulls and performing indirect selection for their fertility. However, the outcome of the BSE is influenced by several factors, including genetics, environment, and BSE guidelines. Herein, in this retrospective study, our first aim was to characterize the reasons for failure in 46,566 BSE from 2-year-old beef Bos indicus bulls (Nellore) born from 1997 to 2018. Our second aim was to determine whether or not BSE was associated with reproductive potential improvement of the bulls over the years. Due to changes in the BSE criteria, we used the same dataset, but only bulls born from 2002 to 2018 were included resulting in 35,856 BSE. For the second aim, the effect of the year and farm were included in the model of the multivariate logistic regression. We also determined if the main reasons for BSE failure decreased over time. Bulls were classified as approved (satisfactory potential breeders and qualified for natural breeding service) and not approved (deferred and unsatisfactory potential breeders). The reasons for BSE failure in Nellore bulls were poor semen quality (53.1 %) and physical defects (46.9 %), with the main physical defect being testis abnormalities (19.7 %). The overall percentage of bulls approved each year was 87.1 %, with no improvement over the years of study. However, the percentage of approved bulls at the first BSE increased over the years (P < 0.05). This increase was evident by a reduction in the difference between the overall percentage of the bulls approved vs the percentage of bulls approved at the first BSE. Furthermore, there was an increase in the percentage of bulls classified as satisfactory potential breeders in the BSE and an evident decrease in the percentage of bulls qualified only for natural breeding service (P < 0.05). In addition, an increase of the scrotal circumference (SC) of the herd was found (P < 0.05). These results indicate the overall quality of the bulls improved over the years. To associate and identify the main sperm abnormalities, 3461 not approved bulls were clustered. The most frequent defects were strongly coiled tail spermatozoa, proximal droplets, and acrosomal defects. Overall, there was no change in the frequency of bulls not approved by the sperm morphology nor the frequency of the main sperm abnormalities over the years. Nevertheless, the frequency of the defects remained very low, implying they were controlled. Additionally, abnormalities in the testis decreased over the years and was associated with the increase in the SC of the herd and a decrease of culled bulls due to low SC. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that there is an association between implementation and use of BSE with improvements in the reproductive quality of future generation bulls.

16.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 282, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38972973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The advances in deep learning-based pathological image analysis have invoked tremendous insights into cancer prognostication. Still, lack of interpretability remains a significant barrier to clinical application. METHODS: We established an integrative prognostic neural network for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA), towards a comprehensive evaluation of both architectural and fine-grained information from whole-slide images. Then, leveraging on multi-modal data, we conducted extensive interrogative approaches to the models, to extract and visualize the morphological features that most correlated with clinical outcome and underlying molecular alterations. RESULTS: The models were developed and optimized on 373 iCCA patients from our center and demonstrated consistent accuracy and robustness on both internal (n = 213) and external (n = 168) cohorts. The occlusion sensitivity map revealed that the distribution of tertiary lymphoid structures, the geometric traits of the invasive margin, the relative composition of tumor parenchyma and stroma, the extent of necrosis, the presence of the disseminated foci, and the tumor-adjacent micro-vessels were the determining architectural features that impacted on prognosis. Quantifiable morphological vector extracted by CellProfiler demonstrated that tumor nuclei from high-risk patients exhibited significant larger size, more distorted shape, with less prominent nuclear envelope and textural contrast. The multi-omics data (n = 187) further revealed key molecular alterations left morphological imprints that could be attended by the network, including glycolysis, hypoxia, apical junction, mTORC1 signaling, and immune infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: We proposed an interpretable deep-learning framework to gain insights into the biological behavior of iCCA. Most of the significant morphological prognosticators perceived by the network are comprehensible to human minds.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Colangiocarcinoma , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Idoso
18.
Ecol Evol ; 14(7): e11640, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38979003

RESUMO

Populations may adapt to similar environments via parallel or non-parallel genetic changes, but the frequency of these alternative mechanisms and underlying contributing factors are still poorly understood outside model systems. We used QTL mapping to investigate the genetic basis of highly divergent craniofacial traits between the scale-eater (Cyprinodon desquamator) and molluscivore (C. brontotheroides) pupfish adapting to two different hypersaline lake environments on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. We lab-reared F2 scale-eater x molluscivore intercrosses from two different lake populations, estimated linkage maps, scanned for significant QTL for 29 skeletal and craniofacial traits, female mate preference, and sex. We compared the location of QTL between lakes to quantify parallel and non-parallel genetic changes. We detected significant QTL for six craniofacial traits in at least one lake. However, nearly all shared QTL loci were associated with a different craniofacial trait within each lake. Therefore, our estimate of parallel evolution of craniofacial genetic architecture could range from one out of six identical trait QTL (low parallelism) to five out of six integrated trait QTL (high parallelism). We suggest that pleiotropy and trait integration can affect estimates of parallel evolution, particularly within rapid radiations. We also observed increased adaptive introgression in shared QTL regions, suggesting that gene flow contributed to parallel evolution. Overall, our results suggest that the same genomic regions may contribute to parallel adaptation across integrated suites of craniofacial traits, rather than specific traits, and highlight the need for a more expansive definition of parallel evolution.

19.
Tissue Cell ; 89: 102463, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38981185

RESUMO

Sperm quality is critical to predict reproductive alterations caused by immunological factors or toxicant agents. Yet, no detailed protocol has been published focusing on analyses of sperm parameters in mice. Our aim was to evaluate the most efficient diluent for mice sperm analyses and to optimize the sperm morphology classification, through the comparison of different staining methods. The diluents assessed were PBS (baseline), HTF, DMEM, 1 % BSA in PBS and 9 % skimmed powdered milk diluted in PBS. Spermatozoa were evaluated for vitality, motility, and morphology, smears were stained with Papanicolaou, HE, Giemsa, and Rapid staining. Sperm vitality and total motility reached better scores in milk based and DMEM diluents. HE raised up as an effective option since its combination with any of the diluents we tested, resulted in a fair staining, which was appropriated to evaluate mice spermatozoa. Finally, based on WHO manual, we have updated the current morphological classification for mice sperm, since we have detailed the head defects as well as included midpiece and tail defects on it. Taken together, we presented a useful, low cost, and reliable method to assess sperm morphology that could be employed worldwide by laboratories dedicated to study reproductive biology on mice model.

20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2026): 20240820, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38981526

RESUMO

Unravelling the functional steps that underlie major transitions in the fossil record is a significant challenge for biologists owing to the difficulties of interpreting functional capabilities of extinct organisms. New computational modelling approaches provide exciting avenues for testing function in the fossil record. Here, we conduct digital bending experiments to reconstruct vertebral function in non-mammalian synapsids, the extinct forerunners of mammals, to provide insights into the functional underpinnings of the synapsid-mammal transition. We estimate range of motion and stiffness of intervertebral joints in eight non-mammalian synapsid species alongside a comparative sample of extant tetrapods, including salamanders, reptiles and mammals. We show that several key aspects of mammalian vertebral function evolved outside crown Mammalia. Compared to early diverging non-mammalian synapsids, cynodonts stabilized the posterior trunk against lateroflexion, while evolving axial rotation in the anterior trunk. This was later accompanied by posterior sagittal bending in crown mammals, and perhaps even therians specifically. Our data also support the prior hypothesis that functional diversification of the mammalian trunk occurred via co-option of existing morphological regions in response to changing selective demands. Thus, multiple functional and evolutionary steps underlie the origin of remarkable complexity in the mammalian backbone.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Mamíferos , Coluna Vertebral , Animais , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Répteis/fisiologia , Répteis/anatomia & histologia
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