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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 989171, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36465294

RESUMO

In this paper, I distinguish three different levels for describing, and three corresponding ways for understanding, deficient empathy as the core of NPD (Narcissistic Personality Disorder). On the macro level, deficient empathy can be explained as disturbed interpersonal functioning, and is understood as lack of recognition. On the meso-level, deficient empathy can be described as psychic disintegration, and can be understood specifically in its dissocial aspects. Psychic disintegration in NPD correlates with somatic changes, i.e., dysfunctional affective empathy and mind-reading on the micro level of description, which is the third level. The "core-deficit-model of NPD" that I outline, while not rejecting reductionist approaches outright, argues in favor of integrating (top-down/bottom-up) functionalist descriptions of empathy into a wider conceptual framework of bio-psycho-social functioning. The "core-deficit-model of NPD" is interdisciplinary, can bypass monodisciplinary skepticism, and removes purported barriers between explaining and understanding the "lack" of empathy as the core of pathological narcissism.

2.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 1041480, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36506455

RESUMO

Background: There is a presumption that pathological narcissism, or narcissistic personality disorder per se, can be considered a precursor to addiction. Although the ICD-11 model does not distinguish specific personality disorders, narcissistic psychopathology should be captured through personality trait qualifiers. Objectives: To verify the capacity of the ICD-11 model in the detection of narcissistic psychopathology in patients with addiction; to test its discrimination capacity, convergent validity, and specificity toward the gender and the type of addiction. Materials and methods: Two samples were employed in the study. Sample 1 (n = 421) consisted of patients with addiction; Sample 2 (n = 567) consisted of general population volunteers. Age range was 18-75 years and a battery of self-assessment questionnaires containing Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Form Plus Modified; Triarchic Psychopathy Measure; Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale; and Level of Personality Functioning Scale-Self-Report was administered by pencil-and-paper method. Results: The following was confirmed: (1) capacity of the ICD-11 model in relation to capture narcissistic pathology; (2) the differentiation capacity between the clinical and non-clinical population; (3) gender specificity in relation to grandiose and vulnerable narcissism; (4) the connection between the overall degree of impairment in personality functioning and most of trait qualifiers; (5) certain specifics of patients with addiction in relation to the type of addiction. Conclusion: Results support the empirical and clinical relevance of the ICD-11 model in capturing narcissistic pathology in addicted patients. Clinical implications concerning assessment and treatment in addiction settings, and certain limits regarding the Anankastia domain are discussed.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429545

RESUMO

Several cases of COVID-19-related mental disorders have emerged during the pandemic. In a case of femicide that occurred in Italy during the first phase of the pandemic, coinciding with a national lockdown, a discrepancy arose among forensic psychiatry experts, particularly toward the diagnosis of Brief Psychotic Disorder (BPD) related to COVID-19. We aimed to discuss the evaluation of the case through an integration of information and a literature review on comparable reported cases. An analysis of the diagnosis of brief acute psychosis was then performed, as well as a mini-review on cases of COVID-19-related psychosis. Results showed that psychotic symptomatology was characterized by polythematic delusions that always involved a SARS-CoV-2 infection. To a lesser extent, the delusions were accompanied by hallucinations, bizarre cognitive and associative alterations, insomnia, hyporexia, dysphoria, and suicidal behavior. No particularly violent acts with related injury or death of the victim were described. Finally, we could hypothesize that our case was better represented by a diagnosis of personality with predominantly narcissistic and partly psychopathic traits. The present case highlighted the importance, in the context of forensic psychiatry, of integrating assessments with the crime perpetrators, namely through accurate clinical interviews, neuropsychological tests, diachronic observations, and comparison with similar cases present in the literature. Such an integrated approach allows precise evaluation and reduces the odds of errors in a field, such as forensic psychiatry, where a diagnostic decision can be decisive in the judgment of criminal responsibility. Moreover, discerning forensics from health cases represents an important issue in risk management.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Personalidade
4.
Front Psychol ; 13: 978480, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36211936

RESUMO

This study investigates the impact of entrepreneurship education on college students' entrepreneurial intentions, as well as the moderating effects of personality and family economic status on the relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention, respectively. We tested our hypotheses using a sample of college students in Tianjin, China, and analyzed the data of 326 questionnaires containing validated measures. The results show that entrepreneurship education has a positive impact on college students' entrepreneurial intentions; proactive personality negatively moderates this relationship; and family economic status positively moderates it. However, the moderating effect of narcissistic personality has not been verified. This study is unique and innovative as it brings new insights to this stream of literature by introducing the roles of the personality and family economic status in the relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention. Our analysis provides important empirical evidence about the negative moderating effect of proactive personality and the positive moderating effect of family economic status on the relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention, introducing insights into the heterogeneity of the effect of entrepreneurship education.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36294046

RESUMO

To examine the well-being of medical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted a survey of 705 medical staff who were involved in anti-epidemic work in China from 20 February to 16 March 2020. The findings of the present study showed a "psychological typhoon eye" effect in which the medical staff in areas with a high contagion rate showed a significantly lower level of death anxiety than those in low-contagion regions. We also found a significant negative relationship between death anxiety and hedonic well-being, but there was no relationship between death anxiety and eudaimonic well-being. Moreover, the results revealed that a narcissistic personality moderates the relationships between death anxiety and the two types of well-being. For those who had higher narcissistic personality scores, death anxiety had no negative effect on their well-being. The findings of the present study can help us to better understand the life profiles of medical staff and can also provide some practical implications for understanding the life conditions of medical staff when facing a great health crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Corpo Clínico/psicologia , China/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308069

RESUMO

Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and the manic and hypomanic episodes found in the bipolar disorders are characterized by grandiosity. It is possible that this shared grandiosity is a 'homologous structure' or reflects a superficial similarity between two disparate conditions. It is, however, possible that NPD and the bipolar disorders are more closely related than implied by their segregation into the separate superordinate categories of personality disorders and mood disorders. Whereas narcissism is considered to be a life-course, stable trait and the bipolar disorders are characterized by episodes of mania and depression, there is considerable research indicating that narcissism may be linked to mood instability (including depression) and bipolar disorder may have a pervasive personality component (i.e., hypomanic personality). Utilizing dimensional models of psychopathology, the current review examined the evidence linking narcissism and the bipolar disorders and suggests that considerable overlap may exist in the domains associated with reward-seeking, harm avoidance and social functioning.

7.
Front Psychol ; 13: 726009, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35795414

RESUMO

Drawing on the social exchange theory (SET) and research on leadership influences, we developed and inspected a multilevel model to test the conditions and mechanisms through which a leader's behavioral integrity (LBI) deters workplace ostracism (WO). We used trust as a mediator and the narcissistic personality of a leader as a boundary condition in the connection between a LBI and WO. Data were collected from 249 employees working in different five- and four-star hotels in Pakistan over three time lags. The statistical results revealed that a LBI reduces WO. Additionally, a LBI has an indirect effect on WO through interpersonal trust. We did not find statistical support for the moderating role of the narcissistic personality of a leader in the relationship between a LBI and WO. Implications, along with limitations and future research directions, are also discussed.

8.
Neurosci Lett ; 784: 136720, 2022 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690230

RESUMO

Neuroimaging studies have shown structural deficits in the default mode network (DMN) in patients with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD); however, the functional basis of the DMN in NPD remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the functional basis of the DMN in NPD from the perspective of the connectome. Nineteen young male patients with NPD (mean age, 18.47 ± 0.77 years; range, 18-20 years) and 19 young male healthy control (HC) participants (mean age, 19.05 ± 1.31 years; range, 18-22 years) were recruited for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging examinations. The DMN architecture was depicted by 20 DMN subregions. Graph theory approaches were applied to investigate the functional topology within the DMN in NPD, and Pearson correlations between network parameters and psychological scores were assessed. The NPD group demonstrated topological anomalies in the DMN indicated by a decrease in the clustering coefficient and local efficiency compared with the HC group. Additionally, the NPD group showed increased nodal clustering and efficiency in the right posterior cingulate cortex. In the NPD group, local efficiency within the DMN was found to be positively correlated with the Narcissistic Personality Inventory score and negatively correlated the Hiding the Self score. The NPD group showed abnormal topology within the DMN, indicating that the functional segregation of the DMN is disturbed in NPD. The destroyed topology of the DMN may represent a functional basis of the pathogenesis of NPD in young adult males and may be related to the increased vulnerability in NPD, including hiding the self.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Conectoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Rede de Modo Padrão , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 127, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35596176

RESUMO

Although the connection between smoking and individual differences has been recently recognized, the relationship between narcissistic personality traits and cigarette smoking has received less attention. The notion that personality traits can be associated with addictive behavior is influential in clinical practice. However, questions remain about specific interactions between smoking and personality characteristics that need empirical support to substantiate this hypothesis. This study thus identifies narcissistic and impulsive personality traits as precursors of smoking in a sample of tattooed individuals. In a cross-sectional study (N = 120), personality traits were assessed in young women (aged 18-35 years) using the narcissistic personality inventory and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). The current study, using the regression analysis, has clearly demonstrated that young women who smoke have different personality characteristics as compared with women who do not smoke.


Assuntos
Narcisismo , Transtornos da Personalidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Fumar/epidemiologia
10.
Psychopathology ; : 1-11, 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35609557

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is argued that all personality pathology represents the final emergent product of a complex interaction of underlying neurobehavioral systems, which are reflected in personality factors, in conjunction with environmental inputs. Neurobehavioral systems manifest themselves in dispositional temperament and personality processes. Environmental inputs include, obviously, interpersonal relationships (e.g., parenting, social, and mentoring relations) as well as other factors such as abuse, neglect, and/or environmental insults (e.g., economic hardship, deprivation). Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is hypothesized to reflect both dispositional and environmental inputs to its pathogenesis. Temperament and personality-based theorizing regarding NPD proposes high dispositional levels of anger and related temperament features that could shape early development and subsequent NPD. Many classic theorists (e.g., Freud, Kernberg, Kohut, Miller) have also proposed that profound parenting failures are implicated in the emergence of NPD, each suggesting some failure in proper engagement and responsivity with the developing child. Such a failure in parenting can be thought of as reflecting diminished proximal process engagement with the developing child. METHOD: Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders, the present study examines both proximal process and temperament factors in relation to clinically significant NPD features from a prospective perspective. RESULTS: Results suggest that both proximal process and temperament (notably anger) factors independently predict the level of NPD features over time. CONCLUSION: Both interpersonal relationships and temperament should be considered in models of etiology of NPD, it is not just one or the other.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361271

RESUMO

The 11th revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) includes a fundamentally new approach to Personality Disorders (PD). ICD-11 is expected to be implemented first in European countries before other WHO member states. The present paper provides an overview of this new ICD-11 model including PD severity classification, trait domain specifiers, and the additional borderline pattern specifier. We discuss the perceived challenges and opportunities of using the ICD-11 approach with particular focus on its continuity and discontinuity with familiar PD categories such as avoidant PD and narcissistic PD. The advent of the ICD-11 PD classification involves major changes for health care workers, researchers, administrators, and service providers as well as patients and families involved. The anticipated challenges and opportunities are put forward in terms of specific unanswered questions. It is our hope that these questions will stimulate further research and discussion among researchers and clinicians in the coming years.

12.
J Dermatolog Treat ; 33(3): 1265-1268, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019816

RESUMO

Dermatologists are often ill-equipped to promptly identify and manage patients with personality disorders. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) frequently present to dermatology clinics, particularly those that provide esthetic services. Although dermatologists should ideally utilize specific management strategies when working with these patients, there is a lack of awareness and availability of resources on how to do so. Here, we review the psychiatry, plastic and reconstructive surgery, and dermatology literature to provide recommendations on tangible management strategies for dermatologists to avoid common mistakes that are made while managing patients with BPD and NPD. Additionally, we also discuss common dermatologic manifestations of BPD and NPD to improve providers' ability to identify patients with these conditions in their practices.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Dermatologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia
13.
Psychol Rep ; 125(6): 2833-2864, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154472

RESUMO

Despite putative gender differences in the expression of narcissism, prominent theories have virtually dismissed the role of females in the development and manifestation of narcissism. The contention that narcissism is a pathology of the self that may partly differ in males and females is further evident in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The DSM-5 reports that up to 75% of those diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) are men. Such figures suggest that the representation of narcissism as codified in the DSM-5 may only be marginally applicable to females, given its prominent focus and nature on capturing grandiose themes which closely resemble commonly masculine norms. The overemphasis on grandiose features extends to the empirical literature which defines narcissism as a normative personality trait and is widely assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), on which males obtain significantly higher scores than females. As this review will demonstrate, one limitation frequently occurring in the literature is the attempt to comprehend narcissistic manifestations in females through the lens of what has commonly been defined as narcissism (DSM/NPI). In this review, the literature concerning the diagnostic assessment and conceptualisation of narcissistic personality disorder, aetiological factors, aggression, and partner violence perpetration will be discussed in relation to the importance of gender. This is followed by a review of existing gaps in theory and research, and suggestions for fruitful directions that can aid a richer and more meaningful literature on narcissism inclusive of gender issues.


Assuntos
Narcisismo , Transtornos da Personalidade , Agressão , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade
14.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 46(1): 332-337, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and other psychological problems are more common in cosmetic surgery applicants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of the symptoms of BDD and narcissistic personality disorder in rhinoplasty candidates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on rhinoplasty applicants. All subjects were evaluated by BDD and narcissistic personality questionnaires (NPI-16). RESULTS: A total of 380 patients were studied. Our findings showed that the prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe BDD symptoms was 31.6%, 43.4% and 25%, respectively. The mean BDD scores were not significantly different in variables such as gender, age, marital status, history of cosmetic surgery, education, place of residence, and income. 29.5% of the subjects had symptoms of narcissism. There was no significant relationship between the symptoms of narcissism and variables such as gender, age, marital status, history of cosmetic surgery, place of residence, and income. Higher education was associated with higher rates of narcissistic personality disorder (p-value = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of the study, there was no statistically significant relationship between BDD score and demographic parameters. Also, association between narcissistic personality disorder and demographic characteristics was not significant except for education. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE IV: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais , Rinoplastia , Cirurgia Plástica , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/cirurgia , Rinoplastia/psicologia , Cirurgia Plástica/psicologia
15.
Front Psychol ; 12: 676733, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335390

RESUMO

Narcissistic Personality Disorder is the new borderline personality disorder of our current era. There have been recent developments on narcissism that are certainly worthwhile examining. Firstly, relational and intersubjective psychoanalysts have been rethinking the underlying concepts of narcissism, focusing on the development of self and relations to others. Secondly, in the DSM-5, the Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD) was presented for a dimensional evaluation of the severity of personality disorder pathology. The combined dimensional and trait conceptualization of NPD opened the door to new integrated diagnostic perspectives, including both internal and interpersonal functioning. Finally, Pincus and Lukowitsky encourage clinicians to use a hierarchical model of pathological narcissism, as it opens up opportunities for shared points of interest in empirical research from different scholarly perspectives. As for most non-psychodynamic clinicians and researchers the DSM-5 clearly bears dominant weight in their work, we will take the AMPD model for NPD as our point of reference. We will discuss the narcissist's unique pattern of self-impairments in identity and self-direction, and of interpersonal disfunctioning (evaluated by assessing empathy and intimacy). Subsequently, we will examine how contemporary psychodynamic theories and the hierarchical model of Pincus and Lukowitsky additionally inform or contradict the AMPD. For us, one of the big advantages of the AMPD is the use of structured clinical evaluations of disturbances of the self and interpersonal functioning and the dimensional evaluation of severity. As psychodynamically oriented therapists, we are enthusiastic about the opportunities for inclusion of psychodynamic concepts, but we also discuss a number of sticking points.

16.
Personal Neurosci ; 4: e3, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124536

RESUMO

Narcissism is a Janusian personality construct, associated with both grandiose self-assuredness and dominance, as well as vulnerable insecurity and reactivity. Central questions of intra- and interpersonal functioning in narcissism are still a matter of debate. Neuroscience could help to understand the paradoxical patterns of experience and behavior beyond the limitations of self-reports. We provide a systematic review of 34 neuroscience studies on grandiose, vulnerable, pathological narcissism, and Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), spanning experimental investigations of intra- and interpersonal mechanisms, research on neurophysiological and neuroendocrine aspects of baseline function, and brain structural correlates. While neuroscience has scarcely directly studied vulnerable narcissism, grandiose narcissism is associated with heightened vigilance to ego threat and stress responses following ego threat, as well as heightened stress indicators in baseline measures. Such responses are not commonly observed in self-reports, highlighting the potential of neuroscience to augment our understanding of self-regulatory dynamics in narcissism. Interpersonal functioning is characterized by deficits in social-affective processes. Both involve altered activity within the salience network, pointing to a double dissociation regarding the expression of narcissism and self/other oriented situational focus. Findings are summarized in an integrative model providing testable hypotheses for future research along with methodological recommendations.

17.
Psychodyn Psychiatry ; 49(2): 244-272, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061655

RESUMO

In this article, we provide an overview of transference-focused psychotherapy for patients with pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (TFP-N). In TFP-N we have modified and refined the tactics and techniques of TFP, an evidence-based treatment for borderline personality disorder, to meet the specific challenges of working with patients with narcissistic personality pathology whose retreat from reality into an illusory grandiosity makes them particularly difficult to engage in treatment. We first describe a model of narcissistic pathology based on considerations of psychological structure stemming from object relations theory. This model provides a unifying understanding of the core structure of narcissistic pathology, the pathological grandiose self, that underlies the impairments in self and interpersonal functioning of those with narcissistic pathology across the levels of personality organization (from high functioning to borderline to malignant). We then delineate the clinical process of working with patients with pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder. Starting with the assessment process, using a detailed clinical example, we guide the reader through the progression of TFP-N as it helps the patient move from the distorted, unintegrated sense of self underlying the narcissistic presentation to the more integrated, realistic sense of self that characterizes healthier personality functioning. In TFP-N the focus on the disturbed interpersonal patterns of relating in the here and now of the therapeutic interaction is the vehicle to diminish grandiosity and improve relatedness, thereby effecting enduring changes in mental representation and real-world functioning.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Narcisismo , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Humanos , Apego ao Objeto , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Psicoterapia
18.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-8, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635732

RESUMO

PURPOSES: 1. To find a difference in white matter (WM) between young adult males with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and healthy controls (HCs). 2. To find some correlations between white matter in the abnormal regions of NPD group and the pathological narcissism inventory (PNI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen male participants with NPD (age M = 18.39, SD = 0.164; education M = 12.33, SD = 0.14) were included in our experiment. NPD participants met the DSM-IV criteria for NPD and without other personality disorders evaluated by trained clinical psychiatrists using the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV for Personality Disorders (SCID-II). Moreover, healthy controls were also confirmed to be free of any axis I or II disorders and matched with education level, age and handedness (age M = 18.83 years, SD = 0.246; education M = 12.56, SD = 0.202; all participants were right handed). Those who have had major life events in the last six months, mental and physical illnesses, claustrophobia and oral implants have been excluded. We used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) on diffusion tensor images (DTI) and analysis of Pearson correlation between abnormal brain regions of white matter fibers and the pathological narcissism inventory. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in age and education level between NPD and HCs (p > 0.05). There were significant differences in PNI score and its subscales between NPD group and HCs (p < 0.01). Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were found decreased mainly in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus and the bilateral posterior thalamic radiation (include optic radiation). Lower axial diffusivity (AD) values were identified mostly in the left retrolenticular part of internal capsule and the left posterior thalamic radiation (include optic radiation). There existed a significant correlation between DTI data and pathological narcissism inventory. CONCLUSIONS: The decreased brain white matter microstructures among three clusters were found in the association, projection/thalamic and connection pathways of white matter in young adult males with NPD. The abnormal white matter brain regions may be one of the neuropathological basis of the pathogenesis of young males with NPD, and it may be related to white matter development in early adulthood.

19.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(1): 448-455, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569230

RESUMO

It is a fact that, despite the worldwide increasing intake of women in medical schools, women are still grossly underrepresented in all medical and surgical specialities, and definitely in cardiothoracic surgery in both developed and developing countries. This is counter-productive towards meeting the escalating need for cardiac surgical care in Africa. However, the natural evolution over time of increasing numbers of females entering medical school and specializing in the field of surgery, is expected to continue despite multiple challenges encountered on their way. The inequities of healthcare provision in Africa in particular needs the continual support of all professionals that are able to contribute to the wellbeing of those innocent individuals that need medical care particularly children born with congenital cardiac defects. In addition to factors on the African continent, realities and challenges for future female cardiothoracic surgeons include gender bias and gender-based discrimination by some male counterparts. The question must be asked: "Is it mere gender-based discrimination, or how much does deliberate 'bullying behaviour' mimic signs of superiority, arrogance and entitlement, bordering on psychological personality disorders?" Thorough investigation of the possible role of such behaviour disorders in gender bias and discrimination is long overdue. These disparities and challenges should be actively addressed on all levels by all role players by placing more emphasis on merit, competence and surgical outcomes than on the gender of the surgeon. Despite all these challenges, the benefits of a career in cardiothoracic surgery and tremendous job satisfaction far exceed the disadvantages.

20.
Assessment ; 28(1): 29-43, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370541

RESUMO

With a recent surge of research on narcissism, narcissism questionnaires are increasingly being translated and applied in various countries. The measurement invariance of an instrument across countries is a precondition for being able to compare scores across countries. We investigated the cross-cultural measurement invariance of three narcissism questionnaires (Brief Pathological Narcissism Inventory [B-PNI], Narcissistic Personality Inventory [NPI], and Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire [NARQ]) and mean-level differences across samples from the United States (N = 2,464), the United Kingdom (N = 307), and Germany (N = 925). Overall, the B-PNI and NARQ functioned equivalently for the U.S. and U.K. participants. More violations of measurement invariance were found between Germany and the combined U.S. and U.K. samples, and for the NPI. In the B-PNI and NARQ, Americans scored higher than individuals from the United Kingdom regarding agentic aspects (self-sacrificing self-enhancement, admiration), while Germans scored lower than both Americans and U.K. individuals regarding antagonistic (entitlement rage, rivalry) and neurotic (hiding the self, contingent self-esteem) aspects. More inconsistent results were found for NPI facets. When noninvariance was present, observed means yielded biased results. Thus, the degree of measurement invariance across translated instrument versions should be considered in cross-cultural comparisons, even with culturally similar countries.


Assuntos
Narcisismo , Transtornos da Personalidade , Alemanha , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
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