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1.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr (Engl Ed) ; 71(6): 236-245, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38986627

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coffee consumption has demonstrated an effect on the regulation of appetite, causing less hunger and/or greater satiety; however, its effects are not well known in woman with overweight or obesity. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of coffee consumption on hunger, satiety, sensory specific desire (SSD), and dietary intake in women with overweight or obesity. METHODOLOGY: A randomized crossover clinical trial was realized in 3 sessions: in the first session a clinical history, anthropometric measurements and body composition analysis were performed; in sessions 2 and 3 the participants randomly consumed 240mL of coffee with 6mg/caffeine/kg of weight or 240mL of water along with a standardized breakfast. At fasting and every 30min after breakfast for the next 3h, appetite sensations and SSD were recorded using visual analog scales. Blood samples were taken at fasting, 30 and 180min after breakfast. Dietary intake was recorded in the rest of the intervention days. RESULTS: In the coffee intervention there was an increased desire for sweet foods, higher fructose intake during the rest of the day, and higher triglyceride levels than with the water intervention. No differences were detected in ghrelin or cholecystokinin. CONCLUSIONS: Coffee consumption may lead to higher triglycerides and higher intake of simple sugars, mainly fructose, through changes in the SSD. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov/NCT05774119.


Assuntos
Apetite , Café , Estudos Cross-Over , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Projetos Piloto , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Fome/efeitos dos fármacos , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grelina/sangue
2.
Aten Primaria ; 56(12): 103045, 2024 Jul 12.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39002301

RESUMO

Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. This risk is proportional to body mass index (BMI), is exacerbated by comorbidities such as hypertension and dyslipidemia, and includes emerging risk factors like insulin resistance, low-grade chronic inflammation, and thrombosis tendency. The distribution of adipose tissue, especially visceral fat and ectopic deposition in the heart, is another key factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases in these patients, along with atrial and ventricular remodeling. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be effective in reducing these risks. The prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in obesity and T2D include lifestyle changes, specific pharmacological treatment and management of comorbidities, and attention to cardiovascular risk factors.

3.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38987074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of obesity and analyse possible differences in it according to sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, screen use and family perception of the weight and dietary habits of schoolchildren aged 3 to 4 years in Barcelona. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a representative sample of schools selected based on the socioeconomic status (SES) of the corresponding neighbourhood and school ownership. We selected 101 schools in Barcelona and recruited pupils aged 3 to 4 years during the 2016-17 academic year (n = 2936 children). Anthropometric measurements were taken in each participant. Family members completed a questionnaire on eating habits, physical activity, sleeping hours, screen use and the family's perception of the child's weight and diet. The primary variable was the body mass index (BMI) for age and sex, subsequently categorised as normal weight, overweight or obese. RESULTS: Approximately 7.0% of girls and 7.1% of boys aged 3 to 4 years presented obesity. The prevalence of obesity (8.3%) was higher in neighbourhoods of lower SES compared to those of higher SES (5.2%; p = .004). Parents of children with obesity reported that the child had some excess weight or excess weight in 46.9% of cases, 3.9% indicated the child's weight was appropriate and 0.9% that the child was a little underweight or underweight (p < .001). DISCUSSION: The prevalence of obesity in children aged 3 to 4 years is high. There are social and geographical inequalities, and obesity was more prevalent in areas of lower SES. A large percentage of the families of children with obesity do not consider that the child's weight is excessive.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38908791

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent condition among electable to bariatric surgery obese patients, often remaining underdiagnosed, thereby increasing surgical risk. The main purpose was to determine prevalence of OSA among candidates for bariatric surgery and to assess the rate of underdiagnosis of this condition. Additionally, the study aimed to evaluate the specific performance of three sleep questionnaires and scales (Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Scale (EDSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and STOP-Bang) in these patients. METHODS: A longitudinal, prospective, single-cohort study, with consecutive sampling including patients aged 18-65 years with obesity grade II (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2) and hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome or OSA or obesity grade III or IV (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) elective for bariatric surgery. Patients were evaluated at the Otorhinolaryngology department with an anamnesis regarding OSA including the administration of three sleep questionnaires (EDSS, ESS, and STOP-Bang), followed by cardiorespiratory polygraphy (CRP) for sleep evaluation. RESULTS: 124 patients were included in this study. While 74.2% of the sample exhibited OSA on CRP, only 28.2% had a prior diagnosis. The STOP-Bang questionnaire demonstrated the highest sensitivity (93.3%) for detecting moderate to severe OSA, although with low specificity (33.8%). EDSS and ESS did not show a significant association with the presence of OSA. CONCLUSIONS: OSA screening is crucial in candidates for bariatric surgery due to its high prevalence and low diagnosis rate. The STOP-Bang questionnaire may serve as a useful tool for identifying patients at risk of moderate to severe OSA and optimizing sleep assessments. However, further research is necessary to validate its utility in this specific population.

5.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr (Engl Ed) ; 71(5): 202-207, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38897703

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The global increase in the prevalence rates of overweight or obesity has also affected patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), where this disease had traditionally been associated with a lean phenotype. On the other hand, the effect of obesity on new glycemic control metrics obtained from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in T1D is poorly understood. We wanted to assess whether there is any relationship between BMI (body mass index) and the different CGM metrics or HbA1c. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-five patients with T1D (47.1% ♀, mean age 42.9±14.7 years) with a CGM for a minimum of 6 months were analysed by downloading their CGM and collecting clinical and anthropometric variables. RESULTS: 35.1% (79/225) of the T1D patients had overweight and 17.3% (39/225) lived with obesity, while the remaining 47.6% had a normal weight. A negative correlation was found between GMI (glucose management indicator) and BMI (-0.2; p=0.008) and HbA1c (-0.2; p=0.01). In contrast, a positive correlation was observed between the total dose of insulin and the BMI (0.3; p<0.0001). No significant correlations were found between BMI and other CGM metrics. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight or obesity do not imply worse glycemic control in patients with T1D or less use of CGM. Possibly, and in order to achieve a good glycemic control, more units of insulin are necessary in these patients which, in turn, makes weight control more difficult.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Obesidade , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Glicemia/análise , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Controle Glicêmico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/complicações , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Monitoramento Contínuo da Glicose
6.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 100(6): 428-437, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834436

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Management of childhood obesity, based upon behavioural, physical activity and dietary guidance, usually achieves limited success and is hindered by a high attrition rate. The identification of potential predictors of either weight loss or early weight management attrition could help develop personalised management plans in order to improve patient outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in a cohort of 1300 patients with obesity managed in speciality clinics for up to 5 years with outpatient conservative treatment. We studied the family background and personal characteristics (demographic, behavioural, psychosocial, anthropometric and metabolic) of patients who dropped out before completing the first year of the programme and patients who achieved significant weight loss, with a separate analysis of patients who achieved substantial reductions in weight compared to the rest of the cohort. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in the cohort was 10.46 years (SD, 3.48) the mean BMI z-score 4.01 (SD, 1.49); 52.8% of the patients were male, 53.3% were prepubertal, 75.8% were Caucasian and 19% Latin. We found a higher proportion of Latinla ethnicity and compulsive eating in the group of patients with early attrition from the weight management follow-up. In the group of patients with substantial weight loss, a greater proportion were male, there was a higher frequency of dietary intake control at home and obesity was more severe, and the latter factor was consistently observed in patients who achieved substantial weight loss at any point of the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Some family and personal characteristics in childhood obesity are associated with an increased risk of early withdrawal from follow-up or a greater probability of successful outcomes; however, the predictive value of these variables is limited.


Assuntos
Cooperação do Paciente , Obesidade Infantil , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Infantil/terapia , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Criança , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguimentos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adolescente , Redução de Peso
7.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 19(1)jun. 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1561449

RESUMO

Las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles se han convertido en un problema mundial debido a los altos índices de morbilidad y mortalidad, derivadas de estilos de vida inadecuados que incluyen una falta de una percepción y bajo conocimiento de estos padecimientos. Objetivo: Establecerla relación entre la percepción y el conocimiento de Diabetes Tipo 2 y el Riesgo de Diabesidad en adultos de Puebla. Metodología: Cuantitativo con diseño descriptivo, correlacional y de alcance transversal, se incluyeron personas de 20 a 65 pertenecientes al Centro de Salud de Almecatla, Puebla. Se excluyeron a las personas que hablen lengua indígena y mujeres embarazadas. El cálculo de la muestra fue de 182 personas. Se utilizó el instrumento DKQ-24 y Percepción de Riesgo de Diabetes, una cédula de datos socio demográfica y consentimiento informado. Análisis y resultados: El 78% fueron mujeres, con promedio de edad de 58.8 años, glicemia capilar 163.8, hemoglobina glucosilada 8.6, 88.5% tienen conocimiento de DT2 adecuado y el 50.5% una percepción de riesgo de DT2 alto. Existe una relación positiva y significativa entre el conocimiento y la percepción de riesgo de DT2 (p<05).Conclusión: Existe una correlación positiva significativa entre el conocimiento de DT2 y la percepción de riesgo de DT2. Existen indicadores corporales y bioquímicos que sugieren el aumento del riesgo de Diabesidad, a pesar de la asistencia al centro de salud no se refleja el control de las patologías, por tal motivo persisten los niveles de morbi-mortalidad.


Introduction: Chronic non-communicable diseases have become a global problem due to high morbidity and mortality rates, derived from inadequate lifestyles that include a lack of perception and low knowledge of these conditions. Objective: To stablish the relation between perception and knowledge of Type 2 Diabetes and the Risk of Diabesity in adults from Puebla. Method: Quantitative with a descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional design, including people from 20 to 65 belonging to the Almecatla Health Center, Puebla. People who spoke an indigenous language and pregnant women were excluded. The calculation of the sample was 182 people. The DKQ-24 instrument and Diabetes Risk Perception, a socio-demographic data card and informed consent were acquired. Analysis and results: 78% were women, with an average age of 58.8 years, capillary glycemia 163.8, glycosylated hemoglobin 8.6, 88.5% have adequate knowledge of T2D and 50.5% a perception of high T2D risk. There is a positive and significant relationship between knowledge and perception of T2D risk (p<05).Conclusion: There is a significant positive correlation between the knowledge of T2D and the perception of T2D risk. There are bodily and biochemical indicators that suggest the increased risk of Diabesity, despite the attendance at the health center, the control of the pathologies is not reflected, for this reason the levels of morbidity and mortality persist.


Introdução: As doenças crônicas não transmissíveis tornaram-se um problema global devido às altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade, decorrentes de estilos de vida inadequados que incluem a falta de percepção e baixo conhecimento dessas condições. Objetivo: Estabelecer a relação entre percepção e conhecimento sobre Diabetes Tipo 2 e Risco de Diabesidade em adultos de Puebla. Método: Quantitativa com desenho descritivo, correlacional e transversal, incluindo pessoas de 20 a 65 anos pertencentes ao Centro de Saúde Almecatla, Puebla. Foram excluídas pessoas que falam línguas indígenas e gestantes. O cálculo amostra foi de 182 pessoas. Foram utilizados o instrumento DKQ-24 e Percepção de Risco de Diabetes, ficha de dados sociodemográficos e consentimento informado. Análise e resultados: 78% eran mulheres, com idade média de 58,8 anos, glicemia capilar 163,8, hemoglobina glicosilada 8,6, 88,5% têm conhecimento adequado de DM2 e 50,5% percepção de alto risco de DM2. Existe uma relação positiva e significativa entre o conhecimento e a percepção do risco de DM2 (p<0,05). Conclusão: Existe uma correlação positiva significativa entre o conhecimento de DM2 e a percepção do risco de DM2. Existem indicadores corporais e bioquímicos que sugerem o aumento do risco de Diabesidade, apesar da ida ao centro de saúde não se reflectir no controlo das patologias, por isso persistem os níveis de morbilidade e mortalidade.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Obesidade , México
8.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 74(2): 97-106, jun. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1561533

RESUMO

Introducción: La malnutrición por exceso causa sobrepeso y obesidad, siendo un problema de salud pública, que se ha presentado en los primeros años de vida. Investigaciones realizadas han informado la existencia de insatisfacción corporal relacionada con el peso, debido a los estándares de belleza establecidos en la sociedad. Objetivo: asociar el índice de masa corporal con la insatisfacción corporal y percepción de la imagen corporal de los escolares. Materiales y métodos: estudio transversal con 610 escolares. El estado nutricional se clasificó según el puntaje z del IMC. Para determinar la insatisfacción corporal y la percepción de la imagen corporal, se aplicó una escala de imagen corporal infantil de siete fotografías, con un valor del 1 al 7 de acuerdo con el tamaño creciente, y el rango final del IMC. Se calculó la diferencia entre la figura que los participantes consideraron ideal y la forma corporal percibida. Resultados: el 47,3% presentaron sobrepeso y obesidad. La insatisfacción corporal fue mayor en las niñas con sobrepeso y obesidad (p = 0,013). El IMC correlacionó con la insatisfacción corporal (rho(608) = 0,480; p < 0,001) y la percepción de la imagen corporal (rho(608) = 0,433; p < 0,001). Conclusiones: El IMC se relacionó positivamente con la insatisfacción corporal y la percepción de la imagen corporal; esto podría elevar el riesgo de presentar trastornos alimentarios, contribuir al mantenimiento del exceso de peso corporal, al no percibirse con exceso de peso, es menos probable que realicen acciones para controlarlo(AU)


Introduction: Excessive malnutrition causes overweight and obesity, being a public health problem, which has occurred in the first years of life. Research has reported the existence of body dissatisfaction related to weight, due to beauty standards established in society. Objective: to associate the BMI with body dissatisfaction and body image perception of schoolchildren. Materials and methods: cross-sectional study of 610 schoolchildren. Nutritional status was classified according to the BMI z score. To determine body dissatisfaction and body image perception, a child body image scale of seven photographs was applied, with a value of 1 to 7 according to the increasing size, and the final range of the BMI. The difference between the figure that participants considered ideal, and the perceived body shape was calculated. Results: 47.3% were overweight and obese. Body dissatisfaction was higher in overweight and obese girls (p = 0.013). BMI correlated with body dissatisfaction (rho(608) = 0.480; p < 0.001) and body image perception (rho(608) = 0.433; p < 0.001). Conclusions: BMI was positively related to body dissatisfaction and body image perception; this could increase the risk of developing eating disorders, contribute to the maintenance of excess body weight, as it is not perceived with excess weight, are less likely to take actions to control it(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Sobrepeso , Obesidade Infantil
9.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the current state of childhood overweight and obesity in Spain, and its relationship with socioeconomic status and health-related behaviors. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional observational study, based on the 2017 National Health Survey in minors in Spain. This study included all children surveyed who were aged 1-14 years. Childhood obesity was estimated from the z-score of the body mass index. RESULTS: The study included 4882 children aged 1-14 years (mean 7.5). The prevalence of obesity was 18.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 18.5-18.7), while 13.5% (95% CI 13.4-13.6) were overweight. These figures represent over a million children in Spain who are obese and nearly 750,000 who are overweight. A north-south geographic gradient was apparent, with higher prevalence of unhealthy body weight in southern Spain. Factors associated with childhood obesity were low socioeconomic status, poor diet and sedentarism, among others. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood overweight in Spain is strongly associated with socioeconomic status and other factors such as diet and sedentarism. Multidisciplinary public health interventions are needed to reduce this serious health problem in children.

10.
Aten Primaria ; 56(10): 102953, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705132

RESUMO

The prevalence of overweight and obesity, and, consequently, associated comorbidities, is increasing significantly worldwide. The guidelines recommend a percentage of weight loss> 5% to achieve beneficial effects on metabolic comorbidities associated with obesity. Furthermore, greater weight losses (> 10%) produce more significant improvements, and may even produce remission of some of these comorbidities. In this chapter, we review the evidence of the effect of weight loss through different strategies (lifestyle intervention, pharmacological treatment, or bariatric surgery) on the main cardiometabolic pathologies associated with excess adipose tissue (type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and mortality).

11.
Aten Primaria ; 56(11): 102978, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820670

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity has increased in recent years worldwide. In this context, strategies for management obesity in primary care are essential. The first step in the treatment of obesity are lifestyle intervention programs. The three pillars of these programs, ideally of high intensity (high frequency of visits), are dietary intervention, exercise and behavioral therapy. There is no universal model of care for patients with obesity, but it must take into account key aspects, such as facilitating the access and adherence of the patient and a multidisciplinary and coordinated care among professionals at different levels of healthcare. The components of the model of care and its format should be defined according to the resources available and the characteristics of the population to be treated.

13.
Aten Primaria ; 56(7): 102961, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763046

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery (BS) has been shown to be effective and efficient, but only 1% of selected patients will ever receive it. Compared to medical treatment of obesity, BS has demonstrated greater long-term sustained weight loss, a reduction in both total and cardiovascular (CV) mortality, improvement or remission of CV risk factors and other comorbidities associated with obesity, as well as improved mobility and quality of life. BS presents similar risks to other abdominal surgeries, with obesity as an added risk factor. However, mortality after this type of surgery is less than 1%, being in specialised centres even lower than 0.3%, with a morbidity of less than 7%. The most commonly performed surgical procedures at present are vertical gastrectomy and Roux---Y gastric bypass, preferably by laparoscopic approach.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Obesidade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Humanos , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/cirurgia , Endocrinologia/normas
14.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 163(2): e17-e23, 2024 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724319

RESUMO

Frailty, sarcopenia and osteoporosis are entities specific to the elderly, who share some risk factors. For this reason, their relationship has been studied in different works, which have provided disparate results, probably because these studies have not always focused on the same aspects. This article reviews the relationship of frailty and sarcopenia with osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Osteoporose , Sarcopenia , Humanos , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/complicações , Fragilidade/complicações , Idoso , Fatores de Risco , Idoso Fragilizado
15.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 16(2)May-Aug. 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559129

RESUMO

Introducción: el riesgo de aparición del infarto agudo de miocardio está relacionada con varias comorbilidades, muchas de las cuales son prevenibles y tratables. El infarto agudo de miocardio tiene un impacto relevante en términos de mortalidad y número de hospitalizaciones. Objetivos: determinar las características clínica-epidemiológicas del infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST en pacientes atendidos en el Centro Médico Nacional-Hospital Nacional, durante el periodo 2021-2023. Metodología: el diseño del estudio fue observacional, descriptivo de corte transversal, sobre las características clínica-epidemiológicas del infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST en pacientes mayores de edad atendidos en el Centro Médico Nacional-Hospital Nacional, durante el periodo 2021-2023. Resultados: se analizaron 102 expedientes de pacientes con diagnóstico de infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST con una media de 64 ± 12 años; el 68 % (n = 69) correspondió al sexo masculino, con una edad promedio de 62 años, y en relación a las mujeres el promedio fue de 64 años. El motivo de consulta principal fue el dolor precordial y la cara miocárdica más afectada de acuerdo con el electrocardiograma inicial fue la cara anteroseptal. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue del 16 %, el 68 % correspondió a varones. La comorbilidad más frecuente fue la hipertensión arterial. Conclusión: La hipertensión arterial es la patología más prevalente. Asimismo, son habituales la obesidad, el tabaquismo y la diabetes mellitus. Las comorbilidades están en relación directa con la edad y prevalecen en mayores de 60 años. El infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST es más frecuente en el sexo masculino.


Introduction: the risk of acute myocardial infarction is related to several comorbidities, many of which are preventable and treatable. Acute myocardial infarction has a relevant impact in terms of mortality and number of hospitalizations. Objectives: the design of the study was observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, on the clinical characteristics of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, in adult patients treated at the Centro Médico Nacional-Hospital Nacional, during the period 2021-2023. Methodology: the design of the study was observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, on the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of acute myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation in adult patients treated at the National Medical Center-National Hospital, during the period 2021-2023. Results: 102 records of patients with a diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with a mean age of 64 ± 12 years were analyzed; 68 % (n = 69) were male, with an average age of 62 years, and in relation to women the average was 64 years. The main reason for consultation was precordial pain and the most affected myocardial aspect according to the initial electrocardiogram was the anteroseptal aspect. In-hospital mortality was 16 %, 68 % of which were men. The most frequent comorbidity was arterial hypertension. Conclusion: high blood pressure is the most prevalent pathology. Likewise, obesity, smoking and diabetes mellitus are common. Comorbidities are directly related to age and prevail in those over 60 years of age. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is more common in males.

16.
Gac Med Mex ; 160(1): 9-16, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On December 31, 2019, one of the most serious pandemics in recent times made its appearance. Certain health conditions, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, have been described to be related to COVID-19 unfavorable outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort of 998,639 patients. Patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed, with survivors being compared with the deceased individuals. Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify variables predictive of COVID-19-associated mortality. RESULTS: Among the deceased patients, men accounted for 64.3%, and women, for 35.7%, with the difference being statistically significant. Subjects older than 80 years had a 13-fold higher risk of dying from COVID-19 (95% CI = 12,469, 13,586), while chronic kidney disease entailed a risk 1.5 times higher (95% CI = 1,341, 1,798), and diabetes mellitus involved a risk 1.25 times higher (95% CI = 1.238,1.276). CONCLUSIONS: Age, sex, diabetes mellitus and obesity were found to be predictors of COVID-19 mortality. Further research related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular diseases, smoking and pregnancy is suggested.


ANTECEDENTES: El 31 de diciembre de 2019, se inició una de las pandemias más graves de los últimos tiempos. Se ha descrito que ciertas condiciones de salud, como la obesidad y la diabetes mellitus, están relacionadas con desenlaces desfavorables por COVID-19. OBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados a mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Cohorte retrospectiva de 998 639 pacientes. Se analizaron las características sociodemográficas y clínicas de los pacientes, y se compararon supervivientes con fallecidos. Se utilizó el modelo de riesgos proporcionales de Cox para la identificación de variables predictivas de defunción por COVID-19. RESULTADOS: Entre los fallecidos, los hombres representaron 64.3 % y las mujeres 35.7 %, diferencia que resultó estadísticamente significativa. Las personas con más de 80 años presentaron un riesgo 13 veces mayor de morir por COVID-19 (IC 95 % = 12.469,13.586) y la enfermedad renal crónica, un riesgo de 1.5 (IC 95 % = 1.341, 1.798); la diabetes mellitus tuvo un riesgo de 1.25 (IC 95 % = 1.238,1.276). CONCLUSIONES: La edad, el sexo, la diabetes mellitus y la obesidad resultaron ser entidades predictivas de muerte por COVID-19. Se sugiere más investigación relacionada con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, enfermedades cardiovasculares, tabaquismo y embarazo.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Obesidade , Humanos , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto , Obesidade/mortalidade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
17.
Gac Med Mex ; 160(1): 53-61, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a global problem that affects schoolchildren and can increase the risk of diseases in adulthood. Adult members of the Yaqui Indigenous group have been shown to have serious health problems, and Yaqui schoolchildren could therefore find themselves in a similar situation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional status, lipid profile and associated factors in a sample of Yaqui schoolchildren. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 109 Yaqui schoolchildren who lived in their localities of origin were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were carried out, a venous blood sample was extracted in fasting conditions, and several questionnaires were applied. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 38.5%, with no cases of chronic malnutrition being recorded; 38.6% of the children had dyslipidemia. Fiber consumption was a protective factor against overweight/obesity, while fat intake was a risk factor. The physical activity score was found to be a protective factor against dyslipidemia, and the risk factors were BMI-for-age Z-scores, waist circumference, family history of dyslipidemia, educational level, and permanent employment. CONCLUSIONS: Yaqui schoolchildren equally suffer from a high proportion of overweight/obesity and dyslipidemia. The associated factors may be useful for the design of contextualized interventions for this population.


ANTECEDENTES: La malnutrición es un problema mundial que afecta a niños escolares, capaz de incrementar el riesgo de enfermedades en la edad adulta. Adultos yaquis han presentado graves problemas de salud, por lo que los escolares podrían encontrarse en una situación similar. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el estado nutricional, el perfil lipídico y los factores asociados en una muestra de escolares yaquis. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 109 escolares habitantes de los pueblos originarios, en quienes se realizaron mediciones antropométricas, se extrajo una muestra de sangre venosa en condición de ayuno y se aplicaron cuestionarios. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad fue de 38.5 %, sin que se registraran casos de desnutrición crónica; 38.6 % de los escolares presentó dislipidemia. El consumo de fibra resultó ser un factor protector contra sobrepeso/obesidad y el consumo de grasa constituyó un factor de riesgo. La puntuación de actividad física resultó ser un factor protector contra dislipidemia y los factores de riesgo fueron puntuaciones Z del índice de masa corporal/edad, circunferencia de cintura, historia familiar de dislipidemias, nivel educativo y empleo permanente. CONCLUSIONES: Los escolares yaquis padecen por igual alta proporción de sobrepeso/obesidad y dislipidemia. Los factores asociados pueden resultar útiles para el diseño de intervenciones contextualizadas para esta población.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso , Humanos , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Fatores de Risco , Adolescente , Prevalência , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Obesidade Infantil/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Índice de Massa Corporal
18.
San Salvador; MINSAL; may, 30, 2024. 160 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Não convencional em Espanhol | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1554998

RESUMO

En esta guía titulada: "Guía de práctica clínica informada en la evidencia para el abordaje de la obesidad en adultos" se presenta todo el proceso que se desarrolló para su adaptación, de acuerdo con el "Manual para el desarrollo de guías de la Organización Mundial de la Salud" y la "Guía para adaptar y aplicar directrices informadas por la evidencia en su segunda edición de la OPS año 2023". Las recomendaciones propuestas, fueron validadas por un panel con la participación de profesionales expertos clínicos del Sistema Nacional de Salud., asociaciones médicas y representantes de los pacientes. El abordaje del tratamiento de la obesidad en esta guía contribuirá a mejorar la calidad de atención de la población salvadoreña


This guide entitled "Evidence-informed clinical practice guide for the management of obesity in adults" presents the entire process that was developed for its adaptation, according to the "Manual for the development of guidelines of the World Health Organization" and the "Guide to adapt and apply guidelines informed by evidence in its second edition of PAHO year 2023". The proposed recommendations were validated by a panel with the participation of expert clinical professionals from the National Health System, medical associations and patient representatives. The approach to the treatment of obesity in this guide will contribute to improving the quality of care for the Salvadoran population


Assuntos
Saúde do Adulto , Guia de Prática Clínica , Adulto , El Salvador
19.
San Salvador; MINSAL; may. 30, 2024. 28 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Não convencional em Espanhol | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1555002

RESUMO

En esta guía titulada: "Guía de práctica clínica informada en la evidencia para el abordaje de la obesidad en adultos" se presenta todo el proceso que se desarrolló para su adaptación, de acuerdo con el "Manual para el desarrollo de guías de la Organización Mundial de la Salud" y la "Guía para adaptar y aplicar directrices informadas por la evidencia en su segunda edición de la OPS año 2023". Las recomendaciones propuestas, fueron validadas por un panel con la participación de profesionales expertos clínicos del Sistema Nacional de Salud., asociaciones médicas y representantes de los pacientes. El abordaje del tratamiento de la obesidad en esta guía contribuirá a mejorar la calidad de atención de la población salvadoreña


This guide entitled "Evidence-informed clinical practice guide for the management of obesity in adults" presents the entire process that was developed for its adaptation, according to the "Manual for the development of guidelines of the World Health Organization" and the "Guide to adapt and apply guidelines informed by evidence in its second edition of PAHO year 2023". The proposed recommendations were validated by a panel with the participation of expert clinical professionals from the National Health System, medical associations and patient representatives. The approach to the treatment of obesity in this guide will contribute to improving the quality of care for the Salvadoran population


Assuntos
Guia de Prática Clínica , Obesidade , Saúde do Adulto , El Salvador
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(2)abr. 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558124

RESUMO

SUMMARY: This article has two aims: (a) first aim was to determine what is the most applicable and the simplest alternative for recommended BMI categories for underweight, overweight and obesity related to IOTF references, from the practical standpoint; (b) second aim was to determine the prevalence of the nutritional status in Montenegro on this representative sample of school children aged 9-13 years and compare them with peers from relevant and similar studies from both the local region and globally. A total sample of 1478 healthy children from Montenegro participated in this study divided into two sub-samples of 732 girls and 746 boys. According to the IOTF body mass index (BMI) reference values were used through ROC curve analysis to evaluate potential alternatives for estimation of the nutritional status of this sample of children. Only WHtR did not show significant age-related differences in the case of both genders. Considering the nutritional status of children from this study it has been found that boys have a considerably higher prevalence of being overweight (22.7 % vs. 16.4 %) and obese (7.5 % vs. 3.3 %) compared to girls. On the other hand, girls were more prevalent to be underweight (10.5 % vs. 7.5 %). WHtR seems like the best alternative for the estimation of obesity and being overweight due to simplicity and the equipment needed.


Este artículo tiene dos objetivos: (a) el primero fue determinar cuál es la alternativa más aplicable y más sencilla para las categorías de IMC recomendadas para bajo peso, sobrepeso y obesidad relacionadas con las referencias de la IOTF, desde el punto de vista práctico; (b) el segundo objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia del estado nutricional en Montenegro en esta muestra representativa de escolares de 9 a 13 años y compararlos con pares de estudios relevantes y similares tanto de la región local como a nivel mundial. En el estudio participaron 1478 niños sanos de Montenegro divididos en dos submuestras de 732 niñas y 746 niños. De acuerdo con el índice de masa corporal (IMC) de la IOTF, se utilizaron valores de referencia mediante análisis de curvas ROC para evaluar posibles alternativas para la estimación del estado nutricional de esta muestra en niños. Sólo el ICT no mostró diferencias significativas relacionadas con la edad en el caso de ambos sexos. Teniendo en consideración el estado nutricional de los niños, se determinó que los éstos tenían una prevalencia considerablemente mayor de sobrepeso (22,7 % frente a 16,4 %) y obesidad (7,5 % frente a 3,3 %) en comparación con las niñas. Por otro lado, las niñas tenían más prevalencia de bajo peso (10,5 % frente a 7,5 %). El WHtR parece la mejor alternativa para la estimación de la obesidad y el sobrepeso por su sencillez y equipamiento necesario.

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