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1.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(1): 1-8, ene.-abr. 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213096

RESUMO

Background/objective: The aim of the current cross-sectional study is to assess the relations between emotion dysregulation, psychological distress, emotional eating, and BMI in a sample of Italian young adults (20-35).Methods: A total sample of 600 participants frm the general population, were asked to fill in demographical and physical data, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale, and the Emotional Eating subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire via an online anonymous survey. Relations between variables have been inspected using a path model. Results: Results showed that emotion dysregulation was a contributor to higher levels of psychological distress [b= 0.348; SE: 0.020; p=<0.001; 95% BC-CI (0.306–0.387)] and emotional eating [b= 0.010; SE: 0.002; p=<0.001; 95% BC-CI (0.006–0.014)] which in turn, was related to higher Body Mass Index [b= 0.0574; SE: 0.145; p=<0.001; 95% BC-CI (0.286–0.863)]. Conclusions: By providing additional evidence concerning the role of emotion dysregulation for physical and psychological outcomes, the current study could inform for improving psychological interventions aimed to promote emotion regulation strategies aimed at fostering physical and psychological well-being. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Emoções , Estresse Psicológico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Itália , Higiene do Sono , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/reabilitação
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36704647

RESUMO

Background: Transient elastography (TE) is an FDA approved, non-invasive tool to estimate liver stiffness measurement (LSM) in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to analyze if body mass index (BMI) would predict the severity of liver stiffness using TE scores. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with NAFLD who presented to the hepatology clinic between January 2019 through January 2021. Fibrosis severity was divided into the following categories: F0 to F1 (2-7 kPa), F2 (>7 to 10 kPa), F3 (>10 to 14 kPa) and F4 (>14 kPa). We used ordered logistic regression models to determine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of having a higher LSM severity compared to lower associated with BMI. Models were adjusted for patient demographics and comorbidities. Results: Among 284 patients, 56.7% were females, and the median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 62 [51-68] years and BMI 31.9 (28.1, 36.2) kg/m2; 47% of patients were in the F0 to F1 stage, 24% F2, 16% F3, and 13% F4. The correlation between BMI and TE score was 0.31 (P<0.001). With 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI there was 1.10 times higher odds of having a higher LSM severity (adjusted OR, 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05-1.14). Compared to patients with BMI <25 kg/m2, the adjusted OR (95% CI) of having a higher fibrosis stage was 1.82 (0.61-5.44), 5.93 (2.05-17.13), and 8.56 (2.51-29.17) for patients with BMI of 25 to <30, 30 to <40, and ≥40 respectively. Conclusions: BMI correlates with the severity of LSM using TE scores in NAFLD patients even after adjusting for potential confounding variables. This suggests TE as an appreciable study for liver stiffness even in obese individuals.

3.
Cell Metab ; 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36706758

RESUMO

Obesity is a considerable health concern with limited pharmacotherapy options of low efficacy. Here, we develop a GLP-1/GDF15 fusion protein and explore its weight-lowering potential in animals. The molecule, QL1005, is engineered via fusing GLP-1 and GDF15 analogs by a peptide linker and conjugating it to a fatty acid for time-action extension. In vitro, the potency of QL1005 is superior to the GLP-1 analog semaglutide. In obese mice, QL1005 induces reductions in body weight, food intake, insulin, fasting glucose, and triglycerides. Notably, these metabolic effects come as a result of activities emanating from both GLP-1 and GDF15, in an individual pathway-balanced fashion. In a cynomolgus monkey model of obesity, QL1005 reduces body weight, food intake, insulin, and glucose in a dose-dependent manner with limited incidence of GI side effects. Altogether, this long-acting, dual GLP-1/GDF15 molecule demonstrates the promise of poly-pharmaceutical approaches in metabolic drug discovery and development.

4.
J Aging Phys Act ; : 1-9, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36706764

RESUMO

We designed to evaluate the effects of resistance elastic band exercises (REBEs) on cardiometabolic/obesity-related biomarkers in older females with osteosarcopenic obesity. Sixty-three patients (aged 65-80 years) with osteosarcopenic obesity and a body mass index exceeding 30 kg/m2 were enrolled in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (REBE, n = 32) or a usual care group (n = 31). The experimental group completed a 12-week REBE program, three times a week and 60 min per session. There were decreases in lipid accumulation product (p = .033), visceral adipose index (p = .001), triglyceride-glucose-body mass index (p = .034), and atherogenic index of plasma (p = .028) in the experimental group compared with the usual care group. Our findings highlight the importance of an REBE program in improving combined cardiometabolic/obesity-related indices in older women with osteosarcopenic obesity. The incorporation of an REBE program may benefit individuals who are unable to tolerate or participate in more strenuous exercise programs.

5.
Mol Metab ; : 101681, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707047

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by progressive immune-mediated loss of insulin-producing ß-cells. Inflammation is detrimental to ß-cell function and survival, moreover, both apoptosis and necrosis have been implicated as mechanisms of ß-cell loss in T1D. The receptor interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) promotes inflammation by serving as a scaffold for NF-κB and MAPK activation, or by acting as a kinase that triggers apoptosis or necroptosis. It is unclear whether RIPK1 kinase activity is involved in T1D pathology. Therefore, we investigated if absence of RIPK1 activation would affect the susceptibility to immune-mediated diabetes or diet induced obesity (DIO). We show that knock-in mice carrying a mutation mimicking serine 25 phosphorylation (Ripk1S25D/S25D), which abrogates RIPK1 kinase activity, presented normal glucose metabolism and ß-cell function. Furthermore, immune-mediated diabetes and DIO were not different between Ripk1S25D/S25D and Ripk1+/+ mice. Despite strong activation of RIPK1 kinase and other necroptosis effectors (RIPK3 and MLKL) by TNF+BV6+zVAD, no cell death was observed in mouse islets nor human ß-cells. These results contrast recent literature showing that most cell types undergo necroptosis following RIPK1 kinase activation. This peculiarity may reflect an adaptation to the inability of ß-cells to proliferate and self-renewal.

6.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; : e407, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global public health concern. Chronic inflammation plays a role in MetS; haematological inflammatory parameters can be used as MetS predicting factors. OBJECTIVE: Hereditary and environmental factors play an important role in the development of MetS. This study aimed to determine the relationship between haematological parameters and MetS in the adult population of southeastern Iran, Kerman. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was a sub-analysis of 1033 subjects who participated in the second phase of the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factor Study (KERCADRS). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) definition. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to investigate the relationship between haematological parameters with age and components of metabolic syndrome. The role of WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte in predicting metabolic syndrome was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: White blood cell (WBC) and its subcomponent cells count, red cell distribution width (RDW), monocyte to HDL ratio (MHR) and Neutrophil to HDL ratio (NHR) had a significant positive correlation with the severity of MetS. The cut-off value of WBC was 6.1 (×103 /µL), the sensitivity was 70%, the specificity was 52.9% for females, the cut-off value of WBC was 6.3 (×103 /µL), the sensitivity was 68.2% and the specificity was 46.7%, for males. CONCLUSION: WBC and its subcomponent count, RDW, MHR and NHR parameters are valuable biomarkers for further risk appraisal of MetS in adults. These markers are helpful in early diagnoses of individuals with MetS.

7.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) Implementing Agencies'(SIAs) use of the SNAP-Ed Evaluation Framework (Framework), which is a tool that includes 51 indicators that SNAP-Ed programs can use to measure the success of their programs in the first 5 years after its release. METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional study design was utilized to administer electronic surveys to between 124 and 154 SIAs who received SNAP-Ed funding in fiscal years 2017, 2019, and 2021. Analyses included descriptive statistics and tests of proportions. RESULTS: Most SIAs indicated that they used the Framework to inform both data collection instruments and program planning decisions and the rates remained relatively constant over the 3 time points (> 80%). The most common specific use of the Framework across all 3 time points was to define, count, or measure the work accomplished, but this statistically decreased from 2017 (76%) to 2021 (57%) (z-score = 3.31; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The results of this analysis confirmed that 5 years after its introduction, uptake and use of the Framework was high and that, as a whole, SIAs focused on priority indicators set by the US Department of Agriculture, with no notable increases in addressing and measuring longer-term, multisector, and population-wide outcomes. The systematic study of the Framework's usability over time has a broader application to other national health promotion initiatives with shared frameworks.

8.
J Forensic Sci ; 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707925

RESUMO

The addition of information regarding obesity status to the forensic anthropological biological profile could significantly contribute to the identification of human skeletal remains since over 40% of the U.S. adult population is currently obese. This study examines the differences in talar shape and trabecular bone structure between obese and non-obese individuals. A sample of 20 obese and 20 non-obese divided evenly by sex was selected from the Texas State University Donated Skeletal Collection. Tali were imaged using x-ray computed tomography (voxel size: 28-38.7 µm). Image stacks were processed to produce binary images as well as trabecular thickness and spacing maps. Landmark-based geometric morphometric analyses were conducted to quantify shape variation. Shape coordinates were used to locate 100 geometrically homologous volumes of interest within each talus. Bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and trabecular spacing were extracted at each volume of interest. Within each sex, a one-way ANCOVA was used to determine if significant differences exist between obese and non-obese individuals in trabecular bone after controlling for age. The size of the talus as well as subtle aspects of shape were found to distinguish the sexes. The results further indicate that bone volume fraction significantly differs between obese and non-obese males. In females, bone volume fraction is correlated with age but does not differ between obese and non-obese. The study demonstrates that bone microstructure is a promising approach to estimating body mass or body mass index category but age effects diminish the potential for the talus to be used alone.

10.
Hum Reprod ; 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708012

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Are ovarian antral follicle dynamics altered in women with obesity and regular ovulatory cycles? SUMMARY ANSWER: Eumenorrheic women with obesity display evidence of suppressed antral follicle dynamics as judged by fewer recruitment events, selectable follicles, and anovulatory dominant follicles, as well as lower anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations and an increased prevalence of luteal phase defects. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Ovarian antral follicle development is a dynamic process involving distinct follicular and endocrine events that are critical for the occurrence of regular monthly ovulations. Follicle dynamics have not been prospectively evaluated in eumenorrheic women with obesity despite the known impact of obesity on gonadotropin production, ovarian steroid hormone concentrations, and fecundity. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a prospective, longitudinal study of 42 women conducted over one inter-ovulatory interval (IOI). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: A group of 21 women with obesity (total percent body fat ≥35%) and a group of 21 women without obesity (total percent body fat <35%) underwent transvaginal ultrasonography and venipuncture every-other-day for one IOI at an academic clinical research unit. Participants were aged 19-38 years and had a history of self-reported regular menstrual cycles (21-35 days). Follicle number and diameter (≥2 mm) were quantified at each visit. Individual growth profiles for all follicles that grew to ≥7 mm were assessed. Blood samples were assayed for gonadotropins, AMH, estradiol, and progesterone. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Women with obesity exhibited fewer recruitment events (mean ± SD, 1 ± 1 vs 2 ± 1 events; P = 0.010) and fewer selectable follicles (4 ± 3 vs 8 ± 6 follicles per participant; P = 0.022) during an IOI compared to women without obesity. AMH levels were lower in women with obesity (4.40 ± 3.01 vs 5.94 ± 2.49 ng/ml; P = 0.023), while gonadotropin profiles were similar between groups, across the IOI. Of the individual follicles tracked, fewer follicles progressed to >10 mm in the cohort with obesity (30 vs 40 follicles; P = 0.04) and fewer anovulatory follicles achieved dominance (9 vs 18 follicles; P = 0.041). Ovulatory follicles were selected at smaller diameters in women with compared to those without obesity (7.5 ± 1.6 vs 9.5 ± 1.9 mm; P = 0.001). Luteal phase defects were also more common in women with compared to those without obesity, as defined by either integrated (76 vs 29%, P = 0.002) or maximum (71 vs 24%, P = 0.002) luteal progesterone. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: This study was limited to an assessment of antral follicle dynamics and cannot inform on earlier stages of folliculogenesis. This study was observational and cannot address causation between obesity and altered antral follicle dynamics. Lastly, the data cannot be extrapolated to account for reduced fecundity and fertility in obesity. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The increasing global prevalence of obesity necessitates an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie obesity-related adverse reproductive health outcomes. Eumenorrheic women with obesity demonstrate altered ovarian antral follicle and endocrine dynamics compared to their counterparts without obesity. The degree to which abnormal granulosa cell assembly and/or activity underlie the suboptimal luteinization and subfertility requires further investigation. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): Funding was provided by Cornell University, President's Council of Cornell Women, United States Department of Agriculture (grant no. 8106), and National Institutes of Health (R01-HD0937848). B.Y.J. and H.V.B. were supported by doctoral training awards from the National Institutes of Health (T32-DK007158) and Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant no. 146182), respectively. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01927432, NCT01785719.

11.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708260

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Dyslipidemia in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been attributed to confounding obesity and/or diabetes. This study aimed to examine lipid profiles in non-diabetic, non-obese patients with OSA and identify the possible effects of age and sex. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the lipid parameters of 3050 adults who underwent polysomnography. A total of 2168 patients were excluded due to obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), diabetes, alcoholism, untreated hypothyroidism, lipid-lowering drug use, missing sleep data, or treatment for suspected OSA. RESULTS: Of 882 patients (75% males, aged 46.8 ± 12.2 years) included in the study, 88.4% had OSA. Levels of total cholesterol (p = 0.003), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.005), non-HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.001), and triglycerides (p = 0.007) were significantly higher in patients with OSA than those without, whereas HDL-cholesterol levels did not differ. The proportion of patients with hypercholesterolemia and/or elevated non-HDL-cholesterol (> 160 mg/dL) was significantly higher in OSA than non-OSA. Correlation analyses by sex revealed stronger and more significant relationships between lipid parameters and AHI in women than men (r = 0.135, p < 0.001 vs. r = 0.080, p = 0.043 for total cholesterol; r = 0.111, p < 0.001 vs. r = 0.080, p = 0.046 for non-HDL-cholesterol; r = 0.122, p < 0.001 vs. r = 0.061, p = 0.107 for LDL-cholesterol, respectively). In regression analysis, the rate of hypercholesterolemia increased with age (p < 0.001 for women and p = 0.031 for men); non-HDL and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly increased with OSA severity (p = 0.035 and p=0.023) and age (p = 0.004 and p=0.001) in women. CONCLUSIONS: After excluding confounding obesity and diabetes, patients with OSA have impaired lipid profile including total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. A significant association between dyslipidemia and OSA severity was observed in women but not men.

12.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708456

RESUMO

PURPOSE: 25OHD levels in patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), the most frequent cause of genetic obesity with a peculiar fat mass distribution, are still debated. Insulin resistance (IR), Body Mass Index-SDS (BMI-SDS), Growth Hormone Therapy (GHT), and puberty onset seem to interact with 25OHD levels. The objectives of the study are: (1) To analyze 25OHD levels in pediatric PWS patients in comparison with a control group (CNT) (2) To evaluate a possible correlation between BMI-SDS, HOMA-IR, puberty, GHT, and 25OHD levels. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control, multicenter study. Data were collected among 8 different Italian Hospitals (outpatient clinics), over a period of four years (2016-2020). We included 192 genetically confirmed PWS and 192 CNT patients, aged 3-18 years, matched 1:1 for age, gender, BMI-SDS, Tanner stage, sun exposure, and month of recruitment. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in 25OHD levels were observed between the PWS population and the CNT (PWS 24.0 ng/mL vs CNT 22.5 ng/mL, p > 0.05), OR = 0.89 (95% CI 0.58-1.35). We observed a slight, although non-significant, reduction in 25OHD levels comparing NW and OB populations. HOMA-IR, puberty onset, genotype and GHT (previous or ongoing) did not show statistically significant correlation with 25OHD levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could be useful for clinicians to optimize the therapeutic management as well as to increase awareness of PWS.

13.
Endocrine ; 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate and compare sex-specific differences between metabolically healthy overweight/obesity (MHOO) and the risk of hypertension among Dong, Bouyei, and Miao adults in southwest China. METHODS: MHOO was diagnosed when the patient had a body mass index ≥24 kg/m2 and the presence of ≤1 component of metabolic syndrome. The main outcome was the occurrence of hypertension after the diagnosis or measurement by a physician at the baseline survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between MHOO and the risk of hypertension. RESULTS: We enrolled 16,433 Chinese Dong, Bouyei, and Miao adults. Using the metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW) as a reference and after adjusting for confounders, the association between MHOO and the risk of hypertension was stronger in Dong (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.07-2.00) and Miao (OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.48-2.85) men and did not exist in Bouyei men (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.81-1.60). After adjusting for the age, the association between MHOO and the risk of hypertension was stronger in men than in women among Dong adults aged 30-59 years (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.12-2.40) and did not differ between men and women among Dong adults aged 60-79 years or among Miao or Bouyei adults. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrated sex-specific differences in the association between MHOO and the risk of hypertension and that sex-specific differences further differed among Dong, Bouyei, and Miao adults.

14.
Obes Surg ; 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708465

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Like most Western armies, obesity affects Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity. However, this is not yet accepted for active-duty soldiers in most countries. The CAF have approved bariatric surgery since 2005. Our aim is to assess weight loss, resolution of obesity-related comorbidities, and impacts of bariatric surgery on military careers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the perioperative data, long-term bariatric results, and military outcomes of 108 CAF active-duty military personnel who underwent bariatric surgery in Canada over a 61-month period. RESULTS: The cohort was predominantly male (66.7%) with a mean preoperative body mass index (BMI) of 43.6 ± 5.8 kg/m2. Roux-Y gastric bypass was performed in 59 patients, sleeve gastrectomy in 29, and gastric banding in 20. All the surgeries were performed laparoscopically. The total body weight loss at the last follow-up visit was 22.5 ± 11.0%. Remission or improvement of hypertension was observed in 91.2%, diabetes in 85.7%, gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD) in 43.6%, sleep apnea in 43.1%, and dyslipidemia in 42.9%. One patient (0.9%) was medically released due to postoperative complications. Fifteen patients (13.9%) were deployed postoperatively. The combined deployable and possibly deployable statuses increased from 35.4% preoperatively to 47.9% postoperatively. CONCLUSION: This is the largest series of bariatric surgeries performed in active-duty military personnel. Bariatric surgery is effective and safe and improves deployability without impairing military careers. These results are relevant to the military of many industrialized countries. Bariatric surgery should be considered for all active-duty military personnel who meet surgical criteria for the treatment of obesity.

15.
Appetite ; 182: 106445, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592798

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the appetite-related responses to breaking up prolonged sitting with physical activity bouts differing in frequency and duration among adult females. Fourteen sedentary females aged 34 ± 13 years with a body mass index of 27.1 ± 6.3 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) took part in a randomised crossover trial with three, 7.5 h conditions: (1) uninterrupted sitting (SIT), (2) sitting with short frequent 2-min moderate-intensity walking breaks every 30 min (SHORT-BREAKS), and (3) sitting with longer duration, less frequent 10-min moderate-intensity walking breaks every 170-180 min (LONG-BREAKS). The intensity and total duration of physical activity was matched between the SHORT-BREAKS and LONG-BREAKS conditions. Linear mixed models were used to compare the outcomes between conditions with significance being accepted as p ≤ 0.05. There were no significant between-condition differences in hunger, satisfaction, prospective food consumption or overall appetite area under the curve (AUC) (all p ≥ 0.801). Absolute ad libitum energy intake and relative energy intake (REI) did not differ significantly between conditions (all p ≥ 0.420). Acylated ghrelin and total peptide YY incremental and total AUC did not differ significantly between conditions (all p ≥ 0.388). Yet, there was a medium effect size for the higher acylated ghrelin incremental AUC in SHORT-BREAKS versus SIT (d = 0.61); the reverse was seen for total AUC, which was lower in SHORT-BREAKS versus SIT (d = 0.69). These findings suggest that breaking up sitting does not lead to compensatory changes in appetite, appetite hormones or energy intake regardless of physical activity bout duration and frequency among adult females.


Assuntos
Apetite , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Cross-Over , Grelina , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura Sentada , Comportamento Sedentário
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36606743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between maternal obesity and fetal glycated albumin (GA) levels among pregnant women. METHODS: A comparative, cross-sectional study of 59 consenting, normoglycemic, pregnant women, who met the criteria for maternal obesity, attending the antenatal clinic of the University College Hospital, Nigeria, from June 2019 to December 2019. They were recruited at 36 weeks of gestation, followed up until delivery, and compared with 58 nonobese, normoglycemic pregnant controls. At delivery, blood samples were taken from the mothers and from the umbilical cords of their newborns for serum GA assay. Maternal and newborn variables were recorded, and comparisons were made using χ2 tests, independent t tests, odds ratios, analysis of variance, and Pearson correlates. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: The odds of elevated newborn GA were 3.21 times higher in obese women compared with nonobese women (P = 0.005) and 5-min APGAR scores were higher in the newborns of nonobese women (P = 0.039). There was a significant correlation between maternal and neonatal GA for all participants (r = 0.346, P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that maternal obesity is associated with elevated fetal GA and low APGAR scores at 5 min in normoglycemic women.

17.
Appetite ; 183: 106449, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621724

RESUMO

Early childhood is a critical time of development. Caregiver feeding style, including of child care providers, has been implicated in influencing children's food preferences and obesity. A better understanding of the determinants of child care providers' feeding styles is important as children increasingly receive daily care and nutrition in child care centers. Valid instruments to measure provider feeding styles specifically for infants are needed. This study's objective was to validate, for use with child care providers, the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire (IFSQ), an instrument originally designed for parents of infants and toddlers. Study data came from the Baby Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (Baby NAP SACC) study, a cluster randomized trial, designed to evaluate the efficacy of a six-month-long obesity prevention intervention in child care centers. The IFSQ was administered at baseline and follow-up to infant and toddler teacher participants (n = 244). Scores for baseline IFSQ teacher responses (n = 219) were calculated for the 13 sub-constructs across the five feeding styles. We tested reliability with Cronbach's alpha coefficients and performed confirmatory factor analysis to examine factor loadings and goodness of fit characteristics, modifying constructs to achieve best fit. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.42 to 0.82 for all sub-constructs. Goodness of fit indices for the final model ranged from: root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) 0.000-0.082; comparative fit index (CFI) 0.943-1.000; Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) 0.906-1.000; and standardized root mean squared error (SRMR) 0.006-0.130. In a sample of racially diverse infant and toddler child care teachers, final models of the laissez-faire, pressuring, and responsive constructs and the restrictive-diet quality sub-construct performed well. Overall model fit was poor for the indulgence construct, but good for solely its corresponding belief items.

18.
Endocrinology ; 164(3)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631165

RESUMO

High prevalence of obesity is attributable in part to consumption of highly palatable, fat-rich foods. However, the mechanism controlling dietary fat intake is largely unknown. In this study we investigated the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the control of dietary fat intake in a mouse model that mimics the common human Val-to-Met (Val66Met) polymorphism that impairs BDNF release via the regulated secretory pathway. BdnfMet/Met mice gained weight much faster than wild-type (WT) mice and developed severe obesity due to marked hyperphagia when they were fed HFD. Hyperphagia in these mice worsened when the fat content in their diet was increased. Conversely, mice lacking leptin exhibited similar hyperphagia on chow and HFD. When 2 diets were provided simultaneously, WT and BdnfMet/Met mice showed a comparable preference for the more palatable diet rich in either fat or sucrose, indicating that increased hyperphagia on fat-rich diets in BdnfMet/Met mice is not due to enhanced hedonic drive. In support of this interpretation, WT and BdnfMet/Met mice increased calorie intake to a similar extent during the first day after chow was switched to HFD; however, WT mice decreased HFD intake faster than BdnfMet/Met mice in subsequent days. Furthermore, we found that refeeding after fasting or nocturnal feeding with HFD activated TrkB more strongly than with chow in the hypothalamus of WT mice, whereas TrkB activation under these 2 conditions was greatly attenuated in BdnfMet/Met mice. These results indicate that satiety factors generated during HFD feeding induce BDNF release to suppress excess dietary fat intake.

19.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 208: 115412, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36632959

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the number 1 cause of death in the United States and hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for CVD. It is estimated that up to 50 % of the hypertensive trait is genetically inherited while the other 50 % is determined by modifiable factors involving lifestyle, behaviors, and the environment. Interestingly, the hypertensive trait is induced or inhibited by epigenetic modifications modulated by modifiable factors. This review focused on the underlying mechanisms of stress, sleep deprivation, obesity and sedentarism as key players for epigenetic modifications contributing to the development of the hypertensive trait and, on the other hand, how epigenetic modifications induced by physical exercise and healthier habits may contribute to overturn and prevent the inheritance of hypertension trait. Furthermore, adversities during gestation and perinatal life also increase the risk for hypertension and CVD later in life, which can perpetuate the inheritance of the hypertensive trait whereas healthier habits during gestation and lactation may counteract fetal programming to improve the cardiovascular health of the progeny. Therefore, it is promising that a healthier lifestyle causes long-lasting epigenetic modifications and is transmitted to the next generation, strengthening the fight against the inheritance of hypertension.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Epigênese Genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/complicações , Obesidade/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações
20.
Ren Fail ; 45(1): 2158870, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36637005

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between recurrence-free survival (RFS) and perirenal fat thickness (PFT) in a cohort of Chinese population with unilateral nephrolithiasis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 81 patients with unilateral nephrolithiasis in our center from January 2019 to June 2019. PFT measured on computed tomography (CT) scans was evaluated. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests were used to assess significant differences in RSF between high-PFT and low-PFT groups within sexes. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate the potential risk factors for renal stone recurrence. RESULTS: High PFT was significantly associated with high BMI and hyperlipidemia (p = .003 and.047, respectively). The PFT of stone-bearing kidney was significantly greater than PFT of non-stone-bearing kidney (0.77 ± 0.60 cm vs. 0.67 ± 0.58 cm, p = .002) . During the follow-up periods (median 31 months), 21 (25.9%) patients experienced ipsilateral renal stone recurrence. In addition, Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that patients with low PFT had a significant better RFS than those with high PFT (p = .012). In the univariable Cox analyses, male sex and high PFT were significantly associated with a poor RFS (p = .042 and .018, respectively). Moreover, both male sex and high PFT retained significance in the multivariable analyses (p = .045 and .020, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that PFT is a noninvasive and feasible parameter, which may help in the risk stratification of renal stone recurrence in the follow-up periods.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Nefrolitíase , Humanos , Masculino , Rim , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Nefrolitíase/diagnóstico por imagem , Nefrolitíase/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Obesidade , Recidiva
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