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1.
Eur J Oper Res ; 304(1): 292-307, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955589

RESUMO

Despite its efficiency in reducing the impact of pandemics (e.g., the COVID-19), whether to introduce telemedicine as an additional way to serve chronically ill patients remains controversial for hospitals in many countries. This paper builds a stylized model to investigate a hospital's telemedicine strategy and the corresponding impacts on its operations regarding outpatient management of chronic diseases. We implement our analysis from three key concerns of the hospital in the presence of a pandemic: the differences in medical consumption and reimbursement between in-person and telemedicine modalities and the effort cost of infection reduction resulting from the pandemic. We find that in the absence of the pandemic, the hospital prefers to introduce telemedicine when the differences in medical consumption and reimbursement are both small. In the presence of the pandemic, we find that the introduction of telemedicine does not always benefit the hospital and that it is better not to introduce telemedicine in some cases since it may exacerbate the negative influence of the pandemic on the hospital's total costs. Furthermore, we surprisingly find that the hospital may set greater in-person capacity but less telemedicine capacity in response to the outbreak of the pandemic under certain conditions, which contradicts public beliefs. Finally, we show that social welfare can be improved by introducing telemedicine when the effort cost of infection reduction and the difference in reimbursement are both of moderate size. The condition under which social welfare is improved tightens with a greater difference in medical consumption.

2.
Eur J Oper Res ; 304(1): 99-112, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039709

RESUMO

The health and economic devastation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has created a significant global humanitarian disaster. Pandemic response policies guided by geospatial approaches are appropriate additions to traditional epidemiological responses when addressing this disaster. However, little is known about finding the optimal set of locations or jurisdictions to create policy coordination zones. In this study, we propose optimization models and algorithms to identify coordination communities based on the natural movement of people. To do so, we develop a mixed-integer quadratic-programming model to maximize the modularity of detected communities while ensuring that the jurisdictions within each community are contiguous. To solve the problem, we present a heuristic and a column-generation algorithm. Our computational experiments highlight the effectiveness of the models and algorithms in various instances. We also apply the proposed optimization-based solutions to identify coordination zones within North Carolina and South Carolina, two highly interconnected states in the U.S. Results of our case study show that the proposed model detects communities that are significantly better for coordinating pandemic related policies than the existing geopolitical boundaries.

3.
Eur J Oper Res ; 304(1): 192-206, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35068665

RESUMO

We study resource planning strategies, including the integrated healthcare resources' allocation and sharing as well as patients' transfer, to improve the response of health systems to massive increases in demand during epidemics and pandemics. Our study considers various types of patients and resources to provide access to patient care with minimum capacity extension. Adding new resources takes time that most patients don't have during pandemics. The number of patients requiring scarce healthcare resources is uncertain and dependent on the speed of the pandemic's transmission through a region. We develop a multi-stage stochastic program to optimize various strategies for planning limited and necessary healthcare resources. We simulate uncertain parameters by deploying an agent-based continuous-time stochastic model, and then capture the uncertainty by a forward scenario tree construction approach. Finally, we propose a data-driven rolling horizon procedure to facilitate decision-making in real-time, which mitigates some critical limitations of stochastic programming approaches and makes the resulting strategies implementable in practice. We use two different case studies related to COVID-19 to examine our optimization and simulation tools by extensive computational results. The results highlight these strategies can significantly improve patient access to care during pandemics; their significance will vary under different situations. Our methodology is not limited to the presented setting and can be employed in other service industries where urgent access matters.

4.
Eur J Oper Res ; 304(1): 1-8, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35874494

RESUMO

In this special issue, 23 research papers are published focusing on COVID-19 and operational research solution techniques. First, we detail the process from advertising the call for papers to the point where the best papers are accepted. Then, we provide a summary of each paper focusing on applications, solution techniques and insights for practitioners and policy makers. To provide a holistic view for readers, we have clustered the papers into different groups: transmission, propagation and forecasting, non-pharmaceutical intervention, healthcare network configuration, healthcare resource allocation, hospital operations, vaccine and testing kits, and production and manufacturing. Then, we introduce other possible subjects that can be considered for future research.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248281, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350304

RESUMO

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Paquistão/epidemiologia , China , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Pers Individ Dif ; 200: 111869, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36034720

RESUMO

Self-determination theory proposes that intrinsic aspirations protect against negative mental health outcomes by satisfying people's basic psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness, and competence. The present study investigated this relationship using two four-wave prospective longitudinal studies which followed undergraduate students across the Canadian academic calendar (September to May). The first was conducted across 2018-19 and the second across 2019-20. By comparing these two samples, we examined whether baseline levels of intrinsic aspirations moderated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the development of depressive symptoms. Three main findings emerged, the first being that students reported higher levels of depressive symptoms in Spring 2020 than in Spring 2019. Second, students with more intrinsic aspirations in the pre-pandemic sample (2018-19) experienced fewer depressive symptoms from December to May while students with more intrinsic aspirations in the pandemic sample (2019-20) experienced more depressive symptoms during this period. Lastly, the latter relationship was mediated by need frustration, whereby students with higher levels of intrinsic aspirations experienced greater need frustration during the pandemic year. Together, these findings suggest that although intrinsic aspirations typically protect against negative psychological outcomes, the unique need frustrating context of the pandemic made them a risk factor for depression.

7.
Omega ; 114: 102750, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090537

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic - as a massive disruption - has significantly increased the need for medical services putting an unprecedented strain on health systems. This study presents a robust location-allocation model under uncertainty to increase the resiliency of health systems by applying alternative resources, such as backup and field hospitals and student nurses. A multi-objective optimization model is developed to minimize the system's costs and maximize the satisfaction rate among medical staff and COVID-19 patients. A robust approach is provided to face the data uncertainty, and a new mathematical model is extended to linearize a nonlinear constraint. The ICU beds, ward beds, ventilators, and nurses are considered the four main capacity limitations of hospitals for admitting different types of COVID-19 patients. The sensitivity analysis is performed on a real-world case study to investigate the applicability of the proposed model. The results demonstrate the contribution of student nurses and backup and field hospitals in treating COVID-19 patients and provide more flexible decisions with lower risks in the system by managing the fluctuations in both the number of patients and available nurses. The results showed that a reduction in the number of available nurses incurs higher costs for the system and lower satisfaction among patients and nurses. Moreover, the backup and field hospitals and the medical staff elevated the system's resiliency. By allocating backup hospitals to COVID-19 patients, only 37% of severe patients were lost, and this rate fell to less than 5% after establishing field hospitals. Moreover, medical students and field hospitals curbed the costs and increased the satisfaction rate of nurses by 75%. Finally, the system was protected from failure by increasing the conservatism level. With a 2% growth in the price of robustness, the system saved 13%.

8.
Travel Behav Soc ; 30: 1-10, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35965603

RESUMO

High-speed railways (HSRs) greatly decrease transportation costs and facilitate the movement of goods, services, and passengers across cities. In the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, however, HSRs may contribute to the cross-regional spread of the new coronavirus. This paper evaluates the role of HSRs in spreading Covid-19 from Wuhan to other Chinese cities. We use train frequencies in 1971 and 1990 as instrumental variables. Empirical results from gravity models demonstrate that one more HSR train originating from Wuhan each day before the Wuhan lockdown increases the cumulative number of Covid-19 cases in a city by about 10 percent. The empirical analysis suggests that other transportation modes, including normal-speed trains and airline flights, also contribute to the spread of Covid-19, but their effects are smaller than the effect of HSRs. This paper's findings indicate that transportation infrastructures, especially HSR trains originating from a city where a pandemic broke out, can be important factors promoting the spread of an infectious disease.

9.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 12(4): 2378-2384, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35371957

RESUMO

Background: To investigate the value of intraoperative frozen section examination (IFSE) in multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasound (mpMRI/TRUS) fusion prostate biopsy in a major pandemic. Methods: A total of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled in our hospital from March 2020 to January 2021. The mpMRI/TRUS fusion system was used to perform a targeted biopsy, and the collected specimens were examined by IFSE (Observation Group 1). Then, a targeted biopsy was performed again for routine pathological examination (Observation Group 2). Finally, a systemic biopsy was performed, and the obtained specimens were routinely examined (Control Group). The positive rate, single core positive rate, Gleason score, and time to obtain pathological reports were compared between the groups. Results: The positive rate was 48.6% (17/35) in the control group, 48.6% (17/35) in Observation Group 1, and 51.4% (18/35) in Observation Group 2, showing no significant difference (P>0.05). The single core positive rates were 17.8%, 44.6%, and 47.1% in the Control Group, Observation Group 1, and Observation Group 2, respectively. Observation Group 1 and Observation Group 2 were significantly different from the Control Group (P<0.001). No participants in Observation Group 1 had increased or decreased Gleason scores compared with those in Observation Group 2. The time to obtain the pathological report was 0.025±0.014 days and 4.216±1.073 days for Observation Group 1 and Observation Group 2, respectively, showing a significant difference (P<0.001). Conclusions: This study showed that IFSE can not only rapidly obtain the pathological report of an mpMRI/TRUS biopsy, but can also ensure the accuracy of the pathological diagnosis. Trial Registration: CHICTR, Identifier: ChiCTR2000040789. Registered 10 December 2020 - Retrospectively registered, http://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=63252&htm=4.

10.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(36): e272, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore clinical correlates of fear of progression (FoP) among patients with cancer during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and examine the mediation effect of cancer-related dysfunctional beliefs about sleep (C-DBS). METHODS: Medical charts of patients with cancer who visited a psycho-oncology clinic between July and November 2021 were reviewed. Baseline socio-demographic and cancer-related variables were collected. Patients' self-report questionnaires, regarding FoP, depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items; PHQ-9), viral anxiety (Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 items; SAVE-6), C-DBS, and other distress, were investigated. Pearson's correlation and linear regression were performed to examine the risk factors of FoP. Mediation effect analysis with the bootstrap method with 2,000 resamples was implemented. RESULTS: A total of 231 patients were included in the analysis. Linear regression revealed that FoP was predicted by age (ß = -0.14, P = 0.003), PHQ-9 (ß = 0.48, P < 0.001), SAVE-6 (ß = 0.34, P < 0.001), and C-DBS (ß = 0.15, P = 0.005). FoP was directly influenced by SAVE-6 and mediated by C-DBS, while it was directly influenced by PHQ-9 with no mediation effect. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the FoP of patients with cancer was associated with younger age, depression, viral anxiety, and C-DBS. Depression and viral anxiety directly influenced FoP, while C-DBS mediated the association between viral anxiety and FoP. Therefore, oncology healthcare professionals are recommended to assess C-DBS of their patients when they are highly distressed from FoP.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Progressão da Doença , Medo , Humanos , Pandemias , Sono
11.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; : 104650, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124314

RESUMO

Background: The global COVID-19 pandemic has led to social constraints and changes in injury patterns during the government-imposed restrictions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the lockdown period on the pattern of emergency presentations in a plastic, hand and reconstructive surgery department in a German referral center. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted comparing patients presenting during the enforced lockdown period in 2020 and the same pre-pandemic period during the previous year 2019. All emergency presentations in the emergency unit requiring treatment by plastic, hand and reconstructive surgery were included. Patient demographics, reason for presentation, need for hospital admission, body region affected, location of injury and/or occurrence of first clinical symptoms and injuries of anatomical structures were considered. Results: Demographics were comparable among both groups. A 42.7% reduction in emergency cases was observed during the lockdown period. A significant elevation of domestic injuries and symptoms in the pandemic group (51.54% vs. 66.15%, p = 0.007) was registered. Concurrently, a decrease in recreational injuries (27.31% vs. 15.38%, p = 0.009) and workplace injuries (10.57% vs. 7.69%, p = 0.37) was noted. Hospital admission rates and length of stay were comparable. Similarly, no statistically significant differences could be detected regarding injuries of functional anatomical structures. The same holds true for crush injuries, animal bites, fall injuries, finger amputations, disc saw injuries, and distortion injuries. Fractures of the phalanges, the metacarpus/carpus and the forearm exhibited an increase. Conclusions: In spite of decreasing total emergency caseloads, there was an unchanged need for plastic, hand and reconstructive in-patient surgery and care during the lockdown period. Resource allocation has to be considered in future pandemic waves. Prevention strategies are warranted and should focus on finding measures to counteract domestic injuries.

13.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125663

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has been a psychological burden worldwide, especially for individuals with eating disorders (EDs). In addition, the healthy sisters of patients with EDs are known to present specific psychological vulnerabilities. This study evaluates differences between the general population, patients with EDs, and their healthy sisters. METHOD: A group of 233 participants (91 patients with EDs, 57 of their healthy sisters and 85 community women) was enrolled in an online survey on general and specific psychopathology 1 year after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey examined associations between posttraumatic symptoms and depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, and eating-related concerns. RESULTS: Clinically relevant scores for posttraumatic disorders were found in patients with EDs. Healthy sisters scored similarly to patients for avoidance. Regression analysis showed specific associations between interpersonal sensitivity and posttraumatic symptomatology in patients and healthy sisters, but not in community women. CONCLUSION: The psychological burden in patients with EDs is clinically relevant and linked to interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsiveness, and global symptom severity. Differences between patients, healthy sisters, and community women are discussed regarding vulnerability factors for EDs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III: evidence obtained from well-designed cohort or case-control analytic studies.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(40): e2210941119, 2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126098

RESUMO

As research documenting disparate impacts of COVID-19 by race and ethnicity grows, little attention has been given to dynamics in mortality disparities during the pandemic and whether changes in disparities persist. We estimate age-standardized monthly all-cause mortality in the United States from January 2018 through February 2022 for seven racial/ethnic populations. Using joinpoint regression, we quantify trends in race-specific rate ratios relative to non-Hispanic White mortality to examine the magnitude of pandemic-related shifts in mortality disparities. Prepandemic disparities were stable from January 2018 through February 2020. With the start of the pandemic, relative mortality disadvantages increased for American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN), Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and Black individuals, and relative mortality advantages decreased for Asian and Hispanic groups. Rate ratios generally increased during COVID-19 surges, with different patterns in the summer 2021 and winter 2021/2022 surges, when disparities approached prepandemic levels for Asian and Black individuals. However, two populations below age 65 fared worse than White individuals during these surges. For AIAN people, the observed rate ratio reached 2.25 (95% CI = 2.14, 2.37) in October 2021 vs. a prepandemic mean of 1.74 (95% CI = 1.62, 1.86), and for NHOPI people, the observed rate ratio reached 2.12 (95% CI = 1.92, 2.33) in August 2021 vs. a prepandemic mean of 1.31 (95% CI = 1.13, 1.49). Our results highlight the dynamic nature of racial/ethnic disparities in mortality and raise alarm about the exacerbation of mortality inequities for Indigenous groups due to the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Mortalidade , Índios Norte-Americanos ou Nativos do Alasca , Asiáticos , Negros , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Etnicidade , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Mortalidade/etnologia , Havaiano Nativo ou Outro Ilhéu do Pacífico , Pandemias , Grupos Raciais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Brancos
15.
J Egypt Public Health Assoc ; 97(1): 16, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global threat of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve forming the most impactful health crises in modern history, necessities of individuals adhering to mandatory behavior change that limits the spread of the pandemic. The purpose of the current study is to identify behavioral responses of the health sciences university students during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic and determine risk perceptions using the health belief model (HBM). METHODS: A cross-sectional study using an online survey distributed among health sciences female university students in Riyadh, KSA. The questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographic characteristics; knowledge about COVID-19 and its preventive measures, risk perceptions, and beliefs using the HBM; and their actual adoption of precautionary measures. RESULTS: The mean age of 286 respondents was 21.6 years (SD 2.5). They had good knowledge, positive risk perception, and good practice. Fifty-seven percent of the respondents adhere satisfactorily to COVID-19 precautionary behavior. Respondents with positive overall risk perception had around 6 times significantly higher adherence compared to those with negative risk perception. Perceived benefits have higher odds of adherence to COVID-19 precautionary behavior. Similarly, cues to action were a significant determinant of adherence to COVID-19 precautionary behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The constructs of the HBM provided good measurement of risk perception and the respondent students had good knowledge. Yet, significant gaps were shown between COVID-19 perceived risks and the students' actual practice of personal hygienic measures, particularly hand hygiene. To put an end to the present COVID-19 and its upcoming waves, it is highly recommended to direct COVID-19 training programs specifically tailored towards university students.

16.
J Sch Nurs ; : 10598405221124423, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128780

RESUMO

This mixed-method study examined school nurses' experiences during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic related to role change, psychological feelings, and coping/resiliency in the State of Hawaii. A total of 30 school nurses completed a Brief Resilience Coping Scale plus a series of open-ended questions in January 2022. On the coping scale, over 40% of participants scored high, 52% scored medium, and 7% scored a low resilient/coping level. We did not identify any association between coping level and participant characteristics. Three qualitative themes emerged: 1) school nurses experience chronic negative emotions related to the pandemic, 2) school nurses demonstrate attributes of resilience, and 3) school nurses utilize positive coping techniques. The pandemic created significant stresses and negative emotions among school nurses. Yet, school nurses reported effective coping strategies and demonstrated strength/resilience. Support and open communication between school nurses, their employers, and other school-based stakeholders is needed to provide continued support for school nurses.

17.
J Behav Med ; 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129586

RESUMO

To identify factors that increase risk for nonadherence to recommended health protective behaviors during pandemics, this study examined the prospective relations of substance use frequency to both adherence to social distancing recommendations and social distancing intentions during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the role of social distancing self-efficacy in these relations. A U.S. community sample of 377 adults completed a prospective online study, including an initial assessment between March 27 and April 5, 2020, and a follow-up assessment one-month later. Results revealed a significant direct relation of baseline substance use frequency to lower adherence to social distancing recommendations one-month later. Results also revealed significant indirect relations of greater substance use frequency to lower levels of both social distancing behaviors and intentions one-month later through lower social distancing self-efficacy. Results highlight the relevance of substance use and social distancing self-efficacy to lower adherence to social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
Int Health ; 14(Supplement_2): ii70-ii73, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130247

RESUMO

Living in an increasingly interconnected world, epidemics and pandemics are increasingly likely to be a vista for the future. This, coupled with the likely devastating effects of climate change, means that humanitarian crises are likely to increase. Now, more than ever before, is the time to scale up investment in prevention and preparedness strategies, and to review our current approaches to delivering health services, including those that address neglected tropical diseases. The Ascend West and Central Africa programme has illustrated the importance of innovation, multisector partnerships, resilience and the opportunity for change.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Medicina Tropical , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
19.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 67: 104179, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Covid-19 pandemic greatly impacted on the healthcare systems worldwide with negative consequences on several aspects of clinical populations. For neurological chronic conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS), rehabilitation activities have been suspended or postponed during the pandemic. Rehabilitation is crucial for people with MS (PwMS) because it promotes recovery from relapses and maximizes opportunities for social participation. To better understand the impact of Covid-19 emergency on rehabilitation services for MS, the European network for rehabilitation in MS (RIMS) disseminated a survey to healthcare professionals (HPs) and representatives of the MS rehabilitation services (RSs), to explore the two different perspectives on the delivery of rehabilitation in usual circumstances and during the Covid-19 emergency. METHODS: The online survey was distributed from July 9th to September 20th, 2020. Besides general information on the responders (e.g. location of center, and memebership to RIMS), information was collected on usual service delivery (e.g. settings, specialities, and types of treatment), the impact of Covid-19 circumstances (e.g. restrictions, use of personal protective equipment, and impact on work), and the use of technologiesin rehabilitation. RESULTS: Twenty-two representatives of MS rehabilitation services (RSs)and 143 health care professionals (HPs) responded. Most of RSs and HPs worked in services specialized for MS including a mixture of all usual rehabilitation settings (i.e. inpatient, outpatient and community setting). The majority of services adopted a multidisciplinary framework, including physical therapy, occupational therapy, social service, speech and language therapy, psychological support, dietary interventions, medical management, vocational rehabilitation and cognitive rehabilitaton. Overall, most of responders indicated they did not use technologies in their practice (e.g. for treatment or assessment). However, depending on the type of technology a low-to-medium percentage of responders declared to use some technologies before Covid-19 crisis (5-55% for RSs and 12-53% for HPs) and a low percentage planned the use after pandemic (0-14% for RSs and 1-10% for HPs). Moreover, for the responders the most feasible interventions deliverable through tele-rehabilitation were psychological support and dietary interventions, with psychological support considered the most necessary intervention to be remotely implemented. Moderate feasibility (30-60%) was reported for hands-off interventions (e.g. aerobic exercise and cognitive rehabilitation) whereas low feasibility (<30%) was reported for hands-on interventions. Feasibility was especially low when tools were used that are not adaptable at-home (e.g. hyperbaric oxygen therapy). CONCLUSION: The Covid-19 pandemic has stimulated the MS healthcare professionals to find new solutions to deliver alternative interventions to PwMS. In this context, the role of telemedicine is crucial to continue rehabilitation services at home, and limit exposure to infection. However, most of healthcare professionals have not incorporated the use of technologies. Therefore, the implementation of digital health solutions in the clinical practice needs more attention towards education on the potentials of technologies for rehabilitation and simplification of the national healthcare system reimbursement procedures for the rehabilitation technologies use.

20.
Psychol Rep ; : 332941221127632, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130951

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of the prevalence of anxiety, depression and stress symptoms in Italian medical students and to identify the associated factors. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was administered to second-sixth year medical students of the University of Torino, collecting data on the students' sociodemographics, COVID-19 exposure, anxiety, depression and stress symptoms. Three hierarchical regressions adjusted for age, gender and year of study were executed. Results: The sample size was 1359. The prevalence of anxiety, depression symptoms, moderate perceived stress and severe perceived stress was 47.8%, 52.1%, 56.2% and 28.4%, respectively. The factors associated with mental health symptoms were: being a woman, a family history of psychiatric disorders, living off-site, competitive/hostile climates and unsatisfying friendships among classmates, poor relationships with cohabitants, negative judgment of medical school choice, fear of COVID-19 infection, feelings of loneliness, distressing existential reflections, and a worsening psychological condition related to the pandemic. Being in the fourth or sixth year constituted a protective factor for depression symptoms. Conclusions: Mental health in medical students was associated with both COVID-independent and COVID-related factors. Accessibility to effective interventions must be increased to counteract these changes.

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