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1.
Evol Lett ; 6(4): 308-318, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937470

RESUMO

Selection that acts in a sex-specific manner causes the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Sex-specific phenotypic selection has been demonstrated in many taxa and can be in the same direction in the two sexes (differing only in magnitude), limited to one sex, or in opposing directions (antagonistic). Attempts to detect the signal of sex-specific selection from genomic data have confronted numerous difficulties. These challenges highlight the utility of "direct approaches," in which fitness is predicted from individual genotype within each sex. Here, we directly measured selection on Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in a natural population of the sexually dimorphic, dioecious plant, Silene latifolia. We measured flowering phenotypes, estimated fitness over one reproductive season, as well as survival to the next year, and genotyped all adults and a subset of their offspring for SNPs across the genome. We found that while phenotypic selection was congruent (fitness covaried similarly with flowering traits in both sexes), SNPs showed clear evidence for sex-specific selection. SNP-level selection was particularly strong in males and may involve an important gametic component (e.g., pollen competition). While the most significant SNPs under selection in males differed from those under selection in females, paternity selection showed a highly polygenic tradeoff with female survival. Alleles that increased male mating success tended to reduce female survival, indicating sexual antagonism at the genomic level. Perhaps most importantly, this experiment demonstrates that selection within natural populations can be strong enough to measure sex-specific fitness effects of individual loci. Males and females typically differ phenotypically, a phenomenon known as sexual dimorphism. These differences arise when selection on males differs from selection on females, either in magnitude or direction. Estimated relationships between traits and fitness indicate that sex-specific selection is widespread, occurring in both plants and animals, and explains why so many species exhibit sexual dimorphism. Finding the specific loci experiencing sex-specific selection is a challenging prospect but one worth undertaking given the extensive evolutionary consequences. Flowering plants with separate sexes are ideal organisms for such studies, given that the fitness of females can be estimated by counting the number of seeds they produce. Determination of fitness for males has been made easier as thousands of genetic markers can now be used to assign paternity to seeds. We undertook just such a study in S. latifolia, a short-lived, herbaceous plant. We identified loci under sex-specific selection in this species and found more loci affecting fitness in males than females. Importantly, loci with major effects on male fitness were distinct from the loci with major effects on females. We detected sexual antagonism only when considering the aggregate effect of many loci. Hence, even though males and females share the same genome, this does not necessarily impose a constraint on their independent evolution.

2.
Ann Hum Biol ; : 1-11, 2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short tandem repeats (STRs) are genetic markers frequently used for human identification and paternity testing. They are highly mutable, which may occasionally lead to inconsistencies between the genotypes of parents and their children. As the mutation rates of individual STR markers can vary among populations, population-specific data are of high importance. AIM: To investigate the mutation rates of 16 STR markers in the Slovak population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the germline mutation rates of 16 STR markers (TH01, D3S1358, vWA, D21S11, D16S539, D1S1656, D19S433, SE33, D10S1248, D22S1045, D12S391, D8S1179, D2S1338, D2S441, D18S51 and FGA) in the Slovak population. At these loci, we analysed 42 096 allelic transfers and identified 61 mutation events. RESULTS: The loci with the highest overall mutation rates were SE33 and FGA, while no mutations were identified in TH01, D19S433 and D22S1045. The average paternal mutation rate was higher than maternal mutation rate. All but one mutation consisted of gains or losses of a single repeat unit and the overall mutation rate was estimated to be 1.45 x10-3 per meiosis. CONCLUSION: This study provides data, which can be used to further strengthen the correct paternity index calculations and reliability of paternity testing in Slovakia.

3.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(8)2022 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35893059

RESUMO

In recent years, the number of publications on microhaplotypes has averaged more than a dozen papers annually. Many have contributed to a significant increase in the number of highly polymorphic microhaplotype loci. This increase allows microhaplotypes to be very informative in four main areas of forensic uses of DNA: individualization, ancestry inference, kinship analysis, and mixture deconvolution. The random match Probability (RMP) can be as small as 10-100 for a large panel of microhaplotypes. It is possible to measure the heterozygosity of an MH as the effective number of alleles (Ae). Ae > 7.5 exists for African populations and >4.5 exists for Native American populations for a smaller panel of two dozen selected microhaplotypes. Using STRUCTURE, at least 10 different ancestral clusters can be defined by microhaplotypes. The Ae for a locus is also identical to the Paternity Index (PI), the measure of how informative a locus will be in parentage testing. High Ae loci can also be useful in missing persons cases. Finally, high Ae microhaplotypes allow the near certainty of seeing multiple additional alleles in a mixture of two or more individuals in a DNA sample. In summary, a panel of higher Ae microhaplotypes can outperform the standard CODIS markers.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , DNA/genética , Frequência do Gene , Haplótipos , Humanos
4.
Front Genet ; 13: 897650, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35711918

RESUMO

Short tandem repeats (STRs) are the most frequently used genetic markers in forensic genetics due to their high genetic diversities and abundant distributions in the human genome. Currently, the combined DNA index system is commonly incorporated into various commercial kits for forensic research. Some novel STRs that are different from the combined DNA index system were not only used to assess complex paternity cases but also could provide more genetic information and higher forensic efficiency in combination with those commonly used STRs. In this study, we validated forensic performance of a novel multiplex amplification STR panel to evaluate its sensitivity, species specificity, forensic application values, and so on. Obtained results revealed that the kit showed high sensitivity, and the complete allelic profile could be observed at 0.125 ng DNA sample. In addition, the kit possessed high species specificity, good tolerance to common inhibitors, and accurate genotyping ability. More importantly, STRs out of the kit displayed high discrimination power and probability of exclusion. To sum up, the novel kit presented in this study can be viewed as a promising tool for forensic human identification and complex paternity analysis.

5.
Am J Primatol ; 84(7): e23394, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35612520

RESUMO

Adult males living in a one-male multi-female social group are expected to try to monopolize copulations with resident females to increase reproductive fitness. Gibbons have traditionally been described as living in monogamous groups, with the sole resident adult male assumed to sire all of the group's offspring. Here, we used microsatellite analyses and behavioral observations to examine rates of extra-group paternity (EGP) over 16 years in a population of crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor) that form stable and long-term one-male two-female social units. Forty percent of offspring (N = 14) were sired by extra-group males. To understand this high level of EGP, we tested whether inbreeding avoidance was related to EGP. Females who engaged in EGP did not show larger pairwise relatedness with their resident male compared to females who did not engage in EGP. Nevertheless, the standardized heterozygosity of EGP offspring was significantly higher than for offspring sired by the group's resident male. These results provide partial support for the inbreeding avoidance hypothesis. It appears that resident male crested gibbons are unable to monopolize resident females' matings. Our results indicate that long-term social partners are often distinct from sexual partners in this population. Clearly, the breeding system of crested gibbons is more flexible than previously thought, indicating a need for integrating long-term behavioral data and genetic research to re-evaluate gibbon social and sexual relationships derived from concepts of monogamy and pair-bonding.


Assuntos
Hylobates , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Endogamia , Masculino , Reprodução , Parceiros Sexuais
6.
Evolution ; 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35554925

RESUMO

Safran et al. (2016a) manipulated two sexual traits (ventral plumage coloration and tail streamer length) in male barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) and reported divergent effects on paternity change between two study populations, in Colorado and Israel. They concluded that geographical variation in the two phenotypic traits is maintained by divergent sexual selection. However, the response variable they used, the longitudinal change in paternity from a pre-treatment clutch to a post-treatment clutch, does not reflect an unbiased effect of the treatment. Here, I show that the magnitude of the change in paternity is influenced by variation in the initial paternity score among the treatment groups, which is presumably due to stochastic variation from low sample sizes in the treatment groups. When the bias was accounted for in re-analyses of the Israeli dataset, the statistical significance of one of two treatment effects disappeared. Similar re-analyses of the American population were not possible due to inaccessibility of raw data for individual clutches, but an assessment of the mean scores indicates that the two significant treatment effects in this population were similarly biased in their initial paternity scores. The conclusion of divergent sexual selection on male phenotypic traits between the two populations does not seem to be supported.

7.
J Surg Educ ; 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35595628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent literature on parental leave during residency has focused on the importance of supporting new mothers, but the needs and challenges faced by expectant nonchildbearing residents are less well described. Male residents are more likely than their female counterparts to have children during surgical training, and they experience similar stressors including childcare and conflicts between work and home priorities. As nonchildbearing parents of this generation become more involved in childrearing, the need to establish inclusive parental leave policies is essential. The aim of this study was to provide a deeper understanding of the perspectives of male residents about parental leave. DESIGN: A semi-structured interview guide was developed using a literature search and an expert panel. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim and emergent themes were identified using content analysis. SETTING: Four academic institutions. PARTICIPANTS: Four focus groups were held with of a total of 15 male resident-parents. These were selected using convenience sampling. RESULTS: Multiple themes emerged: 1) male residents perceive greater stigma attached to taking leave compared to female colleagues; 2) paternity leave policies are vague and sometimes non-existent; 3) male residents experience a high burden of guilt related to burdening peers with clinical coverage while on leave; 4) male residents face internal conflict between surgical and parental responsibilities; 5) male residents have little mentorship on successful work-life integration and feel compelled to model the behavior of their attendings who often prioritize career before family; and 6) shifts in family values and priorities are common following childbirth and impact how male resident-parents view other new parents in training. CONCLUSIONS: Significant challenges exist for residents who become fathers during their surgical training. Key stressors include poorly defined leave policies, historic paradigms of prioritizing professional duties before personal duties, stigma against taking time off for parental bonding in the absence of medical need, and guilt related to extra work imposed on colleagues by time away. Establishment of formal parental leave policies for both genders, programmatic support to offset the increased workload on colleagues, and greater mentorship on balancing family and career are needed to foster a culture of work-life integration.

8.
Hum Nat ; 33(2): 215-235, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35633467

RESUMO

Although norms of premarital sex vary cross-culturally, the sexuality of adolescent girls has been consistently more restricted than that of adolescent boys. Three major theories that attempt to explain restrictions on female premarital sex (FPS) concern male, female, and parental control. These competing theories have not been tested against each other cross-culturally. In this study, we do this using a sample of 128 nonindustrial societies and socioecological predictors capturing extramarital sex, paternal care, female status, sex ratio, parental control over a daughter's mate choice, residence, and marriage transactions, while also controlling for phylogenetic non-independence across societies. We found that multiple parties benefit from restrictions on FPS. Specifically, FPS is more restricted in societies intolerant of extramarital sex and where men transfer property to their children (male control), as well as where marriages are arranged by parents (parental control). Both paternity uncertainty (partitioned among marital fidelity and paternal investment) and parent-offspring conflict (prompting parents to control their daughter's sexuality) were identified as possible mechanisms of FPS restrictions. The evidence for female control is ambiguous, mainly because it can be equally well interpreted as both male control and parental control, and because fathers, rather than mothers, are often the primary decision makers about a daughter's mate choice. Our results also emphasize the importance of social roles, rather than stereotyped sex roles, as a more useful approach to understanding the evolution of FPS restrictions.


Assuntos
Relações Pais-Filho , Paternidade , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Filogenia , Incerteza
9.
Biol Lett ; 18(5): 20210671, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538844

RESUMO

Individuals of socially monogamous species can correct for suboptimal partnerships via two secondary mating strategies: divorce and extra-pair mating, with the former potentially providing both genetic and social benefits. Divorcing between breeding seasons has been shown to be generally adaptive behaviour across monogamous birds. Interestingly, some pairs also divorce during the breeding season, when constraints on finding a new partner are stronger. Despite being important for a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of social monogamy, whether within-season divorce is adaptive and how it relates to extra-pair mating remains unknown. Here, we meta-analysed 90 effect sizes on within-season divorce and breeding success, extracted from 31 studies on 24 species. We found no evidence that within-season divorce is adaptive for breeding success. However, the large heterogeneity of effect sizes and strong phylogenetic signal suggest social and environmental factors-which have rarely been considered in empirical studies-may play an important role in explaining variation among populations and species. Furthermore, we found no evidence that within-season divorce and extra-pair mating are complementary strategies. We discuss our findings within the current evidence of the adaptiveness of secondary mating strategies and their interplay that ultimately shapes the evolution of social monogamy.


Assuntos
Aves , Divórcio , Animais , Aves/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Reprodução , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Sexual Animal
10.
Biol Lett ; 18(5): 20210576, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506241

RESUMO

While mouthbrooding is not an uncommon parental care strategy in fishes, paternal mouthbrooding only occurs in eight fish families and is little studied. The high cost of paternal mouthbrooding to the male implies a low risk of investment in another male's offspring but genetic parentage patterns are poorly known for paternal mouthbrooders. Here, we used single-nucleotide polymorphism genetic data to investigate parentage relationships of broods of two mouthbrooders of northern Australian rivers, mouth almighty Glossamia aprion and blue catfish Neoarius graeffei. For N. graeffei, we found that the parentage pattern was largely monogamous with the brooder male as the sire. For G. aprion, the parentage pattern was more heterogeneous including observations of monogamous broods with the brooder male as the sire (73%), polygyny (13%), cuckoldry (6%) and a brood genetically unrelated to the brooder male (6%). Findings demonstrate the potential for complex interrelationships of male care, paternity confidence and mating behaviour in mouthbrooding fishes.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Austrália , Peixes , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Paterno
11.
Behav Ecol Sociobiol ; 76(5): 61, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535127

RESUMO

Abstract: In birds with extrapair mating, older males usually have higher fertilization success than younger males. Two hypotheses can potentially explain this pattern: 1) females prefer older, and often more ornamented males, or 2) older males invest more in reproduction and fertility than younger males. Here we studied factors associated with age-related male fertilization success in a population of barn swallows Hirundo rustica in Canada. We document that male fertilization success increased gradually up to a minimum age of four-year old. The age effect was especially strong for the number of extrapair offspring obtained and the occurrence of a second brood. The higher fertilization success of older males was also associated with an early start of breeding in spring. The length of the elongated outermost tail feathers, a postulated male ornament preferred by females, also increased with age (in both sexes), but it was not a significant predictor of male fertilization success within age classes. Male fertility traits, especially testis size, but also sperm motility and sperm velocity, increased significantly across age groups. Our results suggest that the higher fertilization success by older males is due to their higher reproductive investments and that their longer tails are an adaptation to early arrival on the breeding grounds. Significance statement: The barn swallow is a socially monogamous passerine with extensive extrapair mating. We found that males become more successful in siring both withinpair and extrapair offspring as they become older. Their increased fertilization success was associated with a higher reproductive effort as indicated by larger testes, more motile sperm, and an earlier start of breeding in spring. The length of the outer tail feathers increased with age in both sexes, but long tails did not enhance male fertilization success among males of the same age. Long tails are probably an adaptation to rapid migration and earlier arrival on the breeding grounds. Our findings suggest that the commonly observed age-related increase in male fertilization success in passerine birds is better explained by life history theory than by sexual selection theory. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00265-022-03170-0.

12.
Evolution ; 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561267

RESUMO

Lifjeld's comment provides an opportunity to illustrate the intricacies of the "regression to the mean" (RTM) effect, to clarify the difficulty in teasing apart RTM from allocation bias, and to re-examine our results in relation to RTM and in the context of related evidence. Here, we show that (a) the correlations between paternity change and initial paternity are mathematically expected and can equally be produced when changes are caused by the experimental manipulation itself. (b) The approach taken by Lifjeld to control for RTM is overly conservative because it is based on the unrealistic assumption of zero correlation between individuals' repeated measurements. Yet, even when using this conservative method, the main effects we originally reported are still detectable. (c) The combined effect of color darkening and tail elongation in Israel is additionally supported by an increase in the number of extra-pair young in other nests and by three independent studies of this population. (d) The experimental effect of color darkening in North America has been replicated successfully and is consistent with multiple correlative studies. Thus, divergent sexual selection in barn swallow populations is supported by both a conservative reanalysis and multiple, independent analyses of experimental and observational datasets.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409930

RESUMO

Although the number of fathers taking childcare leave is increasing, the impact of paternity leave on father-infant bonding remains to be fully investigated. This study aimed to assess the association between paternity leave and father-infant bonding among fathers with children under two years old. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Japan COVID-19 and Society Internet Survey study, a nationwide online survey conducted between July and August 2021 (N = 1194). Father-infant bonding was assessed by the Japanese version of the Mother-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS-J), which comprised two subscales (lack of affection (LA), and anger and rejection (AR)), with a higher score denoting poor bonding. Four hundred (33.5%) fathers self-reported taking childcare leave. Paternity leave was associated with higher total MIBS-J score and AR score after adjusting for covariates (coefficient 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06-0.96, coefficient 0.26; 95% CI 0.03-0.49, respectively), but not with LA score (coefficient 0.10; 95% CI -0.13-0.34). There was no trend in the association between paternity leave and total MIBS-J score by children's age group (p for trend = 0.98). Paternity leave was associated with impaired bonding, especially with increased anger and rejection, among fathers with children under two years of age.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Licença Parental , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Masculino
14.
Behav Ecol ; 33(2): 352-363, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444495

RESUMO

Even in well-studied organisms, it is often challenging to uncover the social and environmental determinants of fitness. Typically, fitness is determined by a variety of factors that act in concert, thus forming complex networks of causal relationships. Moreover, even strong correlations between social and environmental conditions and fitness components may not be indicative of direct causal links, as the measured variables may be driven by unmeasured (or unmeasurable) causal factors. Standard statistical approaches, like multiple regression analyses, are not suited for disentangling such complex causal relationships. Here, we apply structural equation modeling (SEM), a technique that is specifically designed to reveal causal relationships between variables, and which also allows to include hypothetical causal factors. Therefore, SEM seems ideally suited for comparing alternative hypotheses on how fitness differences arise from differences in social and environmental factors. We apply SEM to a rich data set collected in a long-term study on the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), a bird species with facultatively cooperative breeding and a high rate of extra-group paternity. Our analysis reveals that the presence of helpers has a positive effect on the reproductive output of both female and male breeders. In contrast, per capita food availability does not affect reproductive output. Our analysis does not confirm earlier suggestions on other species that the presence of helpers has a negative effect on the reproductive output of male breeders. As such, both female and male breeders should tolerate helpers in their territories, irrespective of food availability.

15.
Yi Chuan ; 44(4): 335-345, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437241

RESUMO

Insertion/deletion polymorphism (InDel) genetic markers refer to insertion or deletion of DNA fragments into genomic DNA, which have advantages in the identification of degraded samples. In this study, we independently screened 66 highly polymorphic InDel markers from the dbSNP database to establish a multiplex PCR system for forensic DNA identification using next-generation sequencing system (66-plex InDels). We assessed the population genetic data among 251 Chinese Han population using this system and evaluated their potential forensic application. The results showed that all 66 InDel loci conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.000 758), and all the pairwise InDel loci were in linkage equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. The mean observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.482, the mean expected heterozygosity (He) was 0.483,the mean discrimination power (DP) was 0.612, the mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.365, the total discrimination power (TDP) reached 0.999 999 999 999 999 999 999 999 999 428 18. The cumulative power of exclusion for 66 InDel loci was 0.999 739 in duo cases (CPEduo) and was 0.999 999 999 417 in trios cases (CPEtrio). The results show that the 66 InDel loci have high genetic polymorphisms in the Chinese Han population and can be used independently for forensic DNA identification and paternity testing.


Assuntos
Mutação INDEL , Polimorfismo Genético , China , DNA/genética , Frequência do Gene , Loci Gênicos , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites
16.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 48(7): 1613-1620, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35451149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify trophoblastic cells retrieved from the cervix at a gestational age (GA) of 5-9 weeks by a noninvasive modality in fetuses. METHOD: Transcervical cells (TCCs) were noninvasively extracted by a cytobrush using the Papanicolaou sampling method. TCCs were immunostained with antihuman leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G and anticytokeratin (CK)-7 antibodies to identify trophoblastic cells. Maternal finger blood, gestational sacs, and 20 trophoblastic cells collected by a laser-guided microscopic single-cell capture system were examined and compared by short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping. RESULTS: Forty-nine pregnant women with GA of 5-9 weeks and six nonpregnant healthy women were included in the study. Trophoblastic cells were identified in 37 (75.5%) TCC samples, among which 34 (69.4%) were eligible for STR genotyping analysis. No trophoblastic cells were identified in nonpregnant healthy women. The STR genotyping analyses revealed 24 female and 10 male fetuses. TCC trophoblastic cells exhibited the same STR profiles as gestational sac and maternal blood in all samples, which indicated that the TCC trophoblastic cells originated from fetuses. CONCLUSION: This primary study validated that trophoblastic cells from TCCs at GA 5-9 weeks originated from the fetus. Further studies are needed to verify whether this method can be used for early noninvasive prenatal diagnosis and paternity testing.


Assuntos
Feto , Trofoblastos , Colo do Útero , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos
17.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 861623, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464354

RESUMO

Tetranucleotide and pentanucleotide short tandem repeat (hereafter termed tetraSTR and pentaSTR) polymorphisms have properties that make them desirable for DNA profiling and paternity testing. However, certain species, such as the horse, have far fewer tetraSTRs than other species and for this reason dinucleotide STRs (diSTRs) have become the standard for DNA profiling in horses, despite being less desirable for technical reasons. During our testing of a series of candidate genes as potentially underlying a heritable condition characterized by megaesophagus in the Friesian horse breed, we found that good tetraSTRs do exist in horses but, as expected, at a much lower frequency than in other species, e.g., dogs and humans. Using a series of efficient methods developed in our laboratory for the production of multiplexed tetraSTRs in other species, we identified a set of tetra- and pentaSTRs that we developed into a 17-plex panel for the horse, plus a sex-identifying marker near the amelogenin gene. These markers were tested in 128 horses representing 16 breeds as well as crossbred horses, and we found that these markers have useful genetic variability. Average observed heterozygosities (Ho) ranged from 0.53 to 0.89 for the individual markers (0.66 average Ho for all markers), and 0.62-0.82 for expected heterozygosity (He) within breeds (0.72 average He for all markers). The probability of identity (PI) within breeds for which 10 or more samples were available was at least 1.1 x 10-11, and the PI among siblings (PIsib) was 1.5 x 10-5. Stutter was ≤ 11% (average stutter for all markers combined was 6.9%) compared to the more than 30% typically seen with diSTRs. We predict that it will be possible to develop accurate allelic ladders for this multiplex panel that will make cross-laboratory comparisons easier and will also improve DNA profiling accuracy. Although we were only able to exclude candidate genes for Friesian horse megaesophagus with no unexcluded genes that are possibly causative at this point in time, the study helped us to refine the methods used to develop better tetraSTR multiplexed panels for species such as the horse that have a low frequency of tetraSTRs.

18.
Psicol. pesq ; 16(1): 1-25, jan.-abr. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1356618

RESUMO

A pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar a participação de homens em grupos de gestantes para a manifestação do vínculo e do papel com seu filho durante o período gravídico-puerperal. O levantamento dos dados ocorreu a partir de um grupo focal de três encontros virtuais, realizados quinzenalmente com casais grávidos. Por meio da Análise Textual Discursiva, pode-se perceber que o grupo de gestantes auxiliou no aprimoramento da maternagem e paternagem e no fortalecimento do vínculo que já existia no casal, refletindo no cuidado e participação ao longo de todo o processo gestacional, bem como nos primeiros anos do bebê.


The research aimed to analyze men's participation in groups of pregnant women for the manifestation of the bond and the role with their child during the pregnancy-puerperal period. Data survey took place from a focus group of three virtual meetings, held every two weeks with pregnant couples. Through the Discursive Textual Analysis, it can be seen that the group of pregnant women helped in the improvement of motherhood and fatherhood and in strengthening the bond that already existed in the couple, reflecting in the care and participation throughout the entire gestational process, as well as in the baby's first years.


La investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar la participación de hombres en grupos de mujeres embarazadas para la manifestación del vínculo y del papel con su hijo durante el período embarazo-puerperio. La recolección de datos se realizó a partir de un grupo focal de tres reuniones virtuales, celebradas cada dos semanas con parejas embarazadas. A través del Análisis Textual Discursivo, se puede ver que el grupo de mujeres embarazadas ayudó a mejorar la maternidad y la paternidad y a fortalecer el vínculo que ya existía en la pareja, lo que se refleja en el cuidado y la participación durante todo el proceso gestacional, así como en los primeros años del bebé.

19.
J Fish Biol ; 100(6): 1399-1406, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349175

RESUMO

Multiple paternity (MP) in the brown smooth-hound shark (Mustelus henlei) was assessed in 15 litters (15 mothers and 97 embryos) collected in the northern Gulf of California of which 86.7% were sired by more than one male (i.e., from 2 to 4 sires). When taken together with results from previous studies, this record indicates that there is regional variation in MP in M. henlei in the northeastern Pacific. This pattern is associated with variations in the reproductive traits of each population (e.g., female size and litter size). In the Gulf of California, the results of a generalized linear model (GLZ) indicated that the litters of larger females had a higher probability of MP compared to those of smaller females.


Assuntos
Paternidade , Tubarões , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Tubarões/genética
20.
Electrophoresis ; 43(11): 1193-1202, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286726

RESUMO

Insertion/deletion markers (InDels) become an important marker for forensic medicine because of their compatible typing techniques with STRs and lower mutation rates. Recent years, a new kind of DNA marker named Multi-InDel was reported as characterized by two or more tightly linked InDel loci within a short length of physical position, usually 200-300 nucleotides. Many pieces of research showed that Multi-InDels had excellent application values in ancestry inference and forensic medicine. Since the identical number of insertion/deletion nucleotides of the InDel markers that composing the Multi-InDel marker, the genotypes of most reported Multi-InDels could not be directly typed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) due to the lack of length discrepancy among the composing InDel sequence. In this study, we applied a typing system of 20 Multi-InDels including 41 InDels, whose genotypes could be deduced by CE and assessed their potential applications in forensic medicine. A total of 200 unrelated Chinese Han individuals and five mother-child-father trios with proven paternity with one STR locus transmission incompatibilities from Shanxi province were genotyped by the multiplex system. The results showed that a total of 70 specific alleles were observed, more than three alleles were observed in 19 loci and seven alleles were observed in one locus. The combined probability of exclusion and the combined power of discrimination were 0.992 and 0.99999999993, respectively. This study demonstrates their potential usefulness for individual identification and paternity tests. The development of Multi-InDels provided another genetic tool inherent in higher polymorphic and lower mutation rates.


Assuntos
Genética Forense , Marcadores Genéticos , Mutação INDEL , Paternidade , Alelos , China , Genética Forense/métodos , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Masculino , Nucleotídeos
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