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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250607, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355881


Abstract Newcastle disease (ND) is an infectious, highly contagious and lethal disease of avian species. It is considered that ducks are natural reservoir or carrier for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and are resistant against different strains of NDV. Current study was designed to evaluate the pathogenesis of Newcastle disease in domestic ducks through histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and serum biochemical changes. For this purpose, eighty ducks were reared for 42 days and divided in two groups A and B. Ducks in group A were challenged with (NDV) at rate of 0.1 ml of ELD50 (virus titer 107.32/100µl) on second week of age, whereas Group B was control negative. Splenomegaly, atrophy of thymus and necrotic lesion in kidney were observed on 9th day of post infection. Hepatic degeneration and mononuclear cell infiltration were noticed in proventriculus and intestine in challenged ducks. Viral antigen detected in lungs, intestine, proventriculus and lymphoid organs of infected ducks through IHC. Albumin and total protein values were significantly low in infected groups A as compared to control group B. ALT, AST, and ALP values were significantly high in infected group A. On 5th and 7th day of post infection oropharyngeal swabs were negative for NDV and cloacal swabs were positive for NDV through Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. It is concluded that ducks are susceptible to NDV and virulent strain of NDV caused disease in ducks.

Resumo A doença de Newcastle (DN) é uma doença infecciosa, altamente contagiosa e letal de espécies aviárias. Considera-se que os patos são reservatórios ou portadores naturais do vírus da doença de Newcastle (VDN) e são resistentes a diferentes cepas de VDN. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a patogênese da DN em patos domésticos por meio de histopatologia, imuno-histoquímica (IHQ) e alterações bioquímicas séricas. Para este propósito, 80 patos foram criados por 42 dias e divididos em dois grupos A e B. Os patos do grupo A foram submetidos ao VDN a uma taxa de 0,1 ml de ELD50 (título viral de 107,32 / 100 µl) na segunda semana de idade, enquanto o Grupo B foi controle negativo. Esplenomegalia, atrofia do timo e lesão necrótica no rim foram observadas no 9º dia pós-infecção. Degeneração hepática e infiltração de células mononucleares foram observadas no proventrículo e intestino em patos infectados. Antígeno viral foi detectado em pulmões, intestino, proventrículo e órgãos linfoides de patos infectados por IHQ. Os valores de albumina e proteína total foram significativamente baixos no grupo A infectado em comparação com o grupo B. Os valores de ALT, AST e ALP foram significativamente altos no grupo A. No 5º e no 7º dia após a infecção, os esfregaços orofaríngeos foram negativos para VDN, enquanto os esfregaços cloacais foram positivos para VDN por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa. Conclui-se que os patos são suscetíveis ao VDN e à cepa virulenta de VDN que causou doenças em patos.

Animais , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Patos , Doença de Newcastle/diagnóstico
Environ Pollut ; : 121873, 2023 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37244532


Plastics are abundant artificial substrates in aquatic systems that host a wide variety of organisms (the plastisphere), including potential pathogens and invasive species. Plastisphere communities have many complex, but not well-understood ecological interactions. It is pivotal to investigate how these communities are influenced by the natural fluctuations in aquatic ecosystems, especially in transitional environments such as estuaries. Further study is needed in sub-tropical regions in the Southern Hemisphere, where plastic pollution is ever increasing. Here we applied DNA-metabarcoding (16S, 18S and ITS-2) as well Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to assess the diversity of the plastisphere in the Patos Lagoon estuary (PLE), South Brazil. Through a one-year in situ colonization experiment, polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) plates were placed in shallow waters, and sampled after 30 and 90 days within each season. Over 50 taxa including bacteria, fungi and other eukaryotes were found through DNA analysis. Overall, the polymer type did not influence the plastisphere community composition. However, seasonality significantly affected community composition for bacteria, fungi and general eukaryotes. Among the microbiota, we found Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus sp., and Wallemia mellicola that are putative pathogens of aquatic organisms, such as algae, shrimp and fish, including commercial species. In addition, we identified organisms within genera that can potentially degrade hydrocarbons (e.g. Pseudomonas and Cladosporium spp). This study is the first to assess the full diversity and variation of the plastisphere on different polymers within a sub-tropical southern hemisphere estuary, significantly expanding knowledge on plastic pollution and the plastisphere in estuarine regions.

Environ Monit Assess ; 195(4): 484, 2023 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36932277


This study assessed the concentrations and sources of natural and anthropogenic aliphatic (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in superficial sediments collected along the Patos Lagoon estuary and in sediment cores obtained from the Cassino Beach mud bank. Levels and distribution of n-alkanes indicate terrestrial sources, overlapping with a low amount of petrogenic hydrocarbons (heavy oils). Unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was observed in all samples. On the other hand, the distribution of PAHs in the sediments showed a predominance of pyrolytic over petrogenic sources. In general, hydrocarbons (HCs) contamination in the Patos Lagoon estuary and its adjacent coastal area can be considered low, except for sites near urban or industrial effluents, where moderate to high levels of contamination were found. Concentrations of hydrocarbons were homogeneous throughout the sediment cores, suggesting that mixing processes may have occurred along the layers or that HCs inputs to the mud banks were uniform during the studied deposition period. In addition, the levels and profile of HCs in the coastal sediments were similar to those observed in the estuary. Moreover, the frequent remobilization of sediments from the mud bank towards Cassino beach does not seem to pose any threats to the local biota or beach users since the levels of contamination were relatively low and below the threshold limits of sediment quality guidelines.

Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Estuários , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 2): 156077, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597351


Plastics pose a major threat to aquatic ecosystems especially in smaller size fractions. Salt marshes play a crucial role in maintaining the coastal zone and aquatic food web, yet their contamination, including by plastic materials, is still poorly investigated. This work investigated meso- (MEP, 5-25 mm) and microplastic (MIP, 1 µm-5 mm) contamination of a salt marsh, which reached average levels of 279.63 ± 410.12 items kg-1, 366.92 ± 975.18 items kg-1, and 8.89 ± 8.75 items L-1 in surface sediment, sediment cores and water, respectively. Photomicrographs revealed a complex fouling community on plastics surface for both different salt marsh zones and plastic formats. Abundance of plastics in sediment was higher in the dryer, vegetated zones compared to flooded, unvegetated zones. This is consistent with the role of vegetation as a trap for solid litter and final fate of plastic deposition, but also with local hydrodynamics influencing deposition pattern. Plastics were detected up to 66 cm-depth, presenting higher levels at surface sediments. It was also possible to identify the main groups of microorganisms (1638 bacterial cells, 318 microalgae cells, and 20049.93 µm2 of filamentous fungi) composing the Plastisphere communities on all plastic items recorded in the different zones. These results are a pioneer contribution, highlighting that regional salt marshes participate in sequestration and longstanding accumulation of plastic particles in estuarine environments, before exportation to the ocean.

Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Brasil , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas
Am J Infect Control ; 50(7): 799-800, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417770


This case study is part of a series centered on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance definitions. This specific case study focuses on the application of common surveillance concepts included in the Patient Safety Component, Chapter 9 - Surgical Site Infection Event (SSI). The intent of the case study series is to foster standardized application of the NHSN HAI surveillance definitions and encourage accurate HAI event determination among Infection Preventionists (IPs).

Infecção Hospitalar , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 48(4): 2709-2716, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825274


PURPOSE: This study examined the association between lapsed time and trauma patients, suggesting that a shorter time to definitive care leads to a better outcome. METHODS: We used the Pan-Asian Trauma Outcome Study registry to analyze a retrospective cohort of 963 trauma patients who received surgical intervention or transarterial embolization within 2 h of injury in Asian countries between January 2016 and December 2020. Exposure measurement was recorded every 30 min from injury to definitive care. The 30 day mortality rate and functional outcome were studied using the Modified Rankin Scale ratings of 0-3 vs 4-6 for favorable vs poor functional outcomes, respectively. Subgroup analyses of different injury severities and patterns were performed. RESULTS: The mean time from injury to definitive care was 1.28 ± 0.69 h, with cases categorized into the following subgroups: < 30, 30-60, 60-90, and 90-120 min. For all patients, a longer interval was positively associated with the 30 day mortality rate (p = 0.053) and poor functional outcome (p < 0.05). Subgroup analyses showed the same association in the major trauma (n = 321, p < 0.05) and torso injury groups (n = 388, p < 0.01) with the 30 day mortality rate and in the major trauma (p < 0.01), traumatic brain injury (n = 741, p < 0.05), and torso injury (p < 0.05) groups with the poor functional outcome. CONCLUSION: Even within 2 h, a shorter time to definitive care is positively associated with patient survival and functional outcome, especially in the subgroups of major trauma and torso injury.

Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 26(4): 573-581, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464227


Introduction: Emergency response to a road traffic injury (RTI) plays a crucial role in patient survival, and the quality of the emergency response should be consistent regardless of the time of day. The aim of this study was to investigate prehospital care and survival outcomes compared between emergency response to RTI during the day and emergency response to RTI at night in Asia.Method: This cross-sectional study used data from the Pan-Asian Trauma Outcome Study (PATOS) that was conducted during 2015-2018. We included RTI patients who were transported to the emergency department (ED) by ground ambulance. That group was then categorized according to the time that the ambulance arrived on-scene. On-scene arrival during 8:00 am to 7:59 pm was defined as the daytime group, and arrival during 8:00 pm to 7:59 am was defined as the nighttime group. Multiple logistic regression was employed to identify factors associated with nighttime prehospital interventions and survival outcomes after adjustment for age, alcohol consumption, and injury severity score (ISS).Results: The final analysis included 20,105 RTI patients. Of those, 12,043 (60%) accidents occurred during the daytime, and 8,062 (40%) occurred at night. RTI patients at night were younger (mean age: 35.7 ± 17.3 vs. 39.5 ± 20.7; p < 0.001), had more alcohol consumption (15.0% vs. 4.2%; p < 0.001), and had more severe injuries (mean ISS: 6.5 ± 7.5 vs. 5.8 ± 7.0; p < 0.001) compared to the daytime group. The nighttime group had increased prehospital immobilization (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-1.31) and more prehospital intravenous (IV) access (aOR 1.36, 95%CI: 1.22-1.51). There was no significant difference in either basic or advanced airway management between the daytime and nighttime groups. The nighttime group had decreased survival in the ED (aOR: 0.80, 95%CI: 0.65-0.98); however, nighttime on-scene arrival did not impact survival to discharge (aOR: 1.10, 95%CI: 0.91-1.33).Conclusion: In the PATOS community, RTI patients that sustained their injuries at night received significantly more prehospital immobilization and IV access, and they had significantly decreased survival in the ED. The results of this study can be used to develop and enhance strategies to improve the care and outcomes of nighttime RTI in Asia.

Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adolescente , Adulto , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto Jovem
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e245261, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249221


Abstract Present study was planned to determine variations in external and internal quality egg parameters of different avian species including ostrich Struthio camelus, ducks Anas platyrhynchos, chicken Gallus gallus, turkeys Meleagris gallopavo and grey francolin Francolinus pondicerinus. All the birds were kept under similar rearing conditions. A total of 150 eggs were collected for each species to record external features of these eggs. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations were recorded in egg weight, egg length and egg width between ostrich, ducks, chicken, turkey and quail eggs. Significantly (p<0.05) higher egg weight, egg length and egg width was observed for ostrich eggs while the same was lowest for grey francolin eggs. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) greater shape index and egg volume values were observed for ostrich eggs while lowest shape index values were recorded for turkey eggs and egg volume was lowest for grey francolin. Significantly, higher (p<0.05) values of egg density were noted for eggs of the quail and the same were lowest for ostrich eggs. Non-significant variations in egg density values were observed between eggs of the ducks, chicken, turkey and grey francolin. It has been concluded that the positive correlations between the internal and external egg quality traits indicated that the traits can be improved through selection.

Resumo O presente estudo foi planejado para determinar variações nos parâmetros externos e internos de qualidade dos ovos de diferentes espécies de aves, incluindo avestruz Struthio camelus, patos Anas platyrhynchos, frango Gallus gallus, perus Meleagris gallopavo e francolin cinza Francolinus pondicerinus. Todas as aves foram mantidas em condições de criação semelhantes. Um total de 150 ovos foi coletado para cada espécie para registrar as características externas desses ovos. Variações estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05) foram registradas no peso do ovo, comprimento do ovo e largura do ovo entre os ovos de avestruz, patos, galinha, peru e codorna. Significativamente (p < 0,05) maior peso do ovo, comprimento e largura do ovo foram observados para ovos de avestruz, enquanto o mesmo foi menor para ovos de francolina cinza. Da mesma forma, significativamente (p < 0,05) maiores valores de índice de forma e volume de ovo foram observados para ovos de avestruz, enquanto os menores valores de índice de forma foram registrados para ovos de peru e o volume de ovo foi menor para francolina cinza. Significativamente, maiores (p < 0,05) valores de densidade de ovos foram observados para ovos de codorna e os mesmos foram menores para ovos de avestruz. Variações não significativas nos valores de densidade de ovos foram observadas entre os ovos de pato, frango, peru e francolina cinza. Concluiu-se que as correlações positivas entre as características internas e externas de qualidade do ovo indicaram que as características podem ser melhoradas por meio da seleção.

Animais , Galinhas , Struthioniformes , Paquistão
Iheringia, Sér. zool ; 1122022. mapas, ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1380480


A identidade de Psalidodon eigenmanniorum (Cope, 1894) e a possibilidade de se constituir em mais de uma espécie é testada através de análises da morfometria (19 medidas), dos caracteres merísticos (14 contagens) e do padrão de colorido de 705 exemplares provenientes dos sistemas dos rios Tramandaí/Mampituba, da laguna dos Patos e drenagem do baixo rio Uruguai. Foram diafanizados e corados 40 exemplares. Os dados morfométricos foram utilizados na Análise de Componentes Principais, Análise Discriminante, Morfometria Geométrica e Função Discriminante. As análises foram feitas considerando os sexos em separado dentro de cada sistema hidrográfico, bem como comparando as populações entre os sistemas hidrográficos e finalmente no conjunto de sistemas representando a área de ocorrência da espécie. A partir dos dados analisados não foram encontradas diferenças entre os sexos. Os resultados mostraram variação morfológica que não sustenta o reconhecimento de possíveis espécies crípticas. A variação encontrada nos dados merísticos, morfométricos e no padrão de colorido justifica a redescrição da espécie. Os resultados das comparações entre as populações indicaram variações nesses caracteres indicando que a espécie possui considerável plasticidade fenotípica.(AU)

The identity of Psalidodon eigenmanniorum (Cope, 1894) and the possibility of constituting more than one species is tested through analyzes of morphometry (19 measurements), meristic characters (14 counts) and the color pattern of 705 specimens from the Tramandaí/Mampituba, from the Patos lagoon and from the lower Uruguay River drainage. Forty specimens were cleared and stained. Morphometric data were used in Principal Component Analysis, Discriminant Analysis, Geometric Morphometry and Discriminant Function. The analysis was carried out considering the sexes separately within each hydrographic system, as well as comparing the populations between the hydrographic systems and finally in the set of systems representing the area of occurrence of the species. No differences were found between the sexes in the analyzed data. The results showed morphological variation that does not support the recognition of possible cryptic species. The variation found in meristic, morphometric and color pattern data justifies the redescription of the species. The species is described to the aforementioned drainages, and the results demonstrate its phenotypic plasticity.(AU)

Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Análise de Componente Principal/métodos , Characidae/classificação , Análise Discriminante , Variação Biológica da População
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(4): e200153, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351154


Ecoregions and areas of endemism are central concepts in biogeography. Based on collection records and the Endemic Analyses implemented with NDM/VNDM method we analyzed fish areas of endemism in the junction of three freshwater ecoregions related to the Rio de la Plata estuary (Lower Parana, Lower Uruguay, Laguna dos Patos) in Southern Neotropical region. Using two grid cell sizes, results obtained showed the same general patterns. Areas of endemism recovered were mainly associated either to Lower Uruguay or to Laguna dos Patos. In both ecoregions nested areas of endemism were identified within larger patterns of endemism. Noteworthy, one area recovered occurred across Lower Uruguay and Laguna dos Patos limits. Our results also suggest a revision of the Lower Uruguay and Lower Parana ecoregion limits, and highlight the relevance of the Rio de la Plata estuary as a barrier and corridor for freshwater fishes in the area.(AU)

Las ecorregiones y áreas de endemismo son conceptos centrales en biogeografía. Basados en registros de colecciones y el análisis de endemismo implementado en NDM/VNDM, analizamos áreas de endemismo de peces en el sur de la región Neotropical, en la conjunción de tres ecorregiones de agua dulce relacionadas al estuario del Río de la Plata (Bajo Paraná, Bajo Uruguay, Laguna de los Patos). Usando dos tamaños de grilla, los resultados obtenidos mostraron los mismos patrones generales. Las áreas de endemismo obtenidas estuvieron principalmente asociadas tanto a la ecorregión Bajo Uruguay como a la Laguna de los Patos. En los dos casos, fueron identificadas áreas de endemismo anidadas dentro de los grandes patrones de endemismo. Además, se destacó un área que atravesó los límites de ambas ecorregiones. Nuestros resultados también sugieren que es necesaria una revisión de los límites entre Bajo Uruguay y Bajo Paraná y resaltan la relevancia del estuario del Río de la Plata como barrera y corredor para los peces de agua dulce de esta región.(AU)

Animais , Barragens , Filogeografia , Peixes , Células de Grade , Água Doce
J Fish Biol ; 96(1): 154-167, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713869


Samples of Austrolebias nigrofasciatus (n = 103), an endangered species of annual fish endemic to a small area of the Patos-Mirim lagoon system encompassing the São Gonçalo Channel lowlands, were collected from eight isolated temporary ponds, four located at the known distribution range of the species and four located along the Piratini River lowlands, where morphologically different individuals were found. In the laboratory, fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (coI), cytochrome b (cytb) and nuclear rhodopsin (rho) genes were amplified, purified and sequenced for 100, 99 and 58 of these individuals, respectively. Samples were further analysed using phylogenetic and phylogeographic methods to evaluate the patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation presented within and between populations, while assessing their evolutionary history, in order to guide the application of further conservation strategies. We found that the four new populations from the Piratini River lowlands encompass a different lineage of A. nigrofasciatus that diverged from that encountered in the São Gonçalo Channel at approximately 0.165 M years before present, during a population expansion and did not yet attain reciprocal monophyly. This divergence was associated with a glacial event that was preceded by an interglacial period putatively associated with the dispersal. Moreover, significant levels of genetic differentiation and a high number of exclusive haplotypes could be encountered even in micro-geographical scales, as in the comparisons between populations located within the same major lineage, indicating each of them may encompass independent management units. Conservation actions are certainly urgent, especially in the face of signs of a recent bottleneck.

Ciprinodontiformes/classificação , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Peixes Listrados , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ciprinodontiformes/genética , Citocromos b/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Água Doce , Variação Genética , Peixes Listrados/classificação , Peixes Listrados/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Lagoas , Rodopsina/genética
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e020319, 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138061


Abstract Among the avian used for human consumption, the Muscovy duck is well adapted to various climatic conditions and its breeding is widespread due to its easy handling, and its meat is widely consumed and appreciated, especially in the cuisine of northern Brazil. The present study aimed to report and identify taxonomically the nematodes found in the esophagus of Muscovy ducks reared and marketed in the municipality of Soure, Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, and discuss its zoonotic potential to human. The samples consisted of 30 specimens of Cairina moschata domestica analyzed. A total of 258 nematodes were recovered, which were strongly fixed in the esophageal mucosa of hosts. The morphological and morphometric characteristics were compatible with Anisakis third-stage larvae.

Resumo Entre as aves utilizadas para consumo humano, o pato doméstico está bem adaptado às várias condições climáticas. Sua criação é muito difundida devido ao seu fácil manejo. E sua carne é amplamente consumida e apreciada, principalmente na culinária do norte do Brasil. O presente estudo teve como objetivo relatar e identificar taxonomicamente os nematódeos encontrados no esôfago de patos domésticos, criados e comercializados no município de Soure, Ilha de Marajó, estado do Pará, Brasil. E também discutir o seu potencial zoonótico para o homem. As amostras consistiram em 30 espécimes de Cairina moschata domestica analisados. Um total de 258 nematódeos foram recuperados, fortemente fixados na mucosa esofágica dos hospedeiros. As características morfológicas e morfométricas foram compatíveis com as larvas de terceiro estágio de Anisakis.

Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Anisakis/classificação , Patos/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Brasil , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Anisakis/anatomia & histologia , Esôfago/parasitologia , Larva
Biota Neotrop. (Online, Ed. ingl.) ; 20(1): e20190774, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055252


Abstract: Tryblionella is a large epipelic genus, widespread from fresh to marine waters. Most of the studies including the genus are based only in light microscopy. Few recent studies are exclusively dedicated to Tryblionella and the ultrastructure of some species is still little known. In this paper we present eleven species of Tryblionella found in epiphyton and microphytobenthos in Patos Lagoon salt marshes. All the species are described, illustrated in light and scanning electron microscopy and comments about their taxonomy, distribution and ecology are provided. Two taxa are reported for the first time in the State of Rio Grande do Sul and one in Southern Brazil. The number of species registered in this study comprises nearly a half of the number of species registered in the country. The high richness observed may be related to the dynamics of the salt marshes, which provides both the mixing of fresh and marine waters communities and the diversity of microhabitats. The great variability among the species analyzed allowed to extend the general concept of Tryblionella, adding features which were not considered in the previous characterizations of the genus.

Resumo: Tryblionella é um gênero de diatomáceas epipélicas, distribuído de águas doces a marinhas. A maioria dos estudos que incluem o gênero baseia-se apenas em microscopia óptica. Poucos estudos recentes são exclusivamente dedicados à Tryblionella e a ultraestrutura de algumas espécies ainda é pouco conhecida. No presente artigo, apresentamos onze espécies de Tryblionella encontradas no epifíton e no microfitobentos nas marismas da Lagoa dos Patos. Todas as espécies foram descritas, ilustradas em microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura e comentários sobre a taxonomia, distribuição e ecologia foram fornecidos. Dois táxons foram registrados pela primeira vez para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul e um para a região Sul do Brasil. O número de espécies registradas neste estudo compreende cerca de metade das espécies registradas para o país. A grande riqueza observada pode estar relacionada à dinâmica das marismas, que proporciona tanto a mistura de comunidades de águas doces e marinhas quanto diversidade de microhabitats. A grande variabilidade entre as espécies analisadas permitiu que o conceito geral de Tryblionella fosse ampliado, incluindo características que não haviam sido consideradas nas caracterizações anteriores do gênero.

Front Microbiol ; 9: 1727, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108575


Cyanobacterial blooms in marine and freshwater environments may be favored by shifts in physical water column parameters due to warming under climate change. The Patos Lagoon (PL), a subtropical coastal environment in southern Brazil, is known for recurrent blooms of Microcystis aeruginosa complex (MAC). Here, we analyze the variability of these blooms and their relation to changes in wind direction and speed, rainfall and freshwater run-off from 2000 to 2017. Also, we discuss both longer time-series of air temperature and rainfall and a review of local studies with microcystins produced by these noxious species. Since the 1980s, MAC blooms were associated to negative anomalies in annual precipitation that occur during La Niña periods and, in the last years (2001-2014), accompanied by a trend in low river discharge. MAC blooms were conspicuous from December to March, i.e., austral summer, with massive patches seen in satellite images as for 2017. We suggest that low rainfall and run-off years under NE wind-driven hydrodynamics might accumulate MAC biomass in the west margin of the PL system. In contrast, a positive, long-term trend in precipitation (from 1950 to 2016; slope = 3.9868 mm/yr, p < 0.05) should imply in high river discharge and, consequently, advection of this biomass to the adjacent coastal region. Due to the proximity to urban areas, the blooms can represent recreational and economic hazards to the region.

Palmas ; 39(1): 120-130, 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-982151


Este trabajo investigó el modelo de interacción planta-patógeno mediante discos de hojas de clones de palma de aceite inoculados en condiciones ex situ con un aislamiento de Phytophthora palmivora. Las inoculaciones se realizaron en condiciones controladas en cámara de crecimiento. En total, seis diferentes ortets fueron evaluados en seis tiempos de infección (2, 4, 6, 12, 24 y 48 horas postinfección, o hpi). Se determinó la presencia de estructuras de patogenicidad de P. palmivora como quiste, apresorio y tubos germinativos. Los quistes fueron identificados principalmente a las 2, 4 y 6 hpi. A partir de las 48 hpi no hubo presencia de zoosporas enquistadas para ningún ortet evaluado. En cuanto a los apresorios, estos se empezaron a desarrollar a las 4 horas de realizada la inoculación (siendo las 12 y 24 hpi los tiempos de mayor registro de estas estructuras). 121 Identificación de estructuras de infección de Phytophthora palmivora en hojas de clones de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Méndez, K. et al. Introducción La Pudrición del cogollo (pc) es una de las principales enfermedades que afecta al cultivo de palma de aceite, destruyendo plantaciones desde 1964. En Colombia la enfermedad se presenta en las cuatro zonas palmeras y ha alcanzado proporciones epidémicas (Sarria et al., 2013a, 2016). A finales de 2004 en la Zona Suroccidental se registró un incremento en el número de casos, con un crecimiento exponencial de esta enfermedad, y a partir de 2007 se vieron afectadas más de 30.000 ha de cultivos de palma de aceite. En la Zona Central un comportamiento similar de la enfermedad fue registrado para la región de Puerto Wilches (Norte de Santander) entre 2009 y 2013, periodo en el cual se perdieron más de 40.000 ha como consecuencia de una epidemia de pc (Sanz, 2016). Por su parte, los productores de la Zona Norte actualmente hacen frente a la amenaza de una expansión epidémica de la pc con síntoma de hoja clorótica, la cual da cuenta de un estado avanzado de la enfermedad. Una amplia revisión del impacto de esta enfermedad desde sus inicios se encuentra en Benítez & García (2015), Sundram & Intan-Nur (2017) y Torres et al. (2016). La enfermedad de la Pudrición del cogollo es causada por el oomiceto hemibiótrofo P. palmivora (Sarria et al., 2008, 2013). Desde su identificación como agente causal de la pc en 2008, el Centro de Investigación en Palma de Aceite (Cenipalma) ha liderado diferentes investigaciones que han dado como resultado el desarrollo de estrategias de manejo integrado del cultivo de palma, así como la descripción del patógeno por medio de inoculación en condiciones in vitro en foliolos inmaduros de palma (Martínez et al., 2013, 2014a), entre otras. En cuanto a la presencia de esta enfermedad en otros cultivos, Mohamed-Azni et al. (2017) emplearon la técnica de foliolo inmaduro, logrando infectar foliolos de palma de aceite con P. palmivora aislada proveniente de cultivos de cacao y durián. Teniendo en cuenta que actualmente no se conocen fuentes probadas de resistencia de cultivares de Elaeis guineensis a la pc, y que un ciclo de mejoramiento genético de palma puede durar más de 25 años Por su parte, los tubos germinativos se encontraron a partir de las 48 hpi únicamente. Finalmente, se pudo establecer que el patógeno logra colonizar tejidos de foliolo no lignificados de clones de palma. Además, se encontró una relación entre el número de estructuras del patógeno con el comportamiento del cultivar de la palma donor (ramet)

Plant-pathogen model interaction was studied using leaf disks of oil palm clones inoculated ex situ with a Phytophthora palmivora isolate. The inoculation process was performed under growth chamber conditions. Six ortets were evaluated at six post-inoculation times (2, 4, 6, 12, 24 y 48 hours post infection, or hpi). Pathogen's infection structures as cyst, apressorium and germinative tubes were found. Cysts were identified mainly at 2, 4 and 6 hpi. After 48 hpi there were not any cysts for the evaluated ortets. The apresoria started to develop at 4 hpi, with the highest presence of these structures at 12 and 24 hpi. Germinative tubes were found only after 48 hpi. Therefore, it was established that the pathogen can colonize no-lignified tissue of oil palm clones. Finally, we found a relation between the pathogen's structures number and the response of the ortet related to its susceptibility and resistance response. Thus, it was found that the susceptible cultivar showed the highest number of germinative tubes

História do Século XXI , Doença , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido , Infecções
Am J Infect Control ; 45(6): 612-614, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28431844


This case study is part of a series centered on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network's (NHSN) health care-associated infection (HAI) surveillance definitions. The intent of the case study series is to foster standardized application of the NHSN's HAI surveillance definitions among infection preventionists and accurate determination of HAI events. This specific case study focuses on the definitions found within the surgical site infection (SSI) protocol. It aims to reflect the real life and complex patient scenario surrounding a bloodstream infection that is secondary to an SSI and the application of the Present at the Time of Surgery event detail. An online survey link is provided where participants may confidentially answer questions related to the case study and receive immediate feedback in the form of correct answers and explanations and rationales. Details of the case study, answers, and explanations have been reviewed and approved by NHSN staff. We hope that participants take advantage of this educational offering and thereby gain a greater understanding of the NHSN's HAI surveillance definitions.

Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Sepse/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./normas , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Sepse/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/complicações , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
Mar Pollut Bull ; 115(1-2): 154-163, 2017 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27956014


Permeability is the ability of a sediment deposit to allow fluids to pass through it. It depends on the local types of sediments. When the fluid is oil, high permeability implies greater interaction with the site and more extensive damage, which makes recovery most difficult. Knowledge of permeability oscillations is necessary to understand oil behavior and improve cleanup techniques. The goal is to determine oil permeability variations on lagoon sand beaches. Oil permeability tests were performed at the beach face, using a Modified Phillip Dunne Permeameter and parameters were sampled. Permeability of lagoon beaches is driven by grain diameter and roundness, soil compaction, and depth of the water table. Factors that enhance permeability include: sand sorting, vertical distribution of sediments and gravel percentage. High permeability on lagoon beaches is related to polymodal distribution, to the sediment package, and to the system's low mobility.

Sedimentos Geológicos , Água Subterrânea , Vaselina , Dióxido de Silício , Brasil , Permeabilidade , Poluição por Petróleo
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 60: e17160335, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-951428


ABSTRACT We evaluated the incidental catch of the blue crab in artisanal fisheries through the analysis of sex ratio, catch per unit effort, net positioning, and size in which the capture probability was 50% (P50). The specimens were collected from 2011 to 2013 in the estuary of Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil. The analysis showed a higher occurrence of males. Variations in the catch per unit effort showed greatest abundance values close to the mouth of the estuary. Catch per unit effort was similar when comparing fishing seasons and net positions. P50 indicated a low selectivity of the nets since it varied between studied areas but stayed below the size at first maturity. Catches indicated a greater effort on males, since females migrated to spawn in the ocean area adjacent to the estuary during the fishing period studied. The spatial variation of the catch per unit effort showed heterogeneity in fishing catches. Thus, optimal management of the resource should consider the particularities of each area.

J Fish Biol ; 89(1): 770-92, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26876882


Stable isotopes were used to evaluate the hypothesis that fish assemblages occurring in shallow and deep areas of a large coastal lagoon are structured in partially segregated trophic modules with consumers showing contrasting reliance on benthic or pelagic food sources. The results revealed that fishes in deep areas were mainly dependent on particulate organic matter in the sediment (SOM), whereas emergent macrophytes were as important as SOM to fish consumers in shallow areas. Conceptual trophic diagrams depicting relationships among basal food sources and consumers in different regions of the lagoon highlighted the greater use of multiple basal food sources by more feeding mode functional guilds in shallow water compared with the use of predominantly benthic resources (SOM) in deep areas. The findings appear to corroborate the initial hypothesis and offer complementary perspectives in understanding the role of spatial ecology in structuring coastal ecosystem function and productivity.

Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Brasil , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise