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1.
J Pers Disord ; 37(1): 16-35, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723424

RESUMO

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a debilitating clinical disorder associated with adverse impacts on multiple levels. While a high prevalence of childhood trauma has been noted, the ways such trauma impacts the development of BPD symptomatology remain unclear. In this systematic review, the authors examine the literature from 2000 to 2020, focusing on the association between trauma and BPD, and offer a comprehensive synthesis of possible etiological implications related to either one specific or multiple trauma types. In addition, results are analyzed based on commonly tested trauma parameters, including repeated exposure, polytrauma, onset, perpetrators, and gender. The authors also note some limitations in areas of sampling, measurement, causal inference methods, and data analyses. Results of this review point to several parameters of trauma that can be used to inform training for practitioners as well as enhance current interventions.

2.
J Pers Disord ; 37(1): 95-111, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723420

RESUMO

A substantial body of research supports dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) as an evidence-based treatment for those with borderline personality disorder (BPD); however, there remains a lack of mental health clinicians trained in this modality, resulting in limited clinician competencies and skills. Furthermore, the effectiveness of DBT trainings with mental health clinicians remains understudied. The present study evaluated a comprehensive 5-day DBT-Linehan Board of Certification training program. Informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, this study assessed changes in clinician knowledge, attitudes, perceived behavioral control (PBC), intentions, and behaviors relevant to DBT at baseline, posttraining, and 6-month follow-up. Results showed large, significant pre-to-post training improvements in clinicians' knowledge, attitudes, PBC, and intentions related to DBT implementation. Large improvements in knowledge, attitudes, and PBC were sustained at follow-up. A significant improvement in actual behaviors was also found at follow-up. Implications of the present study and directions for future research are discussed.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604330

RESUMO

Unstable interpersonal relationships and fear of abandonment are core symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) that often intensify during stress. Psychosocial stress, which includes components of social exclusion and increases cortisol secretion, enhances emotional empathy in healthy individuals. Women with BPD, on the contrary, react with reduced emotional empathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of perceived social exclusion without accompanying cortisol increase on empathy in women with BPD and healthy women. To induce social exclusion, we randomized 98 women with BPD and 98 healthy women to either an exclusion or an overinclusion (control) condition of Cyberball, a virtual ball game. Subsequently, participants underwent the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET), which assesses cognitive and emotional empathy. There was no increase in cortisol release after Cyberball. Cognitive empathy did not differ between groups or conditions. Women with BPD reported lower emotional empathy for positive emotions (group by valence interaction), but not for negative emotions. Exploratory analyses suggested that this effect might be more pronounced after social exclusion. Our results confirm previous findings that cognitive empathy does not differ between women with BPD and healthy women and extend this evidence to social exclusion. Emotional empathy in women with BPD seems to be more sensitive to the effects of stress or ambiguous social situations. Specifically, emotional empathy seems to be reduced for positive emotions, and might further decline after social exclusion. Empathic reactions to emotional stimuli of different valences and to specific emotions should be further investigated.

4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 21, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major health problem globally. As attempted suicide is a major risk factor for suicide, specific prevention strategies have been designed for use thereafter. An example is the brief contact intervention (BCI). In this regard, France employs a composite BCI, VigilanS, which utilizes three types of contact: phone calls, postcards and a 'who to contact in a crisis' card. Previous studies have found that this system is effective at preventing suicide. Nevertheless, VigilanS was not effective in the same way for all the patients included. This observation raises the question of specific adaptation during follow-up for populations that were less receptive to the service. In consideration of this issue, we identified one study which found that incoming calls to the service were linked with a higher risk of suicide reattempts. However, this study did not document the profiles of the patients who made these calls. Better understanding of why this population is more at risk is important in terms of identifying factors that could be targeted to improve follow-up. This research therefore aims to bring together such data. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 579 patients referred to VigilanS by Toulouse University Hospital (France). We examined the sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, and follow-ups in place and compared the patients who made incoming calls to the service versus those who did not. Subsequently, we conducted a regression analysis using the significantly associated element of patients calling VigilanS. Then, in order to better understand this association, we analyzed the factors, including such calls, that were linked to the risk of suicide reattempts. RESULTS: We found that 22% of the patients in our sample called the VigilanS service. These individuals: were older, at 41.4 years versus 37.9 years for the non-callers; were more likely to have a borderline personality disorder (BPD) diagnosis (28.9% versus 19.3%); and had a history of suicide attempts (71.9% versus 54.6%). Our analysis confirmed that incoming calls to VigilanS (OR = 2.9) were associated with reattempted suicide, as were BPD (OR = 1.8) and a history of suicide attempts (OR = 1.7). CONCLUSION: There was a high risk that the patients calling VigilanS would make another suicide attempt. However, this association was present regardless of the clinical profile. We postulate that this link between incoming calls and reattempted suicide may arise because this form of contact is, in fact, a way in which patients signal that a further attempt will be made.


Assuntos
Tentativa de Suicídio , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , França/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36648383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-compassion has been defined as the ability to be with one's feelings of suffering in a warm and caring way. Research has shown a negative association between self-compassion and mental illness, and that low self-compassion can make psychotherapeutic effects less likely. The ability to measure a patient's self-compassion in a fast and reliable way is therefore important in investigating effects of psychotherapies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF) in both non-clinical (NC) and clinical samples. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were gathered in a NC community sample (n = 1,089), an eating disorder (ED) sample (n = 253) and a borderline personality disorder (BPD) sample (n = 151). All participants were asked to complete a number of questionnaires, including the SCS-SF, and 121 participants in the NC sample repeated the assessment after 2 weeks for test-retest analysis. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses supported the first-order model suggested in previous research. Good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.78-0.87) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation = 0.84) were demonstrated for the entire scale. Results also showed good convergent validity, demonstrating moderate negative associations between self-compassion and mental illnesses, as expected, and acceptable divergent validity, demonstrating weak positive associations between self-compassion and quality of life and mindfulness. DISCUSSION: The correlations between the SCS-SF and the instruments used for validation were weaker in the clinical samples than the NC sample. This may be due to difficulties measuring these constructs or that the associations differ somewhat between different populations, which could warrant further research. The results added some support to the assumption that self-compassion may overlap with mindfulness yet still represents a distinct construct. CONCLUSIONS: Analyses of the SCS-SF provided evidence of adequate to good psychometric properties, supporting use of the scale's total sum score and a first-order factor structure. This is in accordance with previous evaluations of the SCS-SF, suggesting that it is a reliable and time-efficient instrument for measuring a general level of self-compassion. This may be important when evaluating psychotherapy and investigating self-compassion and its influence on psychiatric illness.

6.
Children (Basel) ; 10(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670644

RESUMO

Following the introduction of the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), adolescents can now be diagnosed with a personality disorder based on severity ranging from mild to moderate to severe. This dimensional model has potential implications for treatment, as it allows clinicians and researchers to search for effective treatments targeting adolescents at different severity levels rather than offering all patients the same treatment. In this conceptual paper, we propose that the short-term mentalization-based therapy (MBT) program, originally developed to treat adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD), has potential clinical advantages for adolescents with ICD-11 personality disorder at the mild to moderate severity level. The short-term MBT program is a 5-month structured treatment approach including individual therapy, combined psychotherapy with the individual therapist also being one of the group therapists, and closed-group therapy to enhance cohesion and a feeling of security. The purpose of this paper is to make a case for the use of this format, as opposed to the traditional long-term MBT format, for adolescents with BPD. Future research should include large-scale randomized clinical trials powered to assess patient-important outcomes.

7.
Am J Psychother ; : appipsychotherapy20220018, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to construct an empirical bridge between object relations theory and attachment theory by investigating how researchers in both traditions have contributed to understanding and assessing identity diffusion (a keystone of personality pathology) and object relations in patients with borderline personality disorder during 1 year of transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP). METHODS: The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO) were administered to patients (N=104, all women) before and after 1 year of treatment. This study was part of a randomized controlled trial in which 104 patients with borderline personality disorder were randomly assigned to receive either TFP (a manualized, structured psychodynamic treatment approach) or treatment by experienced community psychotherapists. Changes on the AAI in attachment representations, narrative coherence, and reflective function were examined for their associations with changes on the STIPO in identity, object relations, and aggression. RESULTS: Patients who shifted from disorganized (unresolved) to organized attachment on the AAI after 1 year of TFP (but not treatment by experienced community psychotherapists) showed hypothesized improvements in domains of personality organization on the STIPO, including identity, object relations, and aggression. Those who did not change from disorganized (unresolved) to organized attachment improved only in the domain of aggression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the centrality of identity diffusion to borderline personality disorder pathology and the importance of targeting it in treatment. Furthermore, the results suggest that identity may be indexed by measures of attachment security, narrative coherence, and personality organization.

8.
Am J Psychother ; : appipsychotherapy20220023, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695537

RESUMO

This article is a tribute to Dr. Otto F. Kernberg and his contribution to the theoretical understanding of personality pathology in adolescence. In his object relations theory of the structure of personality, an integrated identity is considered central to healthy personality functioning and is contrasted with identity diffusion, which is posited to underlie the maladaptive interpersonal functioning of patients with severe personality disorders. His work provided an early theoretical foundation for the understanding and treatment of personality disorders in adults, but a need remained for a deeper understanding of the development and treatment of personality disorders during adolescence. During the past 10 years, Kernberg has led a group of clinicians and developmental researchers focusing on childhood and adolescence to elaborate an understanding of the development, assessment, and treatment of personality disorders among adolescents. He proposed that in the context of typical development, adolescence is important to the expansion of identity, because it represents the period when sexual and aggressive impulses are integrated and earlier representations of the self and others are revised and become more realistic and nuanced. Furthermore, adolescence entails a reorganization of the moral system and enrichment of the ego ideal. This article presents two methods for assessing personality disorders in adolescence that are based on Kernberg's theory and demonstrates the use of transference-focused psychotherapy for adolescents with personality disorders.

9.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 79: 101836, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36709601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Performance on implicit measures of suicidality has been associated with suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injury. Despite the high prevalence of self-harm in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), no previous study has assessed implicit measures in this patient group. METHODS: Forty patients with BPD and 25 healthy controls completed three implicit association tests (IATs) (Death words - Me/Others words, Self-Harm pictures - Me/Others, and Self-Harm pictures - Good/Bad words) and a subliminal priming task (effect of the primes "dying"/"growing" on the categorization speed of positive/negative adjectives) as well as measures of psychopathology (suicidal ideation, previous nonsuicidal self-injury, borderline symptomatology, depression, and hopelessness). RESULTS: Patients with BPD had higher scores on all three IATs than healthy controls. The subliminal priming procedure did not reveal group differences. Correlations between implicit measures and psychopathology among patients with BPD were mostly weak and nonsignificant with a few exceptions: Positive correlations were observed between IAT Self-Harm - Good/Bad and lifetime frequency of nonsuicidal self-injury, between IAT Self-Harm - Me/Others and depression, and between IAT Death - Me/Others and depression. Correlations between implicit measures were weak to moderate. LIMITATIONS: The study was cross-sectional only, and the study had reduced power as the sample size was limited. CONCLUSIONS: As expected, patients with BPD had higher scores than healthy controls on the IATs, which indicates higher implicit self-identification with self-harm and death as well as stronger implicit positive attitudes towards self-harm. The mostly weak correlations between implicit and explicit measures speak against the discriminative value of IATs in patients with BPD.

10.
Assessment ; : 10731911221143354, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631938

RESUMO

Differing perspectives on the operationalization of schizotypal personality pathology (STPP) have led to numerous multidimensional assessment measures. The current study applied the interpersonal construct validation approach to self-report data from 856 undergraduate students to formally examine the interpersonal content, similarities, and differences in the subscales of four measures of STPP within and across two interpersonal circumplex surfaces using a bootstrapping methodology for computing confidence intervals around circumplex structural summary method parameters. Results suggested that negative-like expressions of STPP are prototypically and distinctively interpersonal constructs associated with cold and socially avoidant interpersonal problems and hypersensitivity to others' warmth and affection. Positive-like expressions of STPP as assessed by two out of four measures were prototypically and distinctively interpersonal constructs associated with vindictiveness. Across four measures, there was notable overlap in interpersonal correlates among related subscales, suggesting convergent validity. However, subscales containing social anxiety content were associated with more submissive (i.e., socially avoidant) interpersonal problems than subscales without social anxiety content.

11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 57, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality of care and access to effective interventions have been widely criticised as limited for people diagnosed with 'personality disorder' or who have comparable needs (described in some recent papers as "Complex Emotional Needs" (CEN). It is important to identify effective interventions and the optimal context and mode of delivery for people with CEN. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions delivered in community and outpatient settings in treating symptoms associated with 'personality disorder', and the moderating effects of treatment-related variables. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, HMIC, ASSIA for articles published in English, from inception to November 23, 2020. We included randomized controlled trials examining interventions provided in community or outpatient settings for CEN. The primary outcome was 'personality disorder' symptoms, while secondary outcomes included anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and global psychiatric symptoms. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted for each outcome, and meta-regression analysis was performed to assess the moderating effects of treatment characteristics. The quality of the studies and the degree of publication bias was assessed. RESULTS: We included 54 trials (n = 3716 participants) in the meta-analysis. We found a large effect size (g = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.56 to 1.01, p < 0.0001) favoring interventions for 'borderline personality disorder' (BPD) symptoms over Treatment as Usual or Waitlist (TAU/WL), and the efficacy was maintained at follow-up (g = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.37 to 1.65, p = 0.002). Interventions effectively reduced anxiety symptoms (g = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.95, p = 0.002), depressive symptoms (g = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.83, p < 0.0001), and global psychiatric symptoms (g = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.66, p < 0.0001) compared to TAU/WL. The intervention types were equally effective in treating all symptom categories assessed. Treatment duration and treatment intensity did not moderate the effectiveness of the interventions for any outcome. CONCLUSIONS: People with a 'personality disorder' diagnosis benefited from psychological and psychosocial interventions delivered in community or outpatient settings, with all therapeutic approaches showing similar effectiveness. Mental health services should provide people with CEN with specialised treatments in accordance with the availability and the patients' preferences.


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade , Ansiedade/terapia , Personalidade
12.
J Forensic Sci ; 2023 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36683010

RESUMO

While denial of pregnancy and neonaticide are rare, they are potentially associated and share some risk factors. Neonaticide has been proposed as the extreme outcome of a denial of pregnancy. However, the process leading to such a possible outcome is not yet fully understood. The primary goal of this essay is to examine the various definitions and ambiguities surrounding the denial of pregnancy. The case of a young woman with a history of two denied pregnancies with diverse characteristics and outcomes, the latest of which resulted in neonaticide, is then reported and examined. A forensic psychiatric evaluation was also performed to reconstruct the woman's mental state at the time of the crime. The forensic pathological analysis of the newborn, abandoned near the sea while still alive, is described. The victim's body showed signs of shaken baby syndrome. We contend that differing levels of awareness during a denial of pregnancy might not be predictive of the potential delivery outcome in terms of threat to the newborn's survival, according to the forensic pathological and psychopathological data of the current case. Early identification of women affected by denial of pregnancy who pose a danger of committing infanticide is hampered by both intrinsic traits (dissimulation, unawareness, low propensity to seek assistance) and environmental factors (isolation, low socioeconomic level, poor education.). A previous history of denial of pregnancy should activate health and support services to reduce the potential risks for the mother and the child.

13.
Cereb Cortex ; 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657794

RESUMO

Paranoid personality disorder (PPD), a mental disorder that affects interpersonal relationships and work, is frequently neglected during diagnosis and evaluation at the individual-level. This preliminary study aimed to investigate whether connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) can predict paranoia scores of young men with PPD using whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC). College students with paranoid tendencies were screened using paranoia scores ≥60 derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory; 18 participants were ultimately diagnosed with PPD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and subsequently underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Whole-brain rs-FC was constructed, and the ability of this rs-FC to predict paranoia scores was evaluated using CPM. The significance of the models was assessed using permutation tests. The model constructed based on the negative prediction network involving the limbic system-temporal lobe was observed to have significant predictive ability for paranoia scores, whereas the model constructed using the positive and combined prediction network had no significant predictive ability. In conclusion, using CPM, whole-brain rs-FC predicted the paranoia score of patients with PPD. The limbic system-temporal lobe FC pattern is expected to become an important neurological marker for evaluating paranoid ideation.

14.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 79: 101834, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, EMDR is not typically offered to people with PTSD who also meet the criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study examines the feasibility and clinical benefits of EMDR for PTSD delivered in addition to the onset of treatment as usual (TAU) for BPD. METHODS: In a non-concurrent, multiple baseline design, 12 patients with BPD and PTSD received fifteen weekly 45-min sessions of TAU. During this period, eight weekly 90-min EMDR sessions were added. Outcome measures were obtained weekly for self-reported PTSD symptoms (PTSD checklist for DSM-5), levels of psychopathology (Brief Symptom Checklist), and the effect of psychopathology on different areas of life (Sheehan Disability Scale). RESULTS: 9 participants completed the treatment protocol. In the EMDR phase, PTSD severity scores decreased significantly between sessions, while no between-session drop in scores occurred during the TAU only phase. Similar results were obtained for general symptoms and disability. No adverse events were reported. LIMITATIONS: Results on the efficacy and safety of EMDR in patients with BPD and PTSD need to be replicated in larger samples and in RCTs before they can be generalized to the entire population. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that EMDR may be feasible and effective in reducing PTSD symptoms in patients concurrently receiving BPD treatment. EMDR appears to be a promising intervention for patients with BPD and comorbid PTSD.

15.
Neuropsychobiology ; : 1-9, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634631

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are transdiagnostic phenomena that can occur in several mental disorders, including borderline personality disorder (BPD). Despite the transdiagnostic relevance of these symptoms, very little is known about neural signatures of AVH in BPD. METHODS: We used structural magnetic resonance imaging to investigate multiple markers of brain morphology in BPD patients presenting with a lifetime history of AVH (AVH, n = 6) versus BPD patients without AVH (nAVH, n = 10) and healthy controls (HC, n = 12). The Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT12) was used for surface-based morphometric analyses that considered cortical thickness (CTh), gyrification (CG), and complexity of cortical folding (CCF). Factorial models were used to explore differences between AVH patients and HC, as well as between the patient groups. RESULTS: Compared to HC, AVH patients showed distinct abnormalities in key regions of the language network, i.e., aberrant CTh and CG in right superior temporal gyrus and abnormal CCF in left inferior frontal gyrus. Further abnormalities were found in right prefrontal cortex (CTh) and left orbitofrontal cortex (CCF). Compared to nAVH patients, individuals with AVH showed abnormal CTh in right prefrontal cortex, along with CCF differences in right transverse temporal, superior parietal, and parahippocampal gyri. CG differences between the patient groups were found in left orbitofrontal cortex. CONCLUSION: The data suggest a transdiagnostic neural signature of voice-hearing that converges on key regions involved in speech generation and perception, memory and executive control. It is possible that cortical features of distinct evolutionary and genetic origin, i.e., CTh and CG/CCF, differently contribute to AVH vulnerability in BPD.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychotic spectrum features in borderline personality disorder (PD) are a long-standing phenomenon, but remarkably, to date, they have not been the focus of many empirical studies. Moreover, the comparative studies that acknowledge their links to affective psychoses are even more scarce. Likewise, the contributions of empirical research on the DSM-5 dimensional approach to this topic are also uncommon. This study seeks to identify the best set of pathological personality traits and/or symptoms that are predictors of psychotic features (psychoticism and ideation paranoid symptoms) in borderline PD and in bipolar disorder, based on the framework of the DSM-5 section III personality traits. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of two clinical samples: 1) Borderline PD group of 63 participants; 2) Bipolar disorder group of 65 participants. Self-reported assessment: Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5); Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). A series of linear and logistic regression analyses were computed. RESULTS: Overall, the data emerging as common predictors are detachment, negative affectivity, psychoticism, depressivity, grandiosity, suspiciousness and interpersonal sensitivity symptoms. Borderline PD has the highest score in BSI paranoid ideation which emerges as its discriminating trait (Nagelkerke R2 = .58): cognitive and perceptual dysregulation (OR: 13.02), restricted affectivity (OR: 12.09), withdrawal (OR: 11.70), anhedonia (OR: 10.98) and emotional lability (OR: 6.69). CONCLUSIONS: Besides the commonality that appears to overlap both disorders with a psychosis superspectrum, the patterns of the pathological personality-symptoms underlying the psychotic features appear to reinforce a position between schizophrenia and bipolar disorders that borderline PD may occupy, highlighting the possibility of its intersection with schizoaffective/psychosis spectra. The pathological personality nature of the psychotic features emerges as a potential comprehensive trait of the phenomenological dimensions.

17.
Nord J Psychiatry ; : 1-8, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research on patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) has indicated negative effects, including increased suicidality, from long hospital admissions and paternalism. Still, long-term compulsory admissions have been reported to occur regularly. Less is known about how healthcare personnel perceives these admissions and to what extent they think the use of compulsory care can be diminished. This study addresses those questions to make care more beneficial. METHODS: A questionnaire study, the respondents being nurses and psychiatric aides employed at psychiatric hospital wards in Sweden. The questionnaire contained questions with fixed answers and room for comments. 422 questionnaires were distributed to 21 wards across Sweden, and the response rate was 66%. The data were analysed with descriptive statistics and qualitative descriptive content analysis. RESULTS: Most respondents experienced that more than a week's compulsory admission either increased (68%) or had no effect (26%) on self-harm behaviour. A majority (69%) considered the compulsory admissions to be too long at their wards, with detrimental effects on the patients. They also recognized several reasons for compulsory admissions without medical indication, like doctors' fear of complaints and patients' lack of housing. Also, patients sometimes demand compulsory care. Respondents recommended goal-oriented care planning, around three-day-long voluntary admissions, and better outpatient care to reduce compulsory hospital admissions. DISCUSSION: These findings imply that many BPD patients are regularly forced to receive psychiatric care that inadvertently can make them self-harm more. The respondents' comments can be used as a source when formulating clinical guidelines.

18.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 10(1): 91-98, Enero 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214147

RESUMO

La literatura científica señala que es importante llevar a cabo una intervención psicológica temprana en el trastorno de la personalidad límite (TPL)debido a que en la adolescencia es cuando se observa un mayor auge de los síntomas graves. Sin embargo, existe poca literatura científica sobrequé tratamientos psicológicos son más eficaces para esta población. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una revisión de revisiones sobre losdatos de eficacia de los tratamientos psicológicos para adolescentes con rasgos o diagnóstico de TPL o desregulación emocional. Se seleccionaron revisiones que evaluaran la eficacia de tratamientos psicológicos en adolescentes (entre 12 y 19 años) con esta problemática. Se realizó unabúsqueda de literatura científica en diversas bases de datos (Web of Science, PsycInfo, Pubmed, Dialnet) y se incluyeron un total de 5 revisiones.Resultados: La Terapia Dialéctica Comportamental para adolescentes (DBT-A) y la Terapia Basada en la Mentalización para adolescentes (MBT-A)han demostrado su eficacia para reducir la ideación suicida, los síntomas de TPL, los niveles de ansiedad y depresión, así como mejorar la adaptación social y la calidad de vida después de la intervención. Sin embargo, algunas revisiones sugieren que la MBT-A podría no ser tan efectiva debidoa las altas tasas de abandonos. Las intervenciones psicológicas con más evidencia consiguen reducir los síntomas más graves y mejorar la calidadde vida de los adolescentes con este problema. Es fundamental intervenir lo antes posible, lo que ayudará a prevenir el desarrollo y cronicidad deun trastorno grave y difícil de tratar. (AU)


The scientific literature indicatesthat it is important to carry out early psychological intervention in borderline personality disorder (BPD) due to the fact that adolescence is when agreater upsurge of the most severe symptoms is observed. However, there is little scientific literature on which psychological treatments are mosteffective for this population. The aim of this paper is to conduct a review of reviews on the efficacy data of psychological treatments for adolescentswith traits or diagnosis of BPD or emotional dysregulation. We selected reviews that evaluated the efficacy of psychological treatments in adolescents (between 12 and 19 years old) with this problem. A search of scientific literature was carried out in various databases (Web of Science,PsycInfo, Pubmed, Dialnet) and a total of 5 reviews were included. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A) and Mentalization-BasedTherapy for Adolescents (MBT-A) have demonstrated efficacy in reducing suicidal ideation, BPD symptoms, anxiety and depression levels, as wellas improving social adjustment and quality of life after the intervention. However, some reviews suggest that MBT-A may not be as effective due tohigh dropout rates. Psychological interventions with more evidence achieve to reduce the most severe symptoms and improve the quality of life ofadolescents with this problem. It is essential to intervene as early as possible, which will help prevent the development and chronicity of a severeand difficult-to-treat disorder. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/terapia , Adolescente , Medicina Baseada em Evidências
19.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; 51(1): 110-115, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An earlier evaluation (Fox et al., ) highlighted reductions in risk behaviours and restrictive practices for women admitted to low secure dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) unit. Since then, a value-based healthcare model has been adopted. AIMS: To explore changes in health, social and psychological functioning, risk, quality of life, and in incidents of violence and restrictive practices, over the initial 12-month period of admission to a specialist DBT service. METHOD: Data were extracted from electronic clinical records for 41 women with emotionally unstable personality disorder admitted to a specialist integrated practice unit (IPU) providing a comprehensive DBT programme. Secondary analysis was conducted on an anonymous dataset of routinely collected outcome measures at baseline admission, and 6 and 12 months post-admission. ANOVAs and pairwise post hoc comparisons, and non-parametric equivalents, were conducted to examine changes in outcomes. RESULTS: Findings showed statistically significant improvements in mental health scores on the ReQOL (p<.01), global, wellbeing, problems, functioning and risk scores on the COREOM (all p<.01), and severe disturbance, emotional wellbeing, socioeconomic status, risk and need scores on the HoNOS-Secure (all p<.05). Significant reductions in risk behaviours (p<.01) and restrictive practices (p<.01) were also apparent. The most substantiative improvements were largely demonstrated over a 12-month admission period. CONCLUSIONS: Admission to the DBT IPU yielded significant improvements on outcomes pertaining to quality of life, psychological distress, and risk. Importantly, these are outcomes that aligned with patients' perceptions of recovery.


Assuntos
Terapia do Comportamento Dialético , Humanos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Qualidade de Vida
20.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; 51(1): 105-109, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36258278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a cognitive behavioural therapy-based group treatment programme for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). STEPPS has demonstrated its effectiveness for (younger) adults. However, there are no studies into the effects of STEPPS for older adults. AIM: The aim was to explore the outcome of STEPPS in older adults with personality disorders. METHOD: In this naturalistic pre- vs post-treatment study, older patients with a personality disorder, reporting emotion regulation difficulties, were included. The primary outcome was BPD symptoms. Secondary outcomes included psychological distress and maladaptive personality functioning. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients, with a mean age of 63.9 years (SD=4.6), completed the 19-week programme. Nine patients (23.1%) did not complete the treatment. There were no significant differences in age, gender or global severity between completers and patients dropping out. There was a significant pre- vs post-treatment decrease of BPD symptoms, with a large effect size (Cohen's d=1.577). Self-control improved significantly and demonstrated a large effect size (r=.576). Furthermore, identity integration improved significantly, with a medium effect size (Cohen's d=.509). No significant differences were reported for most domains of psychological distress and maladaptive interpersonal personality functioning. CONCLUSIONS: The findings in this pilot study suggest STEPPS is a feasible treatment programme for older adults with personality disorders and emotion regulation difficulties. Adaptations to the program, for a better fit for older adults, however, might be needed.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Projetos Piloto
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