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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 305: 116120, 2023 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610674

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Eryngium is known for producing a wide range of bioactive compounds with proved medicinal properties. In the last years, research has focused on E. maritimum, with previous studies reporting anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Ethnobotanical literature suggests that it has been traditionally used to treat a wide range of illnesses, having antitussive, diuretic and aphrodisiac properties. Being rhizome one of the most bioactive organs, much of the available references from traditional uses suggest that it has been specifically used to treat renal diseases. In this sense, inflammation and oxidative processes play a major role in kidney dysfunctions, which could be associated to the mechanism of action of the plant extracts. AIM OF THE STUDY: The main aim of the study was to investigate the effects of E. maritimum rhizome extract on the antioxidant and inflammatory response in human immune cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rhizome extracts were obtained from plants growing in Mallorca (Balearic Islands), and its composition was determined using HPLC-DAD, highlighting simple phenolic compounds such as trans-ferulic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin and rosmarinic acid as the major constituents. Total antioxidant capacity was determined using the FRAP assay. Jurkat cells were cultured to analyse cytotoxicity by cell viability assay. In parallel, cells were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin and treated with different extract concentrations. Gene and protein expression, as well as nitrite and cytokine levels were evaluated as indicators of metabolic responses. RESULTS: The plant extract showed a high diversity of pharmacologically bioactive compounds with potential therapeutic uses. The extract presented null cytotoxicity and exerted antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on Jurkat cells by inducing an antioxidant response and reducing cytokine and nitric oxide release and the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that E. maritimum is a promising phytotherapeutic species because of its strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, which could explain some of its traditional uses.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Eryngium , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Rizoma , Células Jurkat , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
2.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677546

RESUMO

This study presents modeling and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of Melastoma malabathricum with the objective of evaluating its phytochemical properties. This one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) procedure was conducted to screen for optimization variables whose domains included extraction temperature (XET), ultrasonic time (XUT), solvent concentration (XSC), and sample-to-liquid ratio (XSLR). Response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to establish optimum conditions for maximum antioxidant extraction. Modeling and optimization conditions of UAE at 37 kHz, XET 32 °C for XUT 16 min and dissolved in an XSC 70% ethanol concentration at a XSLR 1:10 ratio yielded scavenging effects on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) at 96% ± 1.48 and recorded values of total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) at 803.456 ± 32.48 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/g, and 102.972 ± 2.51 mg QE (quercetin equivalents)/g, respectively. The presence of high flavonoid compounds was verified using TWIMS-QTOFMS. Chromatic evaluation of phytochemicals using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed the presence of 14 phytocompounds widely documented to play significant roles in human health. This study provides a comparative evaluation with other studies and may be used for validation of the species' potential for its much-acclaimed medicinal and cosmeceutical uses.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Fenóis , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Fenóis/química , Flavonoides/química , Solventes , Extratos Vegetais/química , Etanol/química
3.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 2022 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36436012

RESUMO

Dermatophytosis has been the most common cause of superficial fungal infections which invade the keratinized tissues of body such as nail, hair, and skin, respectively. Although these infections are treatable and many commercial drugs are available that can be applied topically (clotrimazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, voriconazole) on the infected areas but they have very low efficacy and has high probability of relapse. To increase the efficacy of treatment, the patient receives supplementary oral medicines for prolong duration that leads to hepatotoxicity. Previously, it has been reported that some wild medicinal plants possess antifungal capacity due to the presence of bioactive molecules. In present study, these phytochemicals (viz. tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids) derived from three test plants [Acacia nilotica (babul), Catharanthus roseus (sadabahar) and Ricinus communis (Arandi)] are used as sources of direct medicinal agents to develop an antidermatophytic drug formulation against the clinical fungal isolates associated with affected population. The mechanism of their antifungal potential of partially purified phytochemicals were analyzed using agar well diffusion method, food inhibition assessment and DNA cleavage analysis. The data revealed that the alkaloids are the most potent component possessing antifungal property that is recommended to be used to formulate topical ointment for the dermatophytic infection after competent regulatory approvals. This can be used as promising source of alternative treatment approach and as a competent substitute for chemically synthesized hepatotoxic drugs that are available in market.

4.
Pharm Nanotechnol ; 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herbal preparations with low oral bioavailability have a fast first-pass metabolism in the gut and liver. To offset these effects, a method to improve absorption and, as a result, bioavailability must be devised. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to design, develop, and assess the in vivo toxicity of polyherbal phytosomes for ovarian cyst therapy. METHODS: Using antisolvent and rotational evaporation procedures, phytosomes containing phosphatidylcholine and a combination of herbal extracts (Saraca asoca, Bauhinia variegata, and Commiphora mukul) were synthesized. For a blend of Saraca asoca, Bauhinia variegata, and Commiphora mukul, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), preformulation investigations, qualitative phytochemical screening, and UV spectrophotometric tests were conducted. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential, ex vivo release, and in vivo toxicological investigations were used to examine phytosomes. RESULTS: FTIR studies suggested no changes in descriptive peaks in raw and extracted herbs although the intensity of peaks slightly reduced. Zeta potential values between -20.4 mV to -29.6 mV suggested stable phytosomes with accepted particle size range. Percentage yield and entrapment efficiency were directly corelated to amount of phospholipid used. Ex vivo studies suggested that the phytosomes with low content of phospholipids showing good permeation profiles. There was no difference in clinical indications between the extract-loaded phytosomes group and the free extract group in in vivo toxicological or histopathological examinations.. CONCLUSION: The findings of current research work suggested that the optimized phytosomes based drug delivery containing herbal extracts as bioenhancers have the potential to improve bioavailability of hydrophobic extracts.

5.
J Adv Pharm Technol Res ; 13(3): 226-231, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935686

RESUMO

Lack of quality control can affect the safety, efficacy, and acceptability of herbal products that may lead to health problems. Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has been widely used as an ethnomedicinal practice for its medicinal values. This study aims to establish pharmacognostic specifications of C. sativa as per standard procedures. Macroscopic-microscopic characteristics, physicochemical parameters, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) fingerprinting, and phytochemical screening of C. sativa leaves collected from various locations throughout Thailand were investigated. Leaves are palmate consists of seven leaflets with green color, margin is serrate with acuminate apex. Anomocytic stomata were found in the upper epidermis while unicellular and glandular trichomes with cystolith were found in the lower epidermis and the epidermis layer covered with cuticle. The physicochemical analysis revealed that the loss on drying (4.068 ± 0.084 %w/w) was within acceptable limits, total ash (14.360 ± 0.084%w/w), acid insoluble ash (2.726 ± 0.080%w/w), ethanol-soluble extractive (11.101 ± 0.223%w/w), water-soluble extractive (23.038 ± 0.306%w/w), and water content (7.523 ± 0.524%w/w). TLC fingerprint showed nine spots with Rf value 0.14, 019, 0.23, 0.29, 0.32, 0.45, 0.58, 0.70, and 0.76. Phytochemical screening of Cannabis leaves indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, alkaloids, diterpenes, triterpenes, and steroids. This study provided referential data for the accurate plant identity, and establishment of cannabis leaves monograph in Thailand.

6.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(15)2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956489

RESUMO

Medicinal plants are the product of natural drug discoveries and have gained traction due to their pharmacological activities. Pathogens are everywhere, and they thrive in ideal conditions depending on the nutrients, moisture, temperature, and pH that increase the growth of harmful pathogens on surfaces and textiles. Thus, antimicrobial agents and finishes may be the solution to the destruction of pathogens. This review article presents an analysis of various aspects of producing antimicrobial finishings, the microorganisms, their mechanism of attachment to natural and synthetic fibre, the effect of microbial growth, and the principle and mechanism of the microbial activity of the medicinal plants. Furthermore, the extraction methods, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical evaluations of antimicrobial efficacy, and developments of antimicrobial treated textiles using various agents are covered in this review.

7.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014583

RESUMO

The plant Caralluma edulis is traditionally used against diabetes and inflammatory conditions in Pakistan. This study was designed to provide scientific validation of the traditional use of Caralluma edulis. Phytochemicals were extracted from the plant by different solvents (distilled water, methanol, ethanol, and acetone) using the Soxhlet's extraction method. Bioactive compounds were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The in vitro anti-inflammatory activities (albumin denaturation, membrane stabilization, and proteinase inhibition) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP reducing activity) of different extracts from Caralluma edulis were assessed. The antidiabetic potential of Caralluma edulis plant extracts was determined in acute and subacute diabetic rabbit models. Oxidative stress and enzymatic antioxidant status were also estimated in MDA, CAT, and SOD levels. Results showed that the methanol extract yielded the highest contents of phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity and antioxidant potential of the methanol extract were the highest among the tested solvents. The tested extracts did not show any remarkable antidiabetic activity in the acute diabetic model. However, all tested extracts demonstrated antidiabetic potential in the subacute diabetic model. No adverse effect was observed at the tested dose (200 mg/kg) of Caralluma edulis extracts in experimental animals. It is concluded that methanol is the key solvent for extracting bioactive compounds from Caralluma edulis. The plant can be used against inflammatory disorders and may prove a potential candidate for drug development. Long-term use of Caralluma edulis at the tested dose (200 mg/kg) showed antidiabetic properties in the animal model.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , Diabetes Mellitus , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Metanol , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Coelhos , Solventes/química
8.
Folia Med (Plovdiv) ; 64(1): 84-95, 2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851887

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lagenariasiceraria (Molina) Standley (Cucurbitaceae) is a traditional vegetable plant, popularly known as bottle gourd (English) and lauki (Hindi). It is a climbing herb characterized with a number of therapeutic properties. Traditionally Lagenariasiceraria (LS) fruits were used for their cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, diuretic, and purgative effects, but there is very little scientific data available on its neuroprotective potential.


Assuntos
Frutas , Plantas Medicinais , Clorofórmio , Metanol , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Verduras
9.
AMB Express ; 12(1): 77, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705723

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are the most important cause of death worldwide. Many of these diseases show great resistance to drugs and antibiotics with long-term use. Extracts of some medicinal plants have antimicrobial properties, which can treat and overcome these diseases. Meliaceae is a family of timber trees used extensively in treating many bacterial and fungal diseases, especially Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. In this study, phytochemical screening, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, and antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antitumor activities of the methanolic extract of S. mahagoni (L.) leaves were performed. Phytochemical screening exhibited the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, triterpenoids, glycosides, and tannins. GC/MS analysis exhibited 40 compounds, mainly 7-hexadecene, (Z)-, imidazole-4,5-d2, and 1-acetyl-4,4-bis[4-(3-bromopropoxy)-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl] piperidine. The antibacterial and antifungal potentials of the methanolic extract of S. mahagoni (L.) leaves was investigated using the agar well diffusion technique. Potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Proteus vulgaris and antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans were found. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations ranged from 12.5 to 25 mg/mL. Antioxidant activity was studied using the free radical scavenging assay, and the IC50 value of the leaf extract was 69.9 µg/mL. Cytotoxic activity was screened using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the IC50 value was 44.2 µg/mL. These findings suggested the importance of this plant in treating some bacterial and fungal infections and cancer.

10.
Microsc Res Tech ; 85(9): 3130-3139, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35656891

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess and compare the pharmacognostic and microscopic features of the selected parts of Rhododendron afghanicum Aitch. & Hemsl. It is a perennial and shrub. Anatomy of stem and leaves depicted dicot structure. It will provide knowledge about standardization, authentication, and adulteration with its co-species. The macroscopic examination reveals that fresh leaves are green, pleasant odor with a bitter taste. The leaf is oblong-elliptic in shape and sub-acute at apex; rounded at the base with entire margin. Stem is irregular and the outer surface is light brown, rough with fissures and ridges. Microscopic examination indicated the presence of xylem, phloem, peltate trichome, epidermal cells, collenchymas cells, paracytic stomata, and reticulate vessels. Stem microscopy reveals epidermis, hypodermis, cortex, sclerenchymatous sheath, phloem, xylem, and pith. It will be helpful in identification and quality control. Micro-morphological features were observed through SEM. EDX spectroscopy were carried out and revealed the presence of calcium, silicon, and potassium. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, phenols, protein, flavonoids, glycosides, and alkaloids. Ethyl acetate for leaf and stem demonstrate the highest extractive values (18% and 13%), respectively. XRD peaks appeared at 30.21, 28.73, 205.73, 200.73, 380.07, 390.24, 490.11, and 450.33ο . This will be helpful to identify the ownership of herbal drugs by the diffraction peaks through crystal structures and atomic spacing. These parameters are crucial for drug identification, standardization, authentication, and drug designing. These studies also provided knowledge regarding therapeutic and nutraceutical importance of this plant. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: The current pharmacognostic studies carried out on Rhododendron afghanicum can serve as a basis for compiling keys for finding the taxonomic identification and authentication of the said species by morphological, anatomical, and physicochemical features.


Assuntos
Farmacognosia , Rhododendron , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Farmacognosia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Padrões de Referência
11.
Heliyon ; 8(6): e09739, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35747321

RESUMO

Background: Pandemic COVID-19 is a dangerous disease caused by a new coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). There is non-reliable drug or vaccine available to combat for SARS-CoV-2. More efforts to search for antiviral agents against COVID-19 are obligatory, whereas phytochemicals are potent solution. Thus, this study involved phytochemical screening and examining medicinal plants used to combat COVID-19 in Tanzania. Methods: The plant materials were collected from practitioners. The plant extracts were then subjected for qualitative phytochemical screening so as to identify the nature of secondary metabolites. Results: Eucalyptus species, pepper, berries, ginger, garlic, onions and lemon were identified as commonly plants used. The flavonoids, tannins, fatty acids, steroids, terpenoids, and saponins were identified through phytochemical screening. Identified natural phytocompounds revealed to be potential in exhibiting antiviral activities by disrupting the viral life cycle including viral entrance, replication, assembly, and discharge, as well as virus-specific host targets. Thus, this prompt increasing of pharmaceutical industry focused on phytochemical extracts from medicinal plants, and aromatic herbs in the hopes of discovering lead compounds, with purposeful to antiviral medications. Conclusion: The medicinal plants and phytocompounds revealed to have significant role due to their substantial antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses. The noted natural products inspire collective efforts in determination and gathering funds to support scientific researchers to investigate more phytochemicals from medicinal plants for development of antiviral drug against COVID-19.

12.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566068

RESUMO

The applications of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants as therapeutic drugs are largely increasing. The present study selected the bioactive compounds from Acacia concinna (A. concinna) and Citrus limon (C. limon) to assess their phytochemicals, proteins, and biological activity. The plant material was collected, and extraction performed as per the standard procedure. Qualitative analysis was undertaken, and identification of functional organic groups was performed by FTIR and HPLC. Antibacterial, anticancer, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and inhibition kinetics studies for enzymes were performed to assess the different biological activities. Flavonoids and phenols were present in a significant amount in both the selected plants. A. concinna showed significant antimicrobial activity against Z. mobilis, E. coli, and S. aureus, with minimum inhibition zones (MIZ) of 24, 22, and 20 mm, respectively. C. limon strongly inhibited all the tested pathogenic bacteria with maximum and minimum MIZ of 32 and 17 mm. A. concinna silver nanoparticles also exhibited potent antimicrobial activity. Both extracts showed substantial antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, anticancer (MCF-7), and anti-urease (antiulcer) properties. To conclude, these plants can be used to treat hyperlipidemia, diabetes, cancer, and gastrointestinal ulcers. They can also serve as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. Thus, the studied plants must be exploited cost-effectively to generate therapeutic drugs for various diseases.


Assuntos
Acacia , Anti-Infecciosos , Citrus , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citrus/química , Escherichia coli , Hipolipemiantes , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prata/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
13.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 194(9): 3984-4001, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579741

RESUMO

Fungal endophytes are considered one of the most important reservoirs of bioactive compounds which defeat resistant microbes. In our study, endophytic Alternaria alternata was isolated from Ziziphus spina-christi and identified morphologically and genetically with accession number OM 331,682. Preliminary phytochemical screening of ethyl acetate (EA) crude extract of A. alternata revealed that this extract contains alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, and terpenoids. Moreover, the extract was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) which verified the presence of numerous bioactive compounds. Antimicrobial results illustrated that EA crude extract exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, Proteus vulgaris RCMB 004, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Klebsiella pneumonia RCMB 003), Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis RCMB 015, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 14990), and unicellular fungi (Candida albicans ATCC 90028). Ultrastructure study of treated K. pneumonia showed remarkably elucidated destruction of the cell wall and cell membrane and leakage of cytoplasmic materials. Furthermore, the extract has potential antioxidant activity where IC50 was 409 µg/mL. Moreover, this extract did not show any toxicity on Vero normal cell line. These findings confirmed that the endophytic A. alternata from Z. spina-christi is a promising source of bioactive compounds which can be used in different biological applications.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Ziziphus , Alternaria , Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
14.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2022 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35635100

RESUMO

A new steroid (acylated C21 pregnane steroid) was isolated from chloroform extract in phytochemical screening of Caralluma lasiantha. The isolated compound is found to be 3ß-hydroxy-14ß-(6'- carboxyphenyl)propionyloxypregn-5-en-20-one based on spectroscopic studies (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, COSY, HSQC, HMBC and ESI-MS). The isolated new steroid was tested against four bacterial strains and the activity was related to the structure of the molecule.

15.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(12): 3343-3363, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502486

RESUMO

Since ancient times, plants have been used as green bioresources to ensure a healthier life by recovering from different diseases. Kattosh (Lasia spinosa L. Thwaites) is a local plant with various traditional uses, especially for arthritis, constipation and coughs. This research investigated the effect of Kattosh stem extract (LSES) on streptozotocin-induced damage to the pancreas, kidney, and liver using in vitro, in vivo and in silico methods. In vitro phytochemical, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of LSES were accomplished by established methods followed by antidiabetic actions in in vivo randomized controlled intervention in STZ-induced animal models for four weeks. In an in silico study, LSES phytocompounds interacted with antidiabetic receptors of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR, PDB ID: 3G9E), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, PDB ID: 4CFH) and α-amylase enzyme (PDB ID: 1PPI) to verify the in vivo results. In addition, LSES showed promising in vitro antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. In contrast, it showed a decrease in weekly blood glucose level, normalized lipid profile, ameliorated liver and cardiac markers, managed serum AST and ALT levels, and increased glucose tolerance ability in the animal model study. Restoration of pancreatic and kidney damage was reflected by improving histopathological images. In ligand-receptor interaction, ethyl α-d-glucopyranoside of Kattosh showed the highest affinity for the α-amylase enzyme, PPAR, and AMPK receptors. Results demonstrate that the affinity of Kattosh phytocompounds potentially attenuates pancreatic and kidney lesions and could be approached as an alternative antidiabetic source with further clarification.


Assuntos
PPAR gama , Extratos Vegetais , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Rim/patologia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , alfa-Amilases/farmacologia
16.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014943

RESUMO

Ethnobotanical investigation was carried out using questionnaires among majority of El Kala (Algeria) inhabitants. The investigation found that lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus L.) is widely used in traditional therapy, especially in gastrointestinal and dermatological problems. Bioactive phytochemicals were determined by LC-MS/MS, and 14, 13, and 12 compounds were identified in leaves, stems and seeds, respectively. Flavonoids and phenolic acids were the most abundant compounds. Moreover, total phenols (306.5 mg GAE/g), flavonoids (95.25 mg RE/g), and condensed tannins (170.75 mg CE/g) contents were determined in leaves. Also, essential oil composition was investigated using GC/MS and 27 aroma compounds were identified. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were the most abundant. Besides, antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH, ß-carotene bleaching, and ferrous ions chelating tests; and leaves extracts were more effective (IC50 of 2.75, 3.45, 13.5 µg/ml), than essential oils (IC50 of 10.5, 70.5, 157.25 µg/ml), and standards (trolox, 4.75; BHT, 5.25 µg/ml), respectively.

17.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 194(3): 1271-1289, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661866

RESUMO

Fungal endophytes are living inside plants without any harmful effects; the prospecting about them is increased day by day because they can produce bioactive compounds which can be used in different applications. Herein, the current study was aimed to isolate the endophytic fungi from the Ocimum basilicum plant as safe microorganisms and evaluate their biological activities. The results illustrated that three endophytic fungal strains were isolated and identified morphologically and genetically as Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus flavus and deposited in gene bank under accession numbers MZ045561, MZ045562, and MZ045563 respectively. Moreover, cell-free filtrates of endophytic fungal strains were extracted using ethyl acetate, where these crude extracts exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Candida albicans at a concentration of 1000 µg/mL. Furthermore, these endophytic strains exhibited a potential antioxidant activity where IC50 of the crude extract of A. nidulans, A. fumigatus, and A. flavus were (166.3, 68.4, and 347.1 µg/mL) and (151.2, 77.9, and 246.3 µg/mL) using DPPH and ABTS methods, respectively. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate crude extracts of these endophytic fungi did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect against Vero and Wi 38 normal cells. GC-MS analysis of the crude extract of A. nidulans, A. fumigatus, and A. flavus indicated the presence of 22, 22, and 20 active compounds, respectively. The major compounds in the fungal extracts are belonging to fatty acids, fatty acid esters, tetrahydrofurans, and sterols. In conclusion, the isolated endophytic A. nidulans, A. fumigatus, and A. flavus from Ocimum basilicum are promising sources for bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes
18.
Microsc Res Tech ; 85(2): 510-520, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459067

RESUMO

Buddleja asiatica commonly known as "Booi" is a large deciduous shrub belongs to family Scrophulariaceae, traditionally used as antipyretic, analgesic, hypotensive, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antifungal agent recorded from essential oil obtained from leaves. The literature revealed that the plant has been widely used for many other purposes. The said plant has been analyzed through pharmacognostic techniques such as morphological, microscopic, and physio-chemical evaluations to keep the originality of the plant and to avoid adulteration. Morphologically, the plant is evergreen shrub, while organoleptic studies showed that the leaf has glabrous upper surface and tomentose lower surface, with slightly bitter taste and aromatic odor. Anatomically, the leaf showed typical dicot histological differentiation with hypostomatic nature having highest frequency (90%) of actinocytic stomata. The average stomatal number and stomatal index were 336 ± 39.5 and 30.01 ± 2.34, respectively. The palisade cell ratio, vein termination, and vein islet number were 9.2 ± 0.72, 10.2 ± 3.1, and 10.3 ± 3.3, respectively. Various tissue fragments have been observed during powdered drug analysis of the leaf. Preliminary phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of proteins, phenols, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and glycosides. Fluorescence analysis in ordinary day light and under UV light along with extractive values was also analyzed. The above-mentioned studies that have been reported, for the first time, for the said plant may be significant to establish the pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards of the said species.


Assuntos
Buddleja , Farmacognosia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta
19.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(22): 5778-5782, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961409

RESUMO

Commercial synthetic acaricides have selected resistant populations of Rhipicephalus microplus, and generate residues in the environment or in milk/cattle products. In this study, aqueous extracts (AE) from Melia azedarach (Maz), Allium sativum, Capsicum chinense, Nicotiana tabacum (Nta) and Dysphania ambrosioides were evaluated for the bioactivity against the cattle tick. The treatment using Nta or Maz AE resulted in the lowest egg hatching rate (34.0 ± 11% and 25.0 ± 19%), and in the values of reproduction inhibition ranging from 89.0% to 85.3%. Phytochemical screening associated to RP-HPLC/DAD analysis suggested the presence of alkaloids for Nta and gallic acid derivatives and catechins, for Maz. Such results highlighted that the use of Nta and Maz AE can be a promising source of bioactive compounds for the control of infections caused by the cattle tick.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Amaranthaceae , Amaryllidaceae , Meliaceae , Rhipicephalus , Solanaceae , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Verduras , Larva
20.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(12): 6774-6781, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866976

RESUMO

Blue mold pathogen, isolated from infected Allium cepa L., was identified as a Penicillium species through morphological and molecular characterisation. Internal Transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was utilised for DNA sequencing. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis has found the maximum similarity index of the fungus to be 82.39% with the Uncultured Penicillium clone (Accession: MF535522). So, the isolated Penicillium specie is the first reported specie of the genus that infects onion. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to establish a relationship of the isolated fungus with the most relevant species reported on GenBank. Extracts of Pennisetum flaccidum Griseb. were evaluated against the isolated fungus as a potential biocontrol agent. Among the five tested methanol concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5%) of each plant part (root, inflorescence and foliage), 0.5% root extract showed maximum growth retardation, i.e. 89%. For bioassay-guided fractionation, the root extract was partitioned in n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (1%) was proved to be the most potent one. Phytochemical screening has confirmed the occurrence of terpenoids, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. The applied molecular approach has deduced that the Penicillium specie collected from Pakistan might be novel. This study can be concluded that P. flaccidum contains potent phytochemicals which might be used as antifungal agent against Penicillium species.

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