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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254174, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360213

RESUMO

Abstract Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis is a vine species native to Brazil that is considered an unconventional food plant and a medicinal species whose phenolic compounds exert antioxidant activity. Since the production of metabolites is determined by environmental factors and leaf maturity, it is important to track these changes in order to determine the best time to harvest. This study aimed to verify whether leaf phenology and seasonality cause variations in the amount of phenolic compounds and in the antioxidant activity of this species. The leaves were collected in different seasons between September 2018 and April 2019, and separated according to maturity: young, mature, and senescent. Daily atmospheric temperature and rainfall data were used to characterize the collection period. The total phenolic content (TPC), determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was significantly higher in the young leaves collected in winter, a season of lower temperatures. These leaves showed 54.4 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry matter (mg GAE 100 g-1DM). Other results averaged 25.6 mg GAE 100 g-1DM. The highest antioxidant activity, assessed via the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, regardless of leaf phenology, was observed in leaves harvested in autumn (73.7%) and winter (71.1%), seasons with lower rainfall. Leaves harvested in summer and spring had lower antioxidant action rates (54.3 e 37.5%, respectively). There was no significant correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Thus, the phenolic composition of A. cordifolia, and consequently its activity on free radicals, varies seasonally in response to temperature and rainfall, and may or may not interact with the age of the leaves.


Resumo Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis é uma trepadeira nativa do Brasil considerada uma planta alimentícia não convencional e uma espécie medicinal, cujos compostos fenólicos exercem ação antioxidante. Como a produção de metabólitos é determinada por fatores ambientais e pela maturidade das folhas, é importante acompanhar essas mudanças a fim de determinar a época de colheita. Neste estudo objetivou-se verificar se a fenologia foliar e a sazonalidade ocasionam variação na quantidade de compostos fenólicos e na ação antioxidante dessa espécie. As folhas foram coletadas em diferentes estações, entre setembro de 2018 e abril de 2019, e separadas conforme a maturidade: jovens, maduras e senescentes. Os dados diários de temperatura atmosférica e pluviosidade foram usados para caracterizar o período de coleta. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais (TPC), determinado pelo método Folin-Ciocalteu, foi significativamente maior nas folhas jovens coletadas no inverno, período caracterizado por temperaturas mais baixas. Estas folhas apresentaram 54,4 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico por 100 g de matéria seca (mg GAE 100 g-1DM) . A média dos outros resultados foi de 25,6 mg GAE 100 g-1DM. A maior ação antioxidante, avaliada pelo método do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), foi observada em folhas colhidas no outono (73,7%) e inverno (71,1%), independentemente da fenologia foliar. Nestes períodos a pluviosidade foi menor. Folhas colhidas no verão e na primavera apresentaram menores percentuais de ação antioxidante (54,3 e 37,5%, respectivamente). Não houve correlação significativa entre o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante. Conclui-se que a composição fenólica de A. cordifolia e, consequentemente, sua ação sobre radicais livres, varia sazonalmente em resposta à temperatura e pluviosidade, podendo ou não interagir com a idade das folhas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249230, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345556

RESUMO

Abstract The presence of weeds in areas of agricultural activities is a hinderance to the development of these activities. It is important to take advantage of the vast open spaces suitable for agriculture and provide food security for humans, and also it is an important indicator for determining the feasibility of growing crops, benefiting from yield and determining the percentage of loss, clearing fields through agricultural practices, that protect crops from weed attack and agricultural practice method must be followed that will reduce weed presence. This study was conducted during the years 2018 to 2020 to evaluate Portulacaceae of Flora in the Taif area in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia at different altitudes (Area 1 =1700 m, Area 2 =1500 m, Area 3 =1500 m, Area 4 =500 m ِ Area 5 = 2200 m, and Area 6 = 2200 m). The results show that there were 2,816 individuals of Portulaca oleracea weed, with the highest density found in A 1, followed by A 2, while in A 5 and A 6, no weeds were recorded. The highest density of weeds were in the Pomegranate fields, followed by Grape fields. The lowest density was found in A man field. The results of this study will help to take the necessary measures to combat weeds and its management in areas of agricultural activity, while more studies are needed to survey the ecology of weeds of Taif in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Resumo A presença de plantas daninhas em áreas de atividades agrícolas é um entrave ao desenvolvimento dessas atividades. É importante aproveitar os vastos espaços abertos adequados para a agricultura e dar segurança alimentar para o homem. Também é um indicador importante para determinar a viabilidade de cultivo de lavouras, beneficiando-se da produtividade e determinando o percentual de perda, desmatando campos agrícolas, práticas que protegem as lavouras do ataque de ervas daninhas, e métodos de práticas agrícolas devem ser seguidos para reduzir a presença de ervas daninhas. Este estudo foi realizado durante os anos de 2018 a 2020 para avaliar Portulacaceae de flora na área de Taif, no Reino da Arábia Saudita, em diferentes altitudes (Área 1 = 1.700 m, Área 2 = 1.500 m, Área 3 = 1.500 m, Área 4 = 500 m, Área 5 = 2.200 m, e Área 6 = 2.200 m). Os resultados mostram que houve 2.816 indivíduos de planta daninha Portulaca oleracea, com a maior densidade encontrada em A 1, seguida de A 2, enquanto em A 5 e A 6, nas plantas daninhas foram registrados. A maior densidade de ervas daninhas estava nos campos de romã, seguido pelos campos de uva. A densidade mais baixa foi encontrada no campo A man. Os resultados deste estudo ajudarão a tomar as medidas necessárias para combater as ervas daninhas e seu manejo em áreas de atividade agrícola, enquanto mais estudos são necessários para levantar a ecologia das ervas daninhas de Taif na Arábia Saudita.


Assuntos
Humanos , Portulacaceae , Arábia Saudita , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura , Plantas Daninhas
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246803, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339417

RESUMO

Abstract Traditional medicine is cheaper and easily available to local people, to care for most frequent diseases in the Northern parts of Pakistan. Our study aimed at inventorying medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 during spring, summer, and winter seasons. A total of 15 trips were made, 5 in each season. Semi-structured interviews with 165 inhabitant's age range between 20-80 years were conducted, analyzed the data is analyzed using Relative frequency of citation(RFC), Use Value(UV), Fidelity Level(FL), Informants consensus factor(ICF), and Jaccard index(JI) to find the most frequent and well-known used species in the area. A total of 86 species belonging to 39 vascular plant families, 33 genera were documented as medicinally important. Family Asteraceae was observed as the dominant family among all the families with 10 species, the leaf was the most used parts and decoction 36% was the most preferred preparation type. Herb was the predominant life form (67%). The maximum UV (0.92) was demonstrated by J. adhatoda L. species, while A. sativum L. shows maximum RFC (0.58), the highest ICF value represented by diarrhea and dermatitis 0.92, and high FL value is recorded 100%. According to our collections, wild species were 45%, invasive species were 38% and cultivated 17% recorded, dicots species were recorded more 81%. Seven 7 medicinal species is being economically important and export to the local and international market of the world, whereas P. integrima L. species were the most exported species according to the local dealers. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs, and other uses like a vegetable, fuelwood, fodder, etc. The current result of RFC, UV, ICF, FL, and JI shows that medicinal flora needs to be pharmacologically and phytochemically investigated to prove their efficacy. The documentation of medicinal knowledge is important to preserve this precious old knowledge before it is lost forever, due to technological and environmental changes in the world.


Resumo A medicina tradicional é mais barata e facilmente disponível à população local para cuidar das doenças mais frequentes nas áreas do norte do Paquistão. Nosso estudo teve como objetivo inventariar medicamentos de plantas locais, documentar seus usos e avaliar seu valor de mercado em 2015-2018 durante as temporadas de primavera, verão e inverno. Foram feitas 15 viagens, 5 em cada temporada. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 165 moradores na faixa etária de 20 a 80 anos, com dados analisados ​​por meio de frequência relativa de citação (RFC), valor de uso (UV), nível de fidelidade (FL), fator de consenso de informantes (CIF), e o índice de Jaccard (JI) para encontrar as espécies utilizadas mais frequentes e conhecidas na área. Um total de 86 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de plantas vasculares, 33 gêneros foram documentados como medicamente importantes. A família Asteraceae foi observada como a família dominante entre todas as famílias com 10 espécies, a folha foi a parte mais utilizada e a decocção 36% foi o tipo de preparação mais preferido. A erva foi a forma de vida predominante (67%). O UV máximo (0,92) foi demonstrado pelas espécies de J. adhatoda L., enquanto A. sativum L. mostra RFC máximo (0,58), o maior valor de ICF representado por diarreia e dermatite 0,92, e alto valor de FL é registrado 100%. De acordo com nossas coleções, as espécies selvagens foram 45%, as espécies invasoras 38% e as cultivadas 17% registradas, as espécies dicotiledôneas foram registradas mais 81%. Sete espécies medicinais estão sendo economicamente importantes e exportadas para o mercado local e internacional do mundo, enquanto as espécies de P. integrima L. foram as espécies mais exportadas de acordo com os comerciantes locais. A área investigada é rural e a população local depende das plantas da área para suas necessidades de saúde e outros usos como vegetal, lenha, forragem etc. O resultado atual de RFC, UV, ICF, FL e JI mostra que a flora medicinal precisa ser investigada farmacológica e fitoquimicamente para comprovar sua eficácia. A documentação do conhecimento medicinal é importante para preservar esse precioso conhecimento antigo antes que se perca para sempre, devido às mudanças tecnológicas e ambientais do mundo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Plantas Medicinais , Paquistão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Folhas de Planta , Etnobotânica , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244479, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285635

RESUMO

Abstract The objective of the present study was to analyse the bioactive compounds of the leaves of Conocarpus lancifolius (C. lancifolius). The GC-MS analysis of the hot methanolic extract of the leaves (HMEL) of C. lancifolius exhibited the bioactive compounds such as 1-(3-Methoxy-2-nitrobenzyl) iso quinoline, morphin-4-ol-6,7-dione, 1-bromo-N-methyl-, phytol, hexadecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, 2,2':4',2"-terthiophene, ethyl iso-allocholate, caryophyllene oxide, campesterol, epiglobulol, cholestan-3-ol, 2-methylene-, (3á,5à)-, dasycarpidan-1-methanol, acetate (ester) and oleic acid, eicosyl ester. The FT-IR analysis of HMEL of C. lancifolius showed a unique peak at 3184, 2413, 1657 cm-1 representing coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid. The HMEL of C. lancifolius was actively inhibiting the proliferation of breast cancer cells MCF-7 ATCC at the concentration of 72.66 ± 8.21 µg/ml as IC50 value. The HMEL of C. lancifolius also revealed a good spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cultures screened in this work. The activity observed has shown more or less similar effects against screened bacteria. However, the magnitude of potentiality was significantly lesser compared to standard ciprofloxacin disc at p< 0.001 level (99% confidence intervals). Furthermore, the study demonstrating the bioactive compounds can be isolated from the leaves of C. lancifolius.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os compostos bioativos das folhas de Conocarpus lancifolius (C. lancifolius). A análise por GC-MS do extrato metanólico quente das folhas (HMEL) de C. lancifolius exibiu os compostos bioativos como 1- (3-Metoxi-2-nitrobenzil) isoquinolina, morfina-4-ol-6,7- diona, 1-bromo-N-metil-, fitol, ácido hexadecanoico, 2,3-di-hidroxipropil éster, 2,2 ': 4', 2 " - tertiofeno, isoalocolato de etil, óxido de cariofileno, campesterol, epiglobulol, colestano -3-ol, 2-metileno-, (3á, 5à) -, dasycarpidan-1-metanol, acetato (éster) e ácido oleico, éster eicosílico. A análise FT-IR de HMEL de C. lancifolius mostrou um pico único em 3184, 2413, 1657 cm-1 representando ácido cumarico, ácido clorogênico e ácido ferúlico. O HMEL de C. lancifolius inibiu ativamente a proliferação de células de câncer de mama MCF-7 ATCC na concentração de 72,66 ± 8,21 µg / ml como valor de IC50. O HMEL de C. lancifolius também revelou bom espectro de atividade contra culturas de bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas rastreadas neste trabalho. A atividade observada mostrou efeitos mais ou menos semelhantes contra bactérias rastreadas. No entanto, a magnitude da potencialidade foi significativamente menor em comparação com o disco de ciprofloxacina padrão em nível de p < 0,001 (intervalos de confiança de 99%). Além disso, o estudo demonstrando os compostos bioativos pode ser isolado das folhas de C. lancifolius.


Assuntos
Árvores , Folhas de Planta , Arábia Saudita , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 4): 156544, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679932

RESUMO

This study aims to discuss the following: (1) occurrence and proliferation of antibiotic resistance in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs); (2) factors influencing antibiotic resistance bacteria and genes in WWTPs; (3) tools to assess antibiotic resistance in WWTPs; (4) environmental contamination of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from WWTPs; (5) effects of ARB and ARGs from WWTPs on human health; and (6) treatment strategies. In general, resistant and multi-resistant bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, exist in various processes of WWTPs. The existence of ARB and ARGs results from the high concentration of antibiotics in wastewater, which promote selective pressures on the local bacteria present in WWTPs. Thus, improving wastewater treatment technology and avoiding the misuse of antibiotics is critical to overcoming the threat of proliferation of ARBs and ARGs. Numerous factors can affect the development of ARB and ARGs in WWTPs. Abiotic factors can affect the bacterial community dynamics, thereby, affecting the applicability of ARB during the wastewater treatment process. Furthermore, the organic loads and other nutrients influence bacterial survival and growth. Specifically, molecular methods for the rapid characterization and detection of ARBs or their genes comprise DNA sequencing, real-time PCR, simple and multiplex PCR, and hybridization-based technologies, including micro- and macro-arrays. The reuse of effluent from WWTPs for irrigation is an efficient method to overcome water scarcity. However, there are also some potential environmental risks associated with this practice, such as increase in the levels of antibiotic resistance in the soil microbiome. Human mortality rates may significantly increase, as ARB can lead to resistance among several types of antibiotics or longer treatment times. Some treatment technologies, such as anaerobic and aerobic treatment, coagulation, membrane bioreactors, and disinfection processes, are considered potential techniques to restrict antibiotic resistance in the environment.

6.
Plant Dis ; 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749668

RESUMO

Eucalyptus is one of the most fast-growing and widely planted hardwood trees in the tropical and subtropical regions (Grattapaglia and Kirst, 2008). In December 2021, powdery mildew diseases were observed on the Eucalyptus urophylla, E. urophylla × E. grandis, E. grandis × E. urophylla, and E. grandis trees growing in the Eucalyptus garden of the Guangxi University campus in Nanning (108°22'E, 22°48'N) of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, where is the main plantation area for Eucalyptus. The spread of this disease would bring potential challenges on the Eucalyptus plantation management in this region of China. The early symptoms of this disease in Eucalyptus were that the irregular white spots with surface-attached powder was observed on the leaves. At the late stages, this symptom was diffused to the whole leaves and even petioles and stems. It would finally cause significant defoliation, but barely lead to plant death in Eucalyptus. Microscopic observation showed that the mycelium was straight or flexuous, hyaline, thin-walled, septate, branched, and 3-7 µm wide (n = 50; average 4.86 µm). The appressorium was lobed and attached to one end of the mycelium alone, or paired attached to both ends of the mycelium. The conidiophore was straight or flexuous, unbranched, 54-100 × 6-10 µm (n = 40; average 75.47 µm × 8.22 µm). One to 3 conidium were connate on the conidiophores. Foot-cells were straight or flexuous at base, 5-8 µm wide (n = 40; average 6.53 µm). The conidium were ellipsoid or oval, and the size was 38-56 × 12-21 µm (n = 70; average 44.92 µm × 15.69 µm). The lobed or rod-shaped bud tube was produced at the conidium. According to the morphology, the fungus was identified as Erysiphe neolycopersici (Hsiao, et al. 2022). For the molecular characterization of the isolate, the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the 18S and 28S large subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU and LSU) (Scholin et al. 1994 , White et al. 1990), were sequenced and deposited in GenBank (OM422667, OM424285 and ON514159). The phylogenetic analysis showed that the ITS sequence showed 100% identity with sequences of E. neolycopersici (MW082786, MT370492, and JQ972700). The 28S rDNA sequence had the highest identity (99.69%) with that of E. neolycopersici (LC371327, LC371320, and OM368490). The SSU sequence had the highest identity (99.72%) with that of E. neolycopersici (LC516961). The pathogenicity test of the fungus was repeated thrice following the Koch's postulates. The diseased leaves were gently rubbed against 3 to 4 healthy mature leaves of more than five E. grandis seedlings (two-month-old). The inoculated and control plants were then cultured in the greenhouse (25 ℃, 16-h light/8-h dark and 70% humidity). Similar disease symptoms were observed on the inoculated leaves, but not on the control leaves seven days after inoculation. The isolates from three independent experiments were morphologically and genetically identical with the original isolate. As far as we know, this study is the first report of powdery mildew disease in Eucalyptus caused by E. neolycopersici in China.

7.
Environ Res ; : 113741, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750126

RESUMO

The generic of antibiotics is considered to be a main reason for the generation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, little has been reported about the antibiotic biosynthesis by activated sludge. In this study, the distribution and expression of antibiotic biosynthetic genes (ABGs) in the floc sludge and biofilm from two WWTPs were deciphered using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics. The results showed that 2% of the community were in general well-linked to antibiotic production based on 16S rRNA analysis, indicating a non-negligible antibiotic synthetic ability of WWTPs. 93 ABGs belonging to 26 antibiotics were determined, among which aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, ansamycins, peptides, macrolides were majority. The relative abundances of detected ABGs had a large interval, ranging from 0.000006% to 0.042%. The predominant antibiotic types of synthetic genes with higher relative expression levels were monobactams, penicillin & cephalosporins, streptomycin and vancomycin, primarily belonging to ß-lactams and aminoglycosides. The hypothetical synthetic pathways of streptomycin synthesis and penicillin & cephalosporin synthesis were proposed. And the coexistence of ABGs and ARGs for these two antibiotics was also pronounced in activated sludge from meta-omics data. These findings for the first time demonstrated the antibiotic synthetic potential in activated sludges, revealing new sources of antibiotics and resistance genes in WWTPs, and thereby aggravating environmental pollution.

8.
Bioessays ; : e2200032, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750651

RESUMO

Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) system has revolutionized genetic research in the life sciences. Four classes of CRISPR/Cas-derived genome editing agents, such as nuclease, base editor, recombinase, and prime editor have been introduced for engineering the genomes of diverse organisms. The recently introduced prime editing system offers precise editing without many off-target effects than traditional CRISPR-based systems. Many researchers have successfully applied this gene-editing toolbox in diverse systems for various genome-editing applications. This review presents the mechanism of prime editing and summarizes the details of the prime editing system applied in plants and mammalian cells for precise genome editing. We also discuss the advantages, limitations, and potential future applications of prime editing in these systems. This review enables the researcher to gain knowledge on prime editing tools and their potential applications in plants and mammalian cells.

9.
Biotechnol Lett ; 2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751787

RESUMO

Melatonin is a natural indolamine that regulates many physiological functions in plants. The most prominent role of melatonin in plants has been its ability to work as an anti-stressor agent. Exogenous melatonin can prevent cell death and promote cell proliferation through its antioxidant properties, enhancement of polyamine biosynthesis, and the ability to shift cell metabolism in case of stressors like sugar starvation. Melatonin scavenges reactive oxygen species and thus preventing damage to cell membranes and other organelles. Its application in different plant culture systems reveals its important physiological and biochemical roles during the growth and development of these cultures. It has been observed that the exogenous melatonin protects callus culture, reduces cold-induced apoptosis in cell suspension, and stimulates adventitious and lateral roots formation. This review presents the physiological and biochemical effects of exogenous melatonin on in vitro culture systems, including its impact on biomass accumulation, growth, and development of plants.

10.
Mol Biotechnol ; 2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751797

RESUMO

Demand of flowers is increasing with time worldwide. Floriculture has become one of the most important commercial trades in agriculture. Although traditional breeding methods like hybridization and mutation breeding have contributed significantly to the development of important flower varieties, flower production and quality of flowers can be significantly improved by employing modern breeding approaches. Novel traits of significance have interest to consumers and producers, such as fragrance, new floral color, change in floral architecture and morphology, vase life, aroma, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, have been introduced by genetic manipulation. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system has recently emerged as a powerful genome-editing tool for accurately changing DNA sequences at specific locations. It provides excellent means of genetically improving floricultural crops. CRISPR/Cas system has been utilized in gene editing in horticultural cops. There are few reports on the utilization of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in flowers. The current review summarizes the research work done by employing the CRISPR/Cas9 system in floricultural crops including improvement in flowering traits such as color modification, prolonging the shelf life of flowers, flower initiation, and development, changes in color of ornamental foliage by genome editing. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing could be useful in developing novel cultivars with higher fragrance and enhanced essential oil and many other useful traits. The present review also highlights the basic mechanism and key components involved in the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 3): 156427, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660594

RESUMO

Antibiotics are currently a major source of concern around the world due to the serious risks posed to human health and the environment. The performance of the secondary wastewater treatment processes/technologies (representing grey process) and constructed wetlands (CWs) (typical green process) in removing antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) was reviewed. The result showed that the grey process mainly removes antibiotics, but does not significantly remove ARG, and some processes may even cause ARG enrichment. The overall treatment in CWs is better than WWTPs, especially for ARG. Vertical subsurface flow CWs (VFCWs) are more conductive to antibiotics removal, while horizontal subsurface flow CWs (HFCWs) have a better ARG removal. More importantly, this review admits and suggests that the combination of grey process with green process is an effective strategy to remove antibiotics and ARG. The most advantage of the combination lies in realizing complementary advantages, i.e. the grey process as the primary treatment while CWs as the polishing stage. The efficiency of such the hybrid system is much higher than either single treatment process.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Antibacterianos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas
12.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115391, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660827

RESUMO

Invasive plants such as spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) are particularly detrimental to fragile ecosystems like semi-arid grasslands in the interior British Columbia, impacting aboveground and belowground ecology. Physical removal of C. stoebe has been one of the most popular invasive species management strategies, but the impact of C. stoebe removal on soil has hardly been studied. Here, we examine the legacy effect of C. stoebe on soil elemental composition and ecosystem function following its removal in the Lac Du Bios Grasslands Protected Area, British Columbia. First, we selected 40 paired C. stoebe invaded and control (uninvaded) plots and removed all vegetation from these plots. We planted Festuca campestris seedlings in these plots and harvested and weighed the biomass after four months. Additionally, we quantified total carbon and nitrogen in soil. We observed that C. stoebe invaded plots had significantly lower F. campestris biomass. Moreover, the total carbon and nitrogen content, and carbon/nitrogen ratio were significantly lower in C. stoebe invaded plots. We further analyzed 12 common soil elements and found the elemental composition was significantly different in C. stoebe invaded plots compared to controls. We investigated the impact of elemental composition on soil ecosystem functions (such as total soil carbon, total soil nitrogen, and F. campestris productivity). Our analysis revealed significant relationships amongst the elemental composition and total soil carbon and nitrogen, and F. campestris productivity. The results indicate that C. stoebe exerts a legacy effect by altering the soil elemental composition that may subsequently impacts soil ecosystem functions such as plant productivity and total carbon and nitrogen content.


Assuntos
Centaurea , Carbono , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Nitrogênio , Solo
13.
Development ; 149(12)2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660859

RESUMO

A complete picture of how signaling pathways lead to multicellularity is largely unknown. Previously, we generated mutations in a protein prenylation enzyme, GGB, and showed that it is essential for maintaining multicellularity in the moss Physcomitrium patens. Here, we show that ROP GTPases act as downstream factors that are prenylated by GGB and themselves play an important role in the multicellularity of P. patens. We also show that the loss of multicellularity caused by the suppression of GGB or ROP GTPases is due to uncoordinated cell expansion, defects in cell wall integrity and the disturbance of the directional control of cell plate orientation. Expressing prenylatable ROP in the ggb mutant not only rescues multicellularity in protonemata but also results in development of gametophores. Although the prenylation of ROP is important for multicellularity, a higher threshold of active ROP is required for gametophore development. Thus, our results suggest that ROP activation via prenylation by GGB is a key process at both cell and tissue levels, facilitating the developmental transition from one dimension to two dimensions and to three dimensions in P. patens.


Assuntos
Bryopsida , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases , Bryopsida/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Prenilação , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Am J Bot ; 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686633

RESUMO

PREMISE: Pollination in many aquatic plants takes place on the water surface, and the male flowers or stamens often produce gas bubbles underwater; however, the generation mechanism and function of these bubbles are unknown. METHODS: A common submerged plant, Hydrilla verticillata, was used as experimental material to observe the structure of male flowers, analyze the process of bubble generation, and simulate the movement process of the male flower with attached gas bubble in water. RESULTS: The aerenchyma inside the male plants of H. verticillata transported the gas produced by the plant's branches during photosynthesis to the male flower, and the formed gas bubbles became attached to the edge of the perianth. The gas accumulation rate in the attached bubbles increased with light intensity. Once the bubble diameter increased to approximately 3.3 mm, the male flowers with the bubble detached from the plant and floated to the water surface. The removal of the attached bubbles did not affect the male flower detached from the plant; however, the surfacing of male flowers without gas bubbles was easily prevented by the plant's branches in the water, and they could not reach the water surface to complete pollen dispersal. CONCLUSIONS: The gas bubbles produced by male flowers of H. verticillata came from the gas produced by branches under light. These bubbles can help ascending male flowers bypass the obstacles in water and reach the surface to complete pollination.

15.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(6)2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739989

RESUMO

Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench (H. stoechas) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in the Iberian Peninsula to treat different disorders such as arterial hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the vascular effects of a polyphenolic methanolic extract of H. stoechas, which has high antioxidant activity, and its mechanism of action. Isometric myography studies were performed in an organ bath with rat aortic rings with intact endothelium. The H. stoechas extract produced vasorelaxation in the aortic rings that were precontracted by phenylephrine or KCl. L-NAME and Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS but not indomethacin or H-89; it also reduced the relaxant response evoked by H. stoechas extract on the phenylephrine-induced contractions. H. stoechas extract reduced the response to CaCl2 similar to verapamil and reduced the phenylephrine-induced contractions comparable with heparin. TRAM-34, apamin and glibenclamide reduced relaxation induced by the H. stoechas extract. The combination of L-NAME+TRAM-34+apamin almost completely inhibited the H.&nbsp;stoechas-induced effect. In conclusion, the relaxant effect of the H. stoechas extract is partially mediated by endothelium through the activation of the NO/PKG/cGMP pathway and the opening of Ca2+-activated K+ channels. Furthermore, the decrease in the cytosolic Ca2+ by the inhibition of Ca2+ influx through the L-type Ca2+ channels and by the reduction of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum via the IP3 pathway is also involved.

16.
Fac Rev ; 11: 12, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719129

RESUMO

Development is coordinated by dozens of signals that act in overlapping pathways to orchestrate multicellular growth. Understanding how signaling pathways intersect and diverge at a molecular level is critical to predicting how organisms will react to dynamic environmental conditions. In plants, two antagonistic signaling hubs are strictly required to sense and respond to many nutrients and hormones: TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN (TOR) and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 2 (EIN2). In this Landmark report, Fu et al. discover that TOR and EIN2 directly interact to choreograph growth and define an unexpected molecular mechanism at the intersection of hormonal and metabolic signaling networks1.

17.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 883800, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720589

RESUMO

Global climate change has resulted in an increase in intensity and frequency of flooding, plants living in lowlands, and shore areas have to confront submergence caused by flooding, submergence-tolerant plants usually respond by adopting either escape or quiescence strategies. While certain plants exhibit a changeover from escape strategy upon partial submergence to quiescence strategy under complete shallow submergence, it remains unknown whether plants completely submerged at different water depths would adjust their strategies to cope with the change in submergence depth. Alternanthera philoxeroides is an ideal species to explore this adjustment as it is widely distributed in flood-disturbed habitats and exhibits an escape strategy when completely submerged in shallow waters. We investigated the responses of A. philoxeroides in terms of morphology, anatomy, and non-structural carbohydrate metabolism by conducting experiments using a series of submergence depths (0, 2, 5, and 9 m). During the submergence treatment, environmental factors such as light, dissolved oxygen, and temperature for submerged plants were kept constant. The results showed that A. philoxeroides plants submerged at depth of 2 m presented an escape strategy via fast stem elongation, extensive pith cavity development, and small biomass loss. However, the retarded stem elongation, reduced pith cavity transverse area, and increased biomass loss along the water depth gradient indicated that A. philoxeroides altered its growth response as water depth increased from 2 to 9 m. It is found that the changeover of response strategies occurred at higher submergence depths (5-9 m). Based on the results of our experiments, we demonstrated that water depth played an important role in driving the change in strategy. The water-depth-dependent growth performance of A. philoxeroides would benefit the species in habit exploration and exploitation. Further studies should focus on the performances of plants when submerged at varied water depths with different light climates and dissolved oxygen content, and how water depths drive the response behaviors of the submerged plants.

18.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(7): 103330, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35721231

RESUMO

Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a common and devastating complication in diabetic patients and is associated with an elevated risk of amputation and mortality. DFU remains a major therapeutic challenge due to poor understanding of its underlying pathogenesis. This complication is characterized by impaired wound healing; however, mechanisms causing this impairment are complicated and involve interactions between many different cell types and infections. In addition to other conventional DFU treatments, herbal foot baths are also common, although little is known about their mechanisms of action, and they contain a wide variety of herbal ingredients. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of three polyherbal formulations consisting of medicinal plants used in traditional Thai herbal foot baths on wound healing, anti-inflammation, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix modulation using high-concentration glucose-treated human keratinocytes, in addition to antibacterial evaluation. Our results showed that formulation 3 (F3) possessed the greatest potential to restore the impairment of keratinocytes caused by high glucose concentrations. We found that F3 could inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, accelerate wound healing, and upregulate the expression of TIMP-1, VEGF, and TGF-ß, and downregulate the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and MMP-9. Collectively, these data support the potential of F3 for therapeutic development in the treatment of DFU.

19.
Evol Bioinform Online ; 18: 11769343221106795, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35721582

RESUMO

B12D family proteins are transmembrane proteins that contain the B12D domain involved in membrane trafficking. Plants comprise several members of the B12D family, but these members' numbers and specific functions are not determined. This study aims to identify and characterize the members of B12D protein family in plants. Phytozome database was retrieved for B12D proteins from 14 species. The total 66 B12D proteins were analyzed in silico for gene structure, motifs, gene expression, duplication events, and phylogenetics. In general, B12D proteins are between 86 and 98 aa in length, have 2 or 3 exons, and comprise a single transmembrane helix. Motif prediction and multiple sequence alignment show strong conservation among B12D proteins of 11 flowering plants species. Despite that, the phylogenetic tree revealed a distinct cluster of 16 B12D proteins that have high conservation across flowering plants. Motif prediction revealed 41 aa motif conserved in 58 of the analyzed B12D proteins similar to the bZIP motif, confirming that in the predicted biological process and molecular function, B12D proteins are DNA-binding proteins. Cis-regulatory elements screening in putative B12D promoters found various responsive elements for light, abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate, cytokinin, drought, and heat. Despite that, there is specific elements for cold stress, cell cycle, circadian, auxin, salicylic acid, and gibberellic acid in the promoter of a few B12D genes indicating for functional diversification for B12D family members. The digital expression shows that B12D genes of Glycine max have similar expression patterns consistent with their clustering in the phylogenetic tree. However, the expression of B12D genes of Hordeum vulgure appears inconsistent with their clustering in the tree. Despite the strong conservation of the B12D proteins of Viridiplantae, gene association analysis, promoter analysis, and digital expression indicate different roles for the members of the B12D family during plant developmental stages.

20.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2201362, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642470

RESUMO

Fast snapping in the carnivorous Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) involves trap lobe bending and abrupt curvature inversion (snap-buckling), but how do these traps reopen? Here, the trap reopening mechanics in two different D. muscipula clones, producing normal-sized (N traps, max. ≈3 cm in length) and large traps (L traps, max. ≈4.5 cm in length) are investigated. Time-lapse experiments reveal that both N and L traps can reopen by smooth and continuous outward lobe bending, but only L traps can undergo smooth bending followed by a much faster snap-through of the lobes. Additionally, L traps can reopen asynchronously, with one of the lobes moving before the other. This study challenges the current consensus on trap reopening, which describes it as a slow, smooth process driven by hydraulics and cell growth and/or expansion. Based on the results gained via three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC), morphological and mechanical investigations, the differences in trap reopening are proposed to stem from a combination of size and slenderness of individual traps. This study elucidates trap reopening processes in the (in)famous Dionaea snap traps - unique shape-shifting structures of great interest for plant biomechanics, functional morphology, and applications in biomimetics, i.e., soft robotics.

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