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1.
Theor Popul Biol ; 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38992630

RESUMO

In this paper we study invasion probabilities and invasion times of cooperative parasites spreading in spatially structured host populations. The spatial structure of the host population is given by a random geometric graph on [0,1]n, n∈N, with a Poisson(N)-distributed number of vertices and in which vertices are connected over an edge when they have a distance of at most rN with rN of order N(ß-1)/n for some 0<ß<1. At a host infection many parasites are generated and parasites move along edges to neighbouring hosts. We assume that parasites have to cooperate to infect hosts, in the sense that at least two parasites need to attack a host simultaneously. We find lower and upper bounds on the invasion probability of the parasites in terms of survival probabilities of branching processes with cooperation. Furthermore, we characterize the asymptotic invasion time. An important ingredient of the proofs is a comparison with infection dynamics of cooperative parasites in host populations structured according to a complete graph, i.e. in well-mixed host populations. For these infection processes we can show that invasion probabilities are asymptotically equal to survival probabilities of branching processes with cooperation. Furthermore, we build on proof techniques developed in Brouard and Pokalyuk (2022), where an analogous invasion process has been studied for host populations structured according to a configuration model. We substantiate our results with simulations.

2.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 2024 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38995469

RESUMO

This study explores sustainable agricultural practices by examining the role of organic materials in enhancing native predatory mites for controlling spider mites in apple orchards. Developing techniques to conserve indigenous natural enemies is vital for sustainable agricultural production. Phytoseiid mites can control spider mites, which are among the most significant pests in apple production. To conserve phytoseiid mite populations, it is important to identify alternative prey and to determine their role in phytoseiid mite proliferation. We demonstrated that the concurrent use of specific organic fertilizers and coconut husks can increase prey Tyrophagus mites, thereby enhancing phytoseiid mite density. Our research was conducted using sticky traps at the Miyagi Prefectural Agriculture and Horticulture Research Center in Japan. The occurrence of Tyrophagus mites was significantly correlated with the occurrence of phytoseiid mites in 2 years. In laboratory experiments, the use of organic fertilizers increased the density of Tyrophagus mites by 83 × within 4 weeks. Several species of phytoseiid mites were able to lay between 0.25 and 1.03 eggs per day per female by preying on Tyrophagus larvae. A 2-year field survey revealed that the use of organic fertilizers more than doubled the density of phytoseiid mites on apple leaves, likely through promoting Tyrophagus mite proliferation on the ground. These results highlight the potential of organic fertilizers not only to enhance soil nutrients, but also to boost phytoseiid mite populations, thereby contributing to more sustainable apple production.

3.
J Math Biol ; 89(2): 24, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955850

RESUMO

The assembly and persistence of ecological communities can be understood as the result of the interaction and migration of species. Here we study a single community subject to migration from a species pool in which inter-specific interactions are organised according to a bipartite network. Considering the dynamics of species abundances to be governed by generalised Lotka-Volterra equations, we extend work on unipartite networks to we derive exact results for the phase diagram of this model. Focusing on antagonistic interactions, we describe factors that influence the persistence of the two guilds, locate transitions to multiple-attractor and unbounded phases, as well as identifying a region of parameter space in which consumers are essentially absent in the local community.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Conceitos Matemáticos , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar
4.
BMJ Open ; 14(7): e079760, 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38991678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the midst of the pandemic, face-to-face data collection for national censuses and surveys was suspended due to limitations on mobility and social distancing, limiting the collection of already scarce disability data. Responses to these constraints were met with a surge of high-frequency phone surveys (HFPSs) that aimed to provide timely data for understanding the socioeconomic impacts of and responses to the pandemic. This paper provides an assessment of HFPS datasets and their inclusion of disability questions to evaluate the visibility of persons with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: We collected HFPS questionnaires conducted globally from the onset of the pandemic emergency in March 2020 until December 2022 from various online survey repositories. Each HFPS questionnaire was searched using a set of keywords for inclusion of different types of disability questions. Results were recorded in an Excel review log, which was manually reviewed by two researchers. METHODS: The review of HFPS datasets involved two stages: (1) a main review of 294 HFPS dataset-waves and (2) a semiautomated review of the same dataset-waves using a search engine-powered questionnaire review tool developed by our team. The results from the main review were compared with those of a sensitivity analysis using and testing the tool as an alternative to manual search. RESULTS: Roughly half of HFPS datasets reviewed and 60% of the countries included in this study had some type of question on disability. While disability questions were not widely absent from HFPS datasets, only 3% of HFPS datasets included functional difficulty questions that meet international standards. The search engine-powered questionnaire review tool proved to be able to streamline the search process for future research on inclusive data. CONCLUSIONS: The dearth of functional difficulty questions and the Washington-Group Short Set in particular in HFPS has contributed to the relative invisibility of persons with disabilities during the pandemic emergency, the lingering effects of which could impede policy-making, monitoring and advocacy on behalf of persons with disabilities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas com Deficiência , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pandemias , Telefone
5.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38979326

RESUMO

Murine models are often used to study the pathogenicity and dissemination of the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Here, we quantified S. Typhimurium population dynamics in mice using the STAMPR analytic pipeline and a highly diverse S. Typhimurium barcoded library containing ~55,000 unique strains distinguishable by genomic barcodes by enumerating S. Typhimurium founding populations and deciphering routes of spread in mice. We found that a severe bottleneck allowed only one in a million cells from an oral inoculum to establish a niche in the intestine. Furthermore, we observed compartmentalization of pathogen populations throughout the intestine, with few barcodes shared between intestinal segments and feces. This severe bottleneck widened and compartmentalization was reduced after streptomycin treatment, suggesting the microbiota plays a key role in restricting the pathogen's colonization and movement within the intestine. Additionally, there was minimal sharing between the intestine and extraintestinal organ populations, indicating dissemination to extraintestinal sites occurs rapidly, before substantial pathogen expansion in the intestine. Bypassing the intestinal bottleneck by inoculating mice via intravenous or intraperitoneal injection revealed that Salmonella re-enters the intestine after establishing niches in extraintestinal sites by at least two distinct pathways. One pathway results in a diverse intestinal population. The other re-seeding pathway is through the bile, where the pathogen is often clonal, leading to clonal intestinal populations and correlates with gallbladder pathology. Together, these findings deepen our understanding of Salmonella population dynamics.

6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16221, 2024 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003385

RESUMO

In East Africa, community-based conservation models (CBCMs) have been established to support the conservation of wildlife in fragmented landscapes like the Tarangire Ecosystem, Tanzania. To assess how different management approaches maintained large herbivore populations, we conducted line distance surveys and estimated seasonal densities of elephant, giraffe, zebra, and wildebeest in six management units, including three CBCMs, two national parks (positive controls), and one area with little conservation interventions (negative control). Using a Monte-Carlo approach to propagate uncertainties from the density estimates and trend analysis, we analyzed the resulting time series (2011-2019). Densities of the target species were consistently low in the site with little conservation interventions. In contrast, densities of zebra and wildebeest in CBCMs were similar to national parks, providing evidence that CBCMs contributed to the stabilization of these migratory populations in the central part of the ecosystem. CBCMs also supported giraffe and elephant densities similar to those found in national parks. In contrast, the functional connectivity of Lake Manyara National Park has not been augmented by CBCMs. Our analysis suggests that CBCMs can effectively conserve large herbivores, and that maintaining connectivity through CBCMs should be prioritized.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Herbivoria , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Tanzânia , Elefantes/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Densidade Demográfica , Girafas/fisiologia , Equidae/fisiologia
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0003224, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980028

RESUMO

Time-lapse microscopy offers a powerful approach for analyzing cellular activity. In particular, this technique is valuable for assessing the behavior of bacterial populations, which can exhibit growth and intercellular interactions in a monolayer. Such time-lapse imaging typically generates large quantities of data, limiting the options for manual investigation. Several image-processing software packages have been developed to facilitate analysis. It can thus be a challenge to identify the software package best suited to a particular research goal. Here, we compare four software packages that support the analysis of 2D time-lapse images of cellular populations: CellProfiler, SuperSegger-Omnipose, DeLTA, and FAST. We compare their performance against benchmarked results on time-lapse observations of Escherichia coli populations. Performance varies across the packages, with each of the four outperforming the others in at least one aspect of the analysis. Not surprisingly, the packages that have been in development for longer showed the strongest performance. We found that deep learning-based approaches to object segmentation outperformed traditional approaches, but the opposite was true for frame-to-frame object tracking. We offer these comparisons, together with insight into usability, computational efficiency, and feature availability, as a guide to researchers seeking image-processing solutions. IMPORTANCE: Time-lapse microscopy provides a detailed window into the world of bacterial behavior. However, the vast amount of data produced by these techniques is difficult to analyze manually. We have analyzed four software tools designed to process such data and compared their performance, using populations of commonly studied bacterial species as our test subjects. Our findings offer a roadmap to scientists, helping them choose the right tool for their research. This comparison bridges a gap between microbiology and computational analysis, streamlining research efforts.

8.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 122, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a therapeutic intervention used to treat diseases associated with the gut microbiome. In the human gut microbiome, phages have been implicated in influencing human health, with successful engraftment of donor phages correlated with FMT treatment efficacy. The impact that gastrointestinal phages exert on human health has primarily been connected to their ability to modulate the bacterial communities in the gut. Nonetheless, how FMT affects recipients' phage populations, and in turn, how this influences the gut environment, is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of FMT on the phageome composition of participants within the Gut Bugs Trial (GBT), a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that investigated the efficacy of FMT in treating obesity and comorbidities in adolescents. Stool samples collected from donors at the time of treatment and recipients at four time points (i.e., baseline and 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 26 weeks post-intervention), underwent shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Phage sequences were identified and characterized in silico to examine evidence of phage engraftment and to assess the extent of FMT-induced alterations in the recipients' phageome composition. RESULTS: Donor phages engrafted stably in recipients following FMT, composing a significant proportion of their phageome for the entire course of the study (33.8 ± 1.2% in females and 33.9 ± 3.7% in males). Phage engraftment varied between donors and donor engraftment efficacy was positively correlated with their phageome alpha diversity. FMT caused a shift in recipients' phageome toward the donors' composition and increased phageome alpha diversity and variability over time. CONCLUSIONS: FMT significantly altered recipients' phage and, overall, microbial populations. The increase in microbial diversity and variability is consistent with a shift in microbial population dynamics. This proposes that phages play a critical role in modulating the gut environment and suggests novel approaches to understanding the efficacy of FMT in altering the recipient's microbiome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Gut Bugs Trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTR N12615001351505). Trial protocol: the trial protocol is available at https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/9/4/e026174 . Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade , Humanos , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriófagos/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Adolescente , Masculino , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/virologia , Bactérias/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Curr Res Insect Sci ; 5: 100077, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39027355

RESUMO

Cold temperatures can play a significant role in the range and impact of pest insects. Severe cold events can reduce the size of insect outbreaks and perhaps even cause outbreaks to end. Measuring the precise impact of cold events, however, can be difficult because estimates of insect mortality are often made at the end of the winter season. In late January 2023 long-term climate models predicted a significant cold event to occur over eastern North America. We used this event to evaluate the immediate impact on hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) overwintering mortality at four sites on the northern edge of the insects invaded range in eastern North America. We observed complete mortality, partial mortality and no effects on hemlock woolly adelgid mortality that correlated with the location of populations and strength of the cold event. Our data showed support for preconditioning of overwintering adelgids having an impact on their overwintering survival following this severe cold event. Finally, we compared the climatic conditions at our sites to historical weather data and previous observations of mortality in Nova Scotia. The cold event observed in February 2023 resulted in the coldest temperatures observed at these sites, including the period within which hemlock woolly adelgid invaded, suggesting cold conditions, especially under anthropogenic climate forcing, may not be a limiting factor in determining the ultimate northern range of hemlock woolly adelgid in eastern North America.

10.
Ecology ; : e4374, 2024 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39031035

RESUMO

Predation has direct effects on prey population dynamics through mortality, and it can induce indirect effects through fear. The indirect effects of predation have been documented experimentally, but few studies have quantified them in nature so that their role in prey population dynamics remains controversial. Given the expanding or reintroduced populations of large predators in many areas, the quantification of indirect effects of predation is crucial. We sought to evaluate the direct and indirect fitness effects of intense cougar (Puma concolor) predation using 48 years of data on marked bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on Ram Mountain, Alberta, Canada. We compared years of intense cougar predation with years with no or occasional cougar predation. We first quantified the effects of predation on neonatal, weaning, and overwinter lamb survival, three metrics potentially affected by direct and indirect effects. We then investigated the possible indirect effects of intense cougar predation on lamb production, female summer mass gain, and lamb mass at weaning. We found strong effects of cougar predation on lamb survival, lamb production, and seasonal mass gain of lambs and adult females. In years with high predation, neonatal, weaning, and overwinter lamb survival declined by 18.4%, 19.7% and 20.8%, respectively. Indirect effects included a 14.2% decline in lamb production. Female summer mass gain decreased by 15.6% and lamb mass at weaning declined by 8.0% in years of intense cougar predation. Our findings bring key insights on the impacts of predation on prey fitness by reporting moderate to large effects on recruitment and illustrate the importance of indirect effects of predation on population dynamics.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(29): e2316765121, 2024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38990946

RESUMO

How does the brain simultaneously process signals that bring complementary information, like raw sensory signals and their transformed counterparts, without any disruptive interference? Contemporary research underscores the brain's adeptness in using decorrelated responses to reduce such interference. Both neurophysiological findings and artificial neural networks support the notion of orthogonal representation for signal differentiation and parallel processing. Yet, where, and how raw sensory signals are transformed into more abstract representations remains unclear. Using a temporal pattern discrimination task in trained monkeys, we revealed that the second somatosensory cortex (S2) efficiently segregates faithful and transformed neural responses into orthogonal subspaces. Importantly, S2 population encoding for transformed signals, but not for faithful ones, disappeared during a nondemanding version of this task, which suggests that signal transformation and their decoding from downstream areas are only active on-demand. A mechanistic computation model points to gain modulation as a possible biological mechanism for the observed context-dependent computation. Furthermore, individual neural activities that underlie the orthogonal population representations exhibited a continuum of responses, with no well-determined clusters. These findings advocate that the brain, while employing a continuum of heterogeneous neural responses, splits population signals into orthogonal subspaces in a context-dependent fashion to enhance robustness, performance, and improve coding efficiency.


Assuntos
Macaca mulatta , Córtex Somatossensorial , Animais , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Masculino
12.
mBio ; : e0137624, 2024 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39028198

RESUMO

Viral impacts on microbial populations depend on interaction phenotypes-including viral traits spanning the adsorption rate, latent period, and burst size. The latent period is a key viral trait in lytic infections. Defined as the time from viral adsorption to viral progeny release, the latent period of bacteriophage is conventionally inferred via one-step growth curves in which the accumulation of free virus is measured over time in a population of infected cells. Developed more than 80 years ago, one-step growth curves do not account for cellular-level variability in the timing of lysis, potentially biasing inference of viral traits. Here, we use nonlinear dynamical models to understand how individual-level variation of the latent period impacts virus-host dynamics. Our modeling approach shows that inference of the latent period via one-step growth curves is systematically biased-generating estimates of shorter latent periods than the underlying population-level mean. The bias arises because variability in lysis timing at the cellular level leads to a fraction of early burst events, which are interpreted, artefactually, as an earlier mean time of viral release. We develop a computational framework to estimate latent period variability from joint measurements of host and free virus populations. Our computational framework recovers both the mean and variance of the latent period within simulated infections including realistic measurement noise. This work suggests that reframing the latent period as a distribution to account for variability in the population will improve the study of viral traits and their role in shaping microbial populations.IMPORTANCEQuantifying viral traits-including the adsorption rate, burst size, and latent period-is critical to characterize viral infection dynamics and develop predictive models of viral impacts across scales from cells to ecosystems. Here, we revisit the gold standard of viral trait estimation-the one-step growth curve-to assess the extent to which assumptions at the core of viral infection dynamics lead to ongoing and systematic biases in inferences of viral traits. We show that latent period estimates obtained via one-step growth curves systematically underestimate the mean latent period and, in turn, overestimate the rate of viral killing at population scales. By explicitly incorporating trait variability into a dynamical inference framework that leverages both virus and host time series, we provide a practical route to improve estimates of the mean and variance of viral traits across diverse virus-microbe systems.

13.
Environ Res ; : 119437, 2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38897436

RESUMO

Vertical migration behaviour, which is integral to marine energy circulation, is a prevalent trait among marine organisms. However, the behaviour of phytoplankton, particularly beyond diel vertical migration (DVM), remain underexplored compared to groups like zooplankton. Through the lens of the harmful alga Heterosigma akashiwo, which exhibits unique vertical migrations and fluctuating red tide patterns, this study aimed to explore the ecological intricacies and diverse benefits of phytoplankton vertical migration behaviours. During the bloom period of H. akashiwo, we unexpectedly observed a dense concentration of cells at bottom layer during daytime. This phase coincided with the emergence of cells related to this species' sexual reproduction. Laboratory experiments further showed an elevated frequency of sexual reproduction in the cell populations that migrated to deeper depths compared to those at the surface. This finding implies a connection between dense bottom accumulation (BA) and the life cycle transitions of the species. This BA phase persisted for two days, after which the populations returned to their standard DVM behaviour, providing insight into the unique fluctuating red tide patterns of H. akashiwo. Our study suggests that phytoplankton vertical migrations are not strictly dictated by DVM, revealing diverse vertical migration behaviours that may contribute to the complexity of harmful algal bloom patterns.

14.
J R Soc Interface ; 21(215): 20240042, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38916901

RESUMO

The component Allee effect (AE) is the positive correlation between an organism's fitness component and population density. Depending on the population spatial structure, which determines the interactions between organisms, a component AE might lead to positive density dependence in the population per-capita growth rate and establish a demographic AE. However, existing spatial models impose a fixed population spatial structure, which limits the understanding of how a component AE and spatial dynamics jointly determine the existence of demographic AEs. We introduce a spatially explicit theoretical framework where spatial structure and population dynamics are emergent properties of the individual-level demographic and movement rates. This framework predicts various spatial patterns depending on its specific parametrization, including evenly spaced aggregates of organisms, which determine the demographic-level by-products of the component AE. We find that aggregation increases population abundance and allows population survival in harsher environments and at lower global population densities when compared with uniformly distributed organisms. Moreover, aggregation can prevent the component AE from manifesting at the population level or restrict it to the level of each independent aggregate. These results provide a mechanistic understanding of how component AEs might operate for different spatial structures and manifest at larger scales.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Animais , Densidade Demográfica
15.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e081296, 2024 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38910001

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the context of health research in Canada, various terms and labels have been employed to reference the Black population. This practice has had the unintended consequence of diminishing the comparability and efficiency of studies. Furthermore, using a broad term such as 'Black' may fail to encompass the diversity and intricacy of the ethnocultural backgrounds of people who are racialised as such. It may also obscure the subtleties of their experiences and health outcomes. This study aims to examine how health researchers have defined Black within the scope of their work and different labels used to identify the Black population in Canada. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We have developed and employed a comprehensive and sensitive search strategy to identify articles concerning the health and wellness of the Black population in Canada. Both peer-reviewed and grey literature will be searched. Original articles published in both English and French will be included. The screening process will consist of two stages: the title and abstract screening, followed by a thorough examination of full-text articles. Additionally, single citation tracking and manual search of reference lists will be conducted. Study characteristics and relevant information on the definition of the Black population will be extracted, followed by reflective thematic analysis and presentation of the key findings. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review will not require ethical approval. We will disseminate the results through meetings with stakeholders. From the beginning, a knowledge translation approach was decided upon following consultation with citizen researchers and community champions. Our findings will also be disseminated through oral and poster presentations, peer-reviewed publications, and social media.


Assuntos
População Negra , Humanos , Canadá , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
16.
Ecol Appl ; 34(5): e3003, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38890813

RESUMO

Large terrestrial mammals increasingly rely on human-modified landscapes as anthropogenic footprints expand. Land management activities such as timber harvest, agriculture, and roads can influence prey population dynamics by altering forage resources and predation risk via changes in habitat, but these effects are not well understood in regions with diverse and changing predator guilds. In northeastern Washington state, USA, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are vulnerable to multiple carnivores, including recently returned gray wolves (Canis lupus), within a highly human-modified landscape. To understand the factors governing predator-prey dynamics in a human context, we radio-collared 280 white-tailed deer, 33 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 50 cougars (Puma concolor), 28 coyotes (C. latrans), and 14 wolves between 2016 and 2021. We first estimated deer vital rates and used a stage-structured matrix model to estimate their population growth rate. During the study, we observed a stable to declining deer population (lambda = 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.88, 1.05), with 74% of Monte Carlo simulations indicating population decrease and 26% of simulations indicating population increase. We then fit Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate how predator exposure, use of human-modified landscapes, and winter severity influenced deer survival and used these relationships to evaluate impacts on overall population growth. We found that the population growth rate was dually influenced by a negative direct effect of apex predators and a positive effect of timber harvest and agricultural areas. Cougars had a stronger effect on deer population dynamics than wolves, and mesopredators had little influence on the deer population growth rate. Areas of recent timber harvest had 55% more forage biomass than older forests, but horizontal visibility did not differ, suggesting that timber harvest did not influence predation risk. Although proximity to roads did not affect the overall population growth rate, vehicle collisions caused a substantial proportion of deer mortalities, and reducing these collisions could be a win-win for deer and humans. The influence of apex predators and forage indicates a dual limitation by top-down and bottom-up factors in this highly human-modified system, suggesting that a reduction in apex predators would intensify density-dependent regulation of the deer population owing to limited forage availability.


Assuntos
Cervos , Dinâmica Populacional , Lobos , Animais , Cervos/fisiologia , Lobos/fisiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório , Washington , Atividades Humanas , Coiotes/fisiologia , Puma/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Ecossistema , Lynx/fisiologia
17.
J Econ Entomol ; 2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38936416

RESUMO

Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a globally significant economic pest for which lure based trapping can be used to monitor established populations and for surveillance. Either female- or male-targeted traps can be used; however, recommendations on which to apply are inconsistent and many programs rely on male-targeted traps. Here, we compare the performance of male-targeted traps (Lynfield Trap with Trimedlure) and female-targeted traps (Biotrap Globe trap with the 3-component lure-TMA Plus) in apple orchards in south-west Western Australia over 2 years (September 2019 to September 2021). Male-targeted traps caught more Medflies overall than female-targeted traps, although the difference was minor. However, female-targeted traps were better at attracting Medfly early in the season when populations were small; and were more likely to capture at least one fly when their paired male-targeted trap caught none. Conversely, male-targeted traps were more likely to capture Medflies late in the season and were more likely to catch high numbers of Medflies. Consequently, female-targeted traps may be better at detecting Medfly early in the season, and male-targeted traps may be better at detecting Medfly abundance late in the season, at least in apple orchards. Our results suggest that either or both trap-types could be used for monitoring Medfly populations, with the optimal solution being dependent on the intended application.

18.
Insects ; 15(6)2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38921156

RESUMO

The determination of innate rate of increase (r) values under different grain storage conditions is critical for insect population predictions. The r values for Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) were calculated by using a new suggested method (continuous time analysis) and data from the literature, and these calculated r values were compared to identify the r values and carrying capacities under real grain storage conditions and times. The insects were reared in small glass vials (0.3 kg wheat), small PVC columns (2 kg wheat), large PVC columns (14 kg wheat), and shallow containers (14 kg wheat or wheat + cracked wheat). The wheat or cracked wheat had 13.8 to 14.5% moisture contents at different constant temperatures (17.5 to 42.5 °C) and fluctuating temperatures. The r values at the beginning of the population were the highest. Before r became negative, it gradually decreased with increasing time. After the r value became negative, it sometimes increased to positive; however, the rebounded r was much less than the initial r and gradually tended to stabilize within an up-and-down range. This up-and-down r was related to the carrying capacity. The larger the grain bulk, the higher the innate rate was for both species. The r values associated with 14 kg of wheat could be used to predict the insect population dynamics in stored grain bins.

19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1455: 117-140, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38918349

RESUMO

The measurement of time in the subsecond scale is critical for many sophisticated behaviors, yet its neural underpinnings are largely unknown. Recent neurophysiological experiments from our laboratory have shown that the neural activity in the medial premotor areas (MPC) of macaques can represent different aspects of temporal processing. During single interval categorization, we found that preSMA encodes a subjective category limit by reaching a peak of activity at a time that divides the set of test intervals into short and long. We also observed neural signals associated with the category selected by the subjects and the reward outcomes of the perceptual decision. On the other hand, we have studied the behavioral and neurophysiological basis of rhythmic timing. First, we have shown in different tapping tasks that macaques are able to produce predictively and accurately intervals that are cued by auditory or visual metronomes or when intervals are produced internally without sensory guidance. In addition, we found that the rhythmic timing mechanism in MPC is governed by different layers of neural clocks. Next, the instantaneous activity of single cells shows ramping activity that encodes the elapsed or remaining time for a tapping movement. In addition, we found MPC neurons that build neural sequences, forming dynamic patterns of activation that flexibly cover all the produced interval depending on the tapping tempo. This rhythmic neural clock resets on every interval providing an internal representation of pulse. Furthermore, the MPC cells show mixed selectivity, encoding not only elapsed time, but also the tempo of the tapping and the serial order element in the rhythmic sequence. Hence, MPC can map different task parameters, including the passage of time, using different cell populations. Finally, the projection of the time varying activity of MPC hundreds of cells into a low dimensional state space showed circular neural trajectories whose geometry represented the internal pulse and the tapping tempo. Overall, these findings support the notion that MPC is part of the core timing mechanism for both single interval and rhythmic timing, using neural clocks with different encoding principles, probably to flexibly encode and mix the timing representation with other task parameters.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor , Percepção do Tempo , Animais , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
20.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(12)2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38931085

RESUMO

The mountainous regions of southwest China are recognized as pivotal centers for the origin and evolution of Osmanthus species. Baoxing Osmanthus (Osmanthus serrulatus Rehder), a rare and endemic species known for its spring blooms, is sparsely distributed within the high altitude evergreen broad-leaved forests surrounding the southwestern Sichuan Basin. However, persistent anthropogenic disturbances and habitat fragmentation have precipitated a significant decline in its natural population size, leading to the erosion of genetic resources. To assess the genetic status of O. serrulatus and formulate effective conservation strategies, we conducted sampling across ten wild populations, totaling 148 individuals in their natural habitats. We employed two cpDNA fragments (matK and trnS-trnG) to elucidate the phylogeographic structure and historical population dynamics. The results revealed low species-level genetic diversity, alongside pronounced regional differentiation among populations (FST = 0.812, p < 0.05) and a notable phylogeographic structure (NST = 0.698 > GST = 0.396, p < 0.05). Notably, genetic variation was predominantly observed among populations (81.23%), with no evidence of recent demographic expansion across the O. serrulatus distribution range. Furthermore, divergence dating indicated a timeline of approximately 4.85 Mya, corresponding to the late Miocene to early Pleistocene. This temporal correlation coincided with localized uplift events in the southwestern mountains and heightened Asian monsoons, suggesting pivotal roles for these factors in shaping the current phylogeographic pattern of O. serrulatus. These findings support the effective conservation of O. serrulatus germplasm and offer insights into the impact of Quaternary climate oscillations on companion species within evergreen broad-leaved forests. They also enhance our understanding of the origin and evolution of these forests in the southwestern mountains, aiding biodiversity conservation efforts in the region.

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