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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2598: 345-356, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355304

RESUMO

The utility of nonsurgical, mechanical compression-based joint injury models to study osteoarthritis pathogenesis and treatments is increasing. Joint injury may be induced via cyclic compression loading or acute overloading to induce anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Models utilizing mechanical testing systems are highly repeatable, require little expertise, and result in a predictable onset of osteoarthritis-like pathology on a rapidly progressing timeline. In this chapter, we describe the procedures and equipment needed to perform mechanical compression-induced initiation of osteoarthritis in mice and rats.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Cartilagem Articular , Osteoartrite , Camundongos , Ratos , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/etiologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/patologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Osteoartrite/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças
2.
Radiol Case Rep ; 18(2): 476-480, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439932

RESUMO

Pseudoaneurysms of a pulmonary artery branch are a rare complication in cases of penetrating chest trauma. Other more frequent causes are secondary to infections or iatrogenesis. We present the case of a 16-year-old male patient who returns weeks after having sustained a stab wound to the chest, complaining of hemoptysis and chest pain. Imaging studies help detect and characterize a partially thrombosed pseudoaneurysm arising from the artery that supplies the anterior segment of the right upper lobe, with an associated post-traumatic pulmonary arteriovenous fistula. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular arterial embolization. Identifying this entity opportunely has an impact on the survival of this patient, avoiding risk secondary to massive bleeding by making an adequate treatment.

3.
World Neurosurg X ; 17: 100138, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217538

RESUMO

Background: Prior studies have shown that decompressive craniectomy may be an independent risk factor for the development of post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH). It is upon this background that we chose to conduct our single-center retrospective study to establish the possibility of an association between decompressive craniectomy and PTH. Methods: A retrospective review involving a database of all patients with traumatic brain injury was undertaken. All referrals and admissions with traumatic brain injury, as defined by the Mayo Classification, from January 2012 to May 2022, were included in the subsequent analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using IBM SPSS version 28.0.1. Results: The mean age of the cohort was 44.91 ± 19.16 with more males (82.3%) than females (17.7%). Vehicle incident/collision was the most common cause of traumatic brain injury. 84% of the cohort was alive at 30 days, 4% were noted to have an intracranial infection, and 3% underwent shunt insertion procedures, while 14% received decompressive craniotomies as part of their clinical management. There was a statistically significant association between undergoing decompressive craniectomy, and the development of PTH (odds ratio, 4.759 [95% confidence interval, 1.290-17.559]; P = 0.019). The presence of intracranial infection and insertion of an external ventricular drain insertion were also independent predictors of developing PTH. Conclusions: This study adds to the growing body of work regarding the immediate and long-term effects of the procedure. Although life-saving, PTH, needing shunt insertion, is one of the possible complications that surgeons and patients should be aware of.

4.
Med Clin North Am ; 107(1): 85-99, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402502

RESUMO

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance, negative alterations in cognition and mood, and marked alterations in arousal and reactivity following exposure to a traumatic event. PTSD can be assessed by structured interviews and screening measures in psychiatric and nonpsychiatric settings. Evidence-based psychotherapies are the first-line treatment of PTSD, with cognitive behavioral therapies, such as prolonged exposure, cognitive processing therapy, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing having the largest body and highest quality of evidence. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first-line pharmacologic treatments for PTSD and are often used in conjunction with other therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Cognição
5.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 126-133, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the relationship between burnout and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is limited. We aimed to evaluate the association between burnout and PTSD symptoms among medical staff two years after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Wuhan, China, and explore the mediating roles of social support and psychological resilience. METHODS: A multicenter survey was conducted online from January to March 2022 among healthcare professionals from six general hospitals. Hierarchical linear regression was used to detect the predictors of PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the pathways from burnout to PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: Hierarchical linear regression showed that burnout, social support, and psychological resilience were significant predictors of PTSD symptoms among medical staff. In the SEM, the standardized total effect of burnout on PTSD symptoms was 0.336(bias-corrected 95 % confidence interval [0.303, 0.367], P < 0.001). Social support and psychological resilience partially mediated the relationship between burnout and PTSD symptoms (indirect effects accounted for 22.3 % of the total effect). LIMITATIONS: Owing to the cross-sectional design, only clues to causal explanations can be provided. CONCLUSIONS: Burnout has significant direct and indirect effects on PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, social support and psychological resilience might be effective ways to reduce the impact of burnout on PTSD symptoms in medical staff after a major public health outbreak.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Apoio Social , Esgotamento Psicológico , China/epidemiologia , Corpo Clínico
6.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 450-460, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sleep disruption is a common complaint among patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Modern technology of activity monitoring (actigraphy) enables extended, objective, unobtrusive recording and measuring of daytime and nighttime activity. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the actigraphic sleep patterns in PTSD compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We searched through seven electronic databases from inception to July 2022. Only case-control studies comparing rest-activity variables measured by actigraphy devices between clinically diagnosed PTSD patients and healthy individuals were included. RESULTS: We identified 12 eligible studies comparing 323 PTSD patients and 416 healthy controls. Using a random-effects model, we showed that PTSD patients have significantly lower sleep efficiency (SMD: -0.26, 95 % CI = -0.51 to -0.004, p < .05, I2 = 29.31 %), more fragmented sleep (SMD: 0.52, 95 % CI = 0.17 to 0.87, p < .01, I2 = 0 %), and longer time in bed (SMD: 0.41, 95 % CI = 0.07 to 0.74, p < .05, I2 = 0 %) compared to healthy controls. LIMITATIONS: This study included a limited number of studies. Publication bias was not examined on all variables, which could lead to an overestimation of effect size. Four studies involved veterans, which likely differ from civilians regarding traumatic exposure. CONCLUSION: This meta-analytic review highlighted a pattern of sleep disturbances in PTSD patients compared with non-PTSD individuals. High-quality, large-scale studies are necessary to draw a definitive conclusion regarding the distinctive sleep profile in PTSD. Future research can pay attention to sleep-specific mechanisms underlying PTSD and explore the momentary interactions between sleep-wake variables.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Actigrafia , Polissonografia , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia
7.
Behav Brain Res ; 437: 114128, 2023 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174841

RESUMO

While SSRIs are the current first-line pharmacotherapies against post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), they suffer from delayed onset of efficacy and low remission rates. One solution is to combine SSRIs with other treatments. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has been shown to play a role in serotonergic signaling, and there is evidence of synergism between nNOS modulation and SSRIs in models of other psychiatric conditions. Therefore, in this study, we combined subchronic fluoxetine (Flx) with 7-nitroindazole (NI), a selective nNOS inhibitor, and evaluated their efficacy against anxiety-related behavior in an animal model of PTSD. We used the underwater trauma model to induce PTSD in rats. Animals underwent the open field (OFT) and elevated plus maze tests on days 14 (baseline) and 21 (post-treatment) after PTSD induction to assess anxiety-related behaviors. Between the two tests, the rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg/kg Flx or saline, and were injected intraperitoneally before the second test with either 15 mg/kg NI or saline. The change in behaviors between the two tests was compared between treatment groups. Individual treatment with both Flx and NI had anxiogenic effects in the OFT. These effects were associated with modest increases in cFOS expression in the hippocampus. Combination therapy with Flx + NI did not show any anxiogenic effects, while causing even higher expression levels of cFOS. In conclusion, addition of NI treatment to subchronic Flx therapy accelerated the abrogation of Flx's anxiogenic properties. Furthermore, hippocampal activity, as evidenced by cFOS expression, was biphasically related to anxiety-related behavior.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Animais , Ratos , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Fluoxetina/uso terapêutico , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico
8.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 14: 1047908, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36438009

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious disease that could increase the risk of epilepsy. The purpose of this article is to explore the common molecular mechanism in TBI and epilepsy with the aim of providing a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). Two datasets of TBI and epilepsy in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were downloaded. Functional enrichment analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction, and hub gene identification were performed based on the cross-talk genes of aforementioned two diseases. Another dataset was used to validate these hub genes. Moreover, the abundance of infiltrating immune cells was evaluated through Immune Cell Abundance Identifier (ImmuCellAI). The common microRNAs (miRNAs) between TBI and epilepsy were acquired via the Human microRNA Disease Database (HMDD). The overlapped genes in cross-talk genes and target genes predicted through the TargetScan were obtained to construct the common miRNAs-mRNAs network. A total of 106 cross-talk genes were screened out, including 37 upregulated and 69 downregulated genes. Through the enrichment analyses, we showed that the terms about cytokine and immunity were enriched many times, particularly interferon gamma signaling pathway. Four critical hub genes were screened out for co-expression analysis. The miRNA-mRNA network revealed that three miRNAs may affect the shared interferon-induced genes, which might have essential roles in PTE. Our study showed the potential role of interferon gamma signaling pathway in pathogenesis of PTE, which may provide a promising target for future therapeutic interventions.

9.
Front Psychol ; 13: 1040935, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36438324

RESUMO

Objective: This study examined whether sleep disturbance was a mediator between alexithymic traits and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) COVID-19 pandemic-related stress symptoms, and explored whether self-esteem moderated the alexithymic contribution to poor sleep and PTSD symptoms. Method: A representative sample of young adults (N = 2,485) from six universities in Southwest China completed online self-report surveys on alexithymia, sleep, PTSD, self-esteem, sociodemographic information, and health-related behaviors. Results: High alexithymic young adults were found to be more likely to have higher sleep problems and higher PTSD symptoms. The moderated mediation model showed that sleep problems mediated the associations between alexithymia and PTSD symptoms. Alexithymic people with lower self-esteem were more likely to have elevated PTSD symptoms and sleep problems than those with higher self-esteem. Conclusion: Targeted psychological interventions for young people who have difficulty expressing and identifying emotions are recommended as these could assist in reducing their post-traumatic psychophysical and psychological problems. Improving self-esteem could also offer some protection for trauma-exposed individuals.

10.
Soc Sci Med ; 315: 115529, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36427478

RESUMO

This paper examines key processes from the social identity model of traumatic identity change in the context of the aftermath of a natural disaster. It focuses on the roles of (i) group membership gain, (ii) group membership continuity, (iii) social identity revitalisation, and (iv) the severity of natural disaster exposure on post-traumatic growth (PTG) and post-traumatic stress (PTS). PARTICIPANTS: (N = 410, Mage = 53.24 years) comprised adult survivors of the Australian 2019-20 Black Summer bushfires, recruited to complete an online survey via geo-targeted Facebook advertisements. RESULTS: showed that group membership gain was positively correlated with PTG, whilst group membership continuity negatively correlated with PTS, highlighting the different roles played by group gain and continuity in post-trauma recovery. Preliminary evidence for the validity of a new author-developed social identity revitalisation measure was found, which mediated some relationships between group gain and continuity and PTG and PTS. Lastly, the extent that participants were affected by the fires moderated the relationship between group gain and PTS. Specifically, for those most affected, group gain was correlated with lower reported PTS, whilst for those less affected, group gain was correlated with higher reported PTS. We discuss implications for theory and draw attention to the concept of revitalisation, which shows promise as a potentially critical contributor to post-trauma recovery.

11.
Psychol Rep ; : 332941221139724, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380486

RESUMO

The present study examined the relationship between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and different types of coping strategies to explain the mechanism underlying PTG. It also considered whether the relationship takes on different patterns in different cultures, thereby expanding on the existing literature regarding PTG. Initially, we found 666 articles published and unpublished between 2013 and 2020. All potentially eligible studies were examined based on the inclusion criteria for this study. The inclusion criteria ultimately yielded total of 96 studies. The findings of this meta-analysis indicate that the relationship varies depending on the coping strategy and culture. Moreover, identifying the coping strategies involved in overcoming traumatic events may be the key to differentiating real PTG from illusory PTG. The results show that PTG has different correlations with the four groups of coping strategies: problem-focused coping, positive emotion-focused coping, negative emotion-focused coping, and unclassified coping.

12.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401788

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Given data suggesting common co-occurrence and worse outcomes for individuals with eating disorders (EDs) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it is critical to identify integrated treatment approaches for this group of patients. Past work has explored the feasibility and initial efficacy of intervention approaches that draw on evidence-based treatments for both EDs and PTSD; however, this work remains limited in scope. In the current study, we explored the feasibility and naturalistic outcomes of PTSD treatment delivered within the context of intensive ED treatment. METHOD: Participants were 57 adult men and women with DSM-5 EDs and comorbid PTSD who completed a course of either Prolonged Exposure (PE; n = 22) or Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT; n = 35) (Msessions = 10.40; SD = 5.13) and weekly validated measurements of clinical symptoms while enrolled in ED programming. RESULTS: Multi-level models for PTSD symptoms indicated a significant linear effect of time, such that participants demonstrated significant decreases over time in PTSD symptoms, regardless of treatment modality. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary investigation provides support for the feasibility and efficacy of an integrated approach to treating EDs and PTSD. It is critical for future work to undertake randomized tests of this integrated approach using large, heterogeneous samples. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, multiple time series with intervention.

13.
J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect ; 12(1): 39, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396863

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The goal of this study is to determine if certain aspects of endophthalmitis prophylaxis strategies are superior to others. DESIGN: This investigation is a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: All studies specifying a type of prophylaxis strategy and resulting rates of endophthalmitis were included. Time course, method of administration, and antibiotic regimen, and confounding factors were collected and included for meta-regression. RESULTS: Time courses greater than 24 h did not significantly improve outcomes. Likewise, intraocular and/or intravenous antibiotic administration methods did not significantly outperform oral administration. No antibiotic regimens performed differently from vancomycin/ ≥ 3rd generation cephalosporin except for ciprofloxacin monotherapy which yielded significantly worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Future antibiotic strategies should strongly consider the risks of antibiotic treatment > 24 h and administration methods other than the oral antibiotic forms. In addition, providers should be wary of using ciprofloxacin monotherapy for endophthalmitis prophylaxis when treating open globe injuries.

14.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(Suppl 1)(3): S691-S694, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414592

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of Post-traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhoea (PCSFR) has been decreased due to advanced therapeutic measures. The current investigative study has been arranged to assess the efficacy of conservative management of early PCSFR. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted at departmental of Neurosurgery, Ayub Medical Institute, Abbottabad. Patients with traumatic brain injury having Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea with either gender having age 5-50 year and presenting within seven days of traumatic brain injury were included. Moreover, those with nasal fractures, penetrating head injuries having fever and neck stiffness were also included in the study. Results: A total number of 120 patients having male dominancy, i.e., 86 (72%) were included in the study with the mean age of 27 years ± 8.741 in which 77 (92%) patients were in the age range of 2nd to 4th decades. The commonest cause was trauma due to Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) having 65 (54%) patients. Conservative treatment was effective in 62 (52%) patients predominantly in the patients of 3rd decade, i.e., 31 (50%), in which the effectiveness in male gender was revealed to be 52.32% (45) and effectiveness in RTA patients was recorded to be 54.83%. Similarly, the Chi-Square value was calculated for the PCSFR patients for four groups of patients (5-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50) to be 48.27 having critical value of 7.81 with the p-value of 1.87e-10, which completely rejects the Null-hypothesis for the patients of various ages. Conclusion: Based on the current investigative study, it may be concluded that PCSFR is common in middle age population with slight male dominancy. It may also be inferred that RTA is the leading cause of PCSFR in our set up and majority of the patients shows improvement after conservative management. Moreover, the effectiveness of conservative management of PCSFR could be predominantly observed in the patients of 3rd decade.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Rinorreia de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Rinorreia de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/etiologia , Rinorreia de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/terapia , Tratamento Conservador , Estudos Transversais , Incidência
15.
Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract ; : 1-10, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a risk factor for suicidality (suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt). This study described the prevalence of suicidality amongst a representative sample of individuals with PTSD and the association between suicidality and receipt of five PTSD treatments. METHODS: We analysed deidentified data for patients being treated for PTSD at Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust between 2009 and 2017 obtained via the Clinical Record Interactive Search tool. We described the sample's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and used stepwise logistic regression to investigate the association between suicidality and receipt of four, specific PTSD treatments: psychotherapy, antidepressant/antianxiety medication, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate the association between suicidality and hospital/crisis team admission. RESULTS: Of 745 patients diagnosed with PTSD, 60% received psychotherapy and 66% received psychotropic medication. Those who reported suicidality (6%) were no more likely than those who did not to be prescribed antidepressant/antianxiety medication, but were more likely to receive antipsychotics (AOR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.15 - 4.47), benzodiazepines (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.17 - 4.44), psychotherapy (AOR 2.60, 95% CI 1.18 - 5.73) and to be admitted to hospital/crisis team (AOR 2.84, 95% 1.82 - 4.45). CONCLUSION: In this sample, patients with PTSD and suicidality were more likely to receive psychiatric medication, psychotherapy and psychiatric admission than those who were not suicidal. Overall patients were more likely to receive psychotropic medication than psychotherapy. Adherence to clinical guidelines is important in this population to improve treatment outcomes and reduce the risk of suicide.KEY POINTSNICE guidelines recommend psychological therapy be first line treatment for PTSD, yet we identified that fewer people diagnosed with PTSD received therapy compared to psychotropic medication.Patients with suicidality were more likely to receive antipsychotics and benzodiazepines, yet not antidepressant/antianxiety medication although given that suicidality is characteristic of severe depression, it might be assumed from stepped care models that antidepressant/antianxiety medication be prescribed before antipsychotics.The high proportion of patients prescribed antipsychotics suggests a need for better understanding of psychosis symptoms among trauma-exposed populations.Identifying which combinations of symptoms are associated with suicidal thoughts could help tailor trauma-informed approaches to discussing therapy and medication.

16.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 78: 103304, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327602

RESUMO

Posttraumatic mental health issues following traumatic limb amputations in children have been commonly reported worldwide. Traumatic limb amputationsarecatastrophic injuries/events and often have various long term psycho-social impacts on children. We report a case of 8 year-oldfemale child presenting with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a traumatic amputation of right hand. A non- directive approach in play therapy was used for management of her symptoms. At 12 months follow up, the child is doing well with no impairment in her overall functioning.


Assuntos
Amputação Traumática , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Amputação Traumática/cirurgia , Amputação Traumática/psicologia , Ludoterapia , Amputação/psicologia
17.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 245, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36320044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of PTSD for years, it remains controversial due to the lack of understanding of its mechanisms of action. We examined whether the working memory (WM) hypothesis -the competition for limited WM resources induced by the dual task attenuates the vividness and emotionality of the traumatic memory - would provide an explanation for the beneficial effect induced by bilateral stimulation. METHODS: We followed the Prisma guidelines and identified 11 articles categorized in two types of designs: studies involving participants with current PTSD symptoms and participants without PTSD diagnosis. RESULTS: Regardless of the types of studies, the results showed a reduction of vividness and emotionality in the recall of traumatic stimuli under a dual-task condition compared to a control condition, such as recall alone. However, two studies used a follow-up test to show that this effect does not seem to last long. CONCLUSION: Our results provide evidence for the WM hypothesis and suggest that recalling a traumatic memory while performing a secondary task would shift the individual's attention away from the retrieval process and result in a reduction in vividness and emotionality, also associated with the reduction of symptoms.


Assuntos
Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através dos Movimentos Oculares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através dos Movimentos Oculares/métodos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Movimentos Oculares , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia
18.
Front Psychol ; 13: 993458, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329744

RESUMO

The psychosocial safety climate (PSC) reflects workers' perceptions of senior management's concern for mental health. Because the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated organizational issues, PSC could be a target for interventions attempting to preserve both the psychological health of employees and the economic health of companies. This study examines the direct and indirect relationships between PSC and work performance through two indicators of psychological health, psychological distress and post-traumatic growth, during a health crisis, i.e., prior to the second confinement in France. To this end, 2,004 participants from the French workforce completed a survey in October 2020. The results of mediation analyses indicate that PSC has a direct and positive influence on post-traumatic growth (PTG) and performance, as well as a direct negative influence on psychological distress. PSC also has an indirect positive influence on performance via psychological distress. Organizations that wish to jointly address mental health and performance at work would benefit from optimizing PSC.

19.
Front Digit Health ; 4: 974668, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329832

RESUMO

Although well-established therapies exist for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), barriers to seek mental health care are high. Technology-based interventions may play a role in improving the reach of efforts to treat, especially when therapist availability is low. The goal of the current randomized controlled trial was to pilot the efficacy of a computer-based trauma intervention with elements of virtual reality (VR; 3MR system) and limited therapist involvement for the treatment of PTSD in a childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and war veteran sample and to compare this to "treatment as usual" (TAU). TAU consisted of evidence-based approaches such as imaginal exposure, EMDR, or narrative exposure therapy. A total of 44 patients with PTSD were included and randomly assigned to 12 sessions of 3MR intervention or TAU (completer n 3MR = 12, TAU = 18). Several measures (PCL-5, BDI-II, OQ-45-2, and the M.I.N.I. 5.0.0.) were administered to measure symptoms of PTSD and depression and scores of overall well-being at pre, post, and a three-month follow-up measurement. Analyses suggest that symptoms of PTSD and depression in the 3MR condition decreased, and overall well-being increased between pre and post measurements. Results did not indicate any clear differences between the treatment conditions over time which suggests that treatment gains of the 3MR intervention seem no less than those of TAU. Finally, both treatment conditions produced similar remission rates of PTSD and depression. Therefore, the 3MR intervention could possibly constitute an appropriate treatment alternative. The small sample size as well as evident drop-out rates in the 3MR condition (45%) do warrant further research. The procedures of this study were approved by the Medical Ethical Research Committee (MERC) of the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam (MEC-NL46279.078.13) and pre-registered via ClinicalTrials.gov (Protocol Record CI1-12-S028-1).

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360954

RESUMO

Even now, ten years after the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE), thousands of residents of Fukushima Prefecture are still living as evacuees. To understand the mental health states and needs for psychological care of the survivors, we conducted a questionnaire survey of survivors who were evacuated from Fukushima to Ibaraki due to the nuclear power plant accident and of the residents of two areas in Ibaraki where damage was particularly severe due to the tsunami or liquefaction. Our results show that stress related to participants' hometowns and to the disaster was a risk factor for depression and post-traumatic stress among the survivors in the medium to long term in all regions examined. Other risk factors for post-traumatic stress differed by region. This study shows that in a complex disaster such as the GEJE, where damage is widespread, the causes of damage and the experiences of disaster survivors differ greatly from region to region and that risk factors for depression and post-traumatic stress among disaster survivors over the medium to long term may also differ. To provide appropriate care to disaster survivors, it is necessary to determine what is causing the risk of depression and post-traumatic stress at any given time and in specific regions.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Humanos , Tsunamis , Saúde Mental , Japão/epidemiologia , Centrais Nucleares , Sobreviventes/psicologia
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