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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251747, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355878

RESUMO

Abstract Fish is the main source of animal protein for human diet. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of pathogenic bacteria of two selected economically important fish of Pakistan namely Mahseer (Tor putitora) and Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Live fish samples from hatcheries and dead fish samples from different markets of study area were randomly collected. The fish samples were analyzed for isolation, identification and prevalence of bacteria. The isolated bacteria from study fish were identified through biochemical test and about 10 species of pathogenic bacteria were identified including the pathogenic bacteria to human and fish namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. and Salmonella spp. The bacterial percentage frequency of occurrence in Silver carp and Mahseer fish showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21.42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17.85%, Escherichia coli 11.90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9.52%, Citrobacter spp. 9.52%, Serratia spp. 8.33%, Streptococcus iniae 7.14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5.95%, Bacillus spp. 4.76% and Salmonella spp. 3.57%. The study revealed that Fish samples of Mahseer and Silver carp that were collected from markets have found more isolates (10 bacterial species) than did the fresh fish pond samples (03 bacterial species) of hatcheries. The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in study fish showed risk factor for public health consumers.


Resumo O peixe é a principal fonte de proteína animal para a alimentação humana. O objetivo deste estudo foi descobrir a prevalência de bactérias patogênicas de dois peixes economicamente importantes selecionados do Paquistão, nomeadamente Mahseer (Tor putitora) e carpa prateada (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Amostras de peixes vivos de incubatórios e amostras de peixes mortos de diferentes mercados da área de estudo foram coletadas aleatoriamente. As amostras de peixes foram analisadas quanto ao isolamento, identificação e prevalência de bactérias. As bactérias isoladas dos peixes do estudo foram identificadas através de testes bioquímicos e cerca de 10 espécies de bactérias patogênicas foram identificadas incluindo as bactérias patogênicas para humanos e peixes, nomeadamente, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. e Salmonella spp. A porcentagem de freqüência de ocorrência bacteriana em carpa prateada e peixes Mahseer mostrou Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21,42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17,85%, Escherichia coli 11,90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9,52%, Citrobacter spp. 9,52%, Serratia spp. 8,33%, Streptococcus iniae 7,14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5,95%, Bacillus spp. 4,76% e Salmonella spp. 3,57%. O estudo revelou que as amostras de peixes de Mahseer e carpa prateada coletadas nos mercados encontraram mais isolados (10 espécies bacterianas) do que as amostras de peixes frescos (03 espécies bacterianas) de incubatórios. A ocorrência de bactérias patogênicas nos peixes do estudo apresentou fator de risco para consumidores de saúde pública.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Carpas , Paquistão , Bactérias , Lagoas , Incidência
2.
Ars pharm ; 64(1): 5-18, ene.-mar. 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213779

RESUMO

Introduction: Many lifestyle habits can negatively affect sleep quality (SQ) and lead to poor quality of life. This makes it important to determine the prevalence of poor SQ in the population and the lifestyle habits that may be associated with it, with a view to designing appropriate interventions for improving SQ. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of poor SQ among the population of Salamanca (Spain) and its relationship with specific lifestyle habits. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out between July and November 2019. SQ was studied in 261 patients using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the frequency with which patients performed a series of lifestyle hab-its was quantified. The association between variables was assessed using multivariate binary logistic regression. Results: Almost half of the study population (48.7%) was found to have poor SQ. Physical exercise was a protective factor against poor SQ (OR = 0.221; CI95%: 0.081-0.603). Risk factors for poor SQ included being disturbed at night (OR = 3.606; CI95%: 1.892-6.872), going to bed preoccupied (OR = 3.145; CI95%: 1.528-6.471), reading trivial material (OR = 2.475; CI95%: 1.208-5.070), and playing video games (OR = 3.639; CI95%: 1.326-9.984). Conclusions: In Salamanca (Spain), almost half of the study population stated that they suffered poor SQ. Although numerous lifestyle habits that may relate to poor SQ were studied, a statistically significant relationship was only found for a few of them. (AU)


Introducción: Muchos de los hábitos de vida pueden influir negativamente en la calidad de sueño (CS) y por lo tanto pueden desembocar en una mala calidad de vida. Por esa razón es importante determinar la prevalencia de mala CS en la población y qué hábitos de vida pueden estar relacionados con ella. De este modo se podrán diseñar intervenciones adecuadas que permitan mejorar la CS. El objetivo de este estudio fue estudiar la prevalencia de mala CS de la población de Salamanca (España) y su relación con ciertos hábitos de vida. Método: Se estudió la CS de 261 pacientes mediante el “Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index” y se cuantificó la frecuencia con la que éstos realizaban una serie de hábitos de vida. La asociación entre variables se estudió mediante una regresión logística binaria multivariante. Resultados: Casi la mitad de la población (48,7%) mostró tener mala CS. El ejercicio físico fue un factor protector para la mala CS (OR = 0,221; 95%CI: 0,081-0,603). Fueron factores de riesgo para la mala CS ser molestado por la noche (OR = 3,606; 95%CI: 1,892-6,872), ir a la cama preocupado (OR = 3,145; 95%CI: 1,528-6,471), leer cosas no transcendentales (OR = 2,475; 95%CI: 1,208-5,070), o jugar a videojuegos (OR = 3,639; 95%CI: 1,326-9,984). Conclusiones: Casi la mitad de la población de estudio indicó padecer una mala CS en Salamanca (España). Pese a que muchos hábitos de vida están relacionados con la mala CS, solo se encontró relación estadísticamente significativa con algunos de ellos. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Higiene do Sono , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Farmácias , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco
3.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; : 1-15, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587831

RESUMO

This study was performed to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among ß-thalassemia patients. ELISA was used to detect HBsAg and HBcAb. Molecular evaluation of HBV infection was performed by nested PCR, targeting S, X and pre-C regions of the genome, and sequencing. Of 126 thalassemia patients, 4 cases (3.17%) were positive for HBsAg, 23 cases (18.25%) were positive for HBcAb, and 6 cases (4.76%) had HBV viremia with genotype D, sub-genotype D3 and subtype ayw2. HBV prevalence among thalassemia patients was not statistically associated with gender distribution, place of residency, marital status and frequency of blood transfusion. HBsAg seroprevalence was significantly higher in Afghan immigrants and patients with ALT levels of 41-80 IU/L. The prevalence of HBV viremia was significantly higher among thalassemia patients aged >20 years compared to the patients aged <20 years. Moreover, 1.59% of thalassemia patients had seropositive occult HBV infection, which was positive for HBV-DNA and HBcAb but negative for HBsAg. Considering the relatively high prevalence of occult HBV infection among thalassemia patients, there is a possibility of their contamination through donated blood. Therefore, screening of donated blood based on detection of HBsAg cannot abolish HBV transmission through blood transfusion.

4.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(1): 209-214, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36588238

RESUMO

Purpose: The present study was a population-based study to determine the prevalence and causes of low vision in children less than 16 years in North India. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 40 clusters of urban Delhi. Children aged less than 16 years underwent visual acuity screening using age-appropriate visual acuity charts. All children with visual acuity of <6/12 in any eye in the age group between 3 and 15 years and inability to follow the light in age less than 3 years were referred for detailed ophthalmic examination in a centrally based clinic. Cycloplegic examination and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were assessed. They were examined by an ophthalmologist to determine the prevalence and causes of functional low vision (FLV). The prevalence of FLV was compared with other population-based studies across India and other parts of the world. Results: Amongst 20,955 children examined for visual acuity, 789 children were referred to the central clinic for detailed ophthalmic examination. The overall prevalence of low vision was 0.62 per 1,000 children (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-1.90). The main anatomical cause of low vision was retinal abnormalities. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of children with low vision decreased as compared to previous population-based studies. There is an important need to create awareness among parents on appropriate and timely usage of low-vision devices (LVDs) at an affordable cost to improve the visual quality in children with low vision.


Assuntos
Baixa Visão , Humanos , Criança , Baixa Visão/diagnóstico , Baixa Visão/epidemiologia , Baixa Visão/etiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/complicações , Índia/epidemiologia , Cegueira
5.
Ther Adv Infect Dis ; 10: 20499361221148875, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36654873

RESUMO

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with suboptimal HIV treatment outcomes, but its distribution and risk factors among certain subpopulations of people living with HIV in resource-limited settings are not well known. We examined the prevalence, incidence, and recurrence of IPV and its association with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among pregnant/breastfeeding women living with HIV in Malawi. Methods: This study used longitudinal data for 455 pregnant women living with HIV continuously enrolled in the VITAL Start trial. IPV was assessed at baseline and months 1, 6, and 12 using the widely validated WHO IPV survey. Forms of IPV assessed were physical IPV, emotional IPV, and sexual IPV measured as prevalence, incidence, and recurrence. ACE histories were assessed using WHO's ACE International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ) tool. Logistic and log-binomial regressions were used in multivariable analyses that controlled for factors such as depression and alcohol use. Results: Participants' mean age was 27.6 ± 5.7 years. Forty-three percent (43%) reported IPV prevalence, 13% reported IPV incidence, and another 13% reported IPV recurrence, with emotional IPV being the most commonly reported IPV type. Over 96% reported experiencing ⩾1 ACE. In regression analysis, cumulative ACE scores were significantly associated with IPV prevalence and IPV recurrence and in both cases, the magnitude of association was greatest for sexual IPV compared with physical IPV and emotional IPV. ACE scores were not significantly associated with IPV incidence. Conclusions: IPV is highly prevalent among pregnant women living with HIV and continues to occur throughout the pregnancy and postpartum period; its graded relationship with ACEs is a concern in resource-limited settings where HIV/AIDS remains a public health concern. Strategies aimed to address the needs of pregnant/breastfeeding women living with HIV may benefit from the regular screening of this population for IPV and ACE, including in antenatal care clinics.

6.
Food Sci Nutr ; 11(1): 228-235, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655112

RESUMO

Escherichia coli serogroup O157 is the main causative agent of several intestinal and extra-intestinal foodborne diseases in humans through consumption of low-dose contaminated foods such as milk, beef, and vegetables. To date, studies regarding the quantitative prevalence of E. coli O157 in foods are so limited. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the quantitative prevalence rate of E. coli serogroup O157 in raw milk (n = 144), vegetable salad (n = 174), and minced beef samples (n = 108) using the real-time qPCR SYBR green melting curve method targeting the rfbA gene. First, we evaluated the method and found a sensitive and specific qPCR assay with 1 log of CFU/ml detection limit to detect E. coli O157 (Tm = 80.3 ± 0.1°C). About 2.77%, 10.18%, and 9.19% of raw milk, minced beef, and vegetable salad samples, respectively, were contaminated with E. coli O157. Minced beef and vegetable salad samples were significantly more contaminated than raw milk samples. Population average of E. coli O157 in raw milk, minced beef, and vegetable salad samples were 2.22 ± 0.57, 3.30 ± 0.40, and 1.65 ± 0.44 log CFU/ml or gr, respectively. Significantly higher levels of population of E. coli O157 were observed in minced beef samples. Minced beef can be regarded as the main food in the transmission of this foodborne pathogen. Routine quantitative rapid monitoring is strongly suggested to be carried out to prevent foodborne diseases caused by E. coli O157.

7.
Cureus ; 15(1): e33807, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655149

RESUMO

Background Hypothyroidism carries significant morbidity among the general population and is more common among patients with reduced Glomerular filtration Rate (GFR). Patients with reduced GFR have higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, which might be increased in the presence of hypothyroidism. A thyroid function test is not routinely included in predialysis workups. Aim The aim was to explore the prevalence of hypothyroidism among hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients at a single large center in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. Methods A chart-review cross-sectional study was conducted at Al Jabr Kidney Center from February to May 2022. It included adult patients on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Data was extracted through a pre-structured data extraction sheet to avoid data collection errors. Extracted data included the patient's demographic data, causes of renal failure, and comorbidities besides laboratory investigations and thyroid profile. Results A total of 99 patients were included, with their ages ranging from 15 to 89 years, with a mean age of 51.3 ± 16.9 years old. The exact 76 (76.8%) patients were males. Exact five (5.1%) patients had high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), nine (9.1%) had low TSH, and 85 (85.9%) were euthyroid. There was no difference in the prevalence of hypothyroidism according to the type of dialysis (p=0.872). Dialysis adequacy was achieved in the majority of included patients based on Kt/V (80.5%) and URR (61.7%) regardless of thyroid status (p=0.115 and 0.653, respectively). The presence of hypertension and erythropoietin were more prevalent among patients with high TSH levels. Conclusion We concluded that hypothyroidism among dialysis patients was less common in our study compared to previously reported prevalence nationally and internationally. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was similar in both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients, and it did not affect dialysis adequacy. Hypertension and erythropoietin were more common among our dialysis patients with hypothyroidism. Screening for thyroid disorders among chronic disease patients (especially on dialysis) is essential to improve the quality of care.

8.
COPD ; 20(1): 31-43, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655855

RESUMO

A systematic review aimed to investigate the association between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), its prevalence and incidence, potential factors associated with its occurrence and its impact on mortality among these patients. We performed the literature search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycInfo from inception to February 2022 and identified 19 studies: ten cross-sectional, 5 that included cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, and 4 retrospective cohort studies. The reported prevalence of COPD ranged from 2.6% to 52.7% in patients with schizophrenia and between 3.0% and 12.9% in patients with bipolar disorder. Two studies reported an annual incidence of COPD of 2.21 cases/100 person-years in patients with schizophrenia and 2.03 cases/100 person-years in patients with bipolar disorder. Among the risk factors evaluated in three studies, only advanced age was consistently associated with the presence/occurrence of COPD in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; the role of tobacco consumption was not investigated in those three studies. According to two studies, the likelihood of mortality from COPD showed an over 3-fold increase in patients with schizophrenia and a 2-fold increase in those with bipolar disorder compared to the overall population; COPD was also associated with increased inpatient mortality. Available data indicate that COPD in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is a major public health problem. National and international health organizations should strive to specifically address this issue by creating awareness about this health problem and developing specific programs for screening and early intervention aimed to reduce the burden of COPD in these populations.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevalência
9.
Ann Epidemiol ; 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder often characterized by long-term impairments in family, academic, and social settings. Measuring the prevalence of ADHD is important as treatment options increase around the U.S. Prevalence data helps inform decisions by care providers, policy makers, and public health officials about allocating resources for ADHD. In addition, measuring geographic variation in prevalence estimates can facilitate hypothesis generation for future analytic work. Most U.S. studies of ADHD prevalence among children focus on national or demographic group rates. METHODS: Using a small area estimation approach and data from the 2016-2018 National Survey of Children's Health, we estimated childhood ADHD prevalence estimates at the census regional division, state, and county levels. The sample included approximately 70,000 children aged 5-17 years. RESULTS: The national ADHD rate was estimated to be 12.9% (95% Confidence Interval: 11.5%, 14.4%). Counties in the West South Central, East South Central, New England, and South Atlantic divisions had higher estimated rates of childhood ADHD (55.1%, 53.6%, 49.3%, and 46.2% of the counties had rates of 16% or greater, respectively) compared to counties in the Mountain, Mid Atlantic, West North Central, Pacific, and East North Central divisions (2.1%, 4.0%, 5.8%, 6.9%, and 11.7% of the counties had rates of 16% or greater, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These local-level rates are useful for decision-makers to target programs and direct sufficient ADHD resources based upon communities' needs.

10.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e14522, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36661118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis is a gastrointestinal motility dysfunction characterized by delayed gastric emptying in the absence of gastric mechanical obstruction. Data on the epidemiology of gastroparesis are sparse even though the condition substantially impairs patients' quality of life. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and estimate the short-term healthcare resource use burden of gastroparesis in a large population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilized computerized data from Maccabi Healthcare Services, a 2.5-million member state-mandated health organization in Israel. Data were collected between 2003 and 2018 to assess the prevalence of gastroparesis. Definite gastroparesis was defined by gastroparesis diagnosis and gastric emptying test. Probable gastroparesis was defined by gastroparesis diagnosis only. To compare the healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), data were also collected on controls that were individually matched (1:2) for age, sex, and comorbidities. KEY RESULTS: A total of 522 patients with gastroparesis were identified (21.1 per 100,000 WHO age-standardized), including 204 with definite gastroparesis (8.6 per 100,000 WHO). Male to female ratio was 1:2 and mean ± SD age of 54.7 ± 17.1 years. Diabetes accounted for 25.9% of gastroparesis cases and the rest were idiopathic. Gastroparesis patients were more likely to have cardiovascular diseases (10% vs. 6.9% for controls, p = 0.034) and lower prevalence of obesity (17% vs. 24.4%, p < 0.001). HCRU within the 2 years after index date were higher with more hospitalizations than controls (26.4% vs. 15.4%, p < 0.001), and more emergency room visits (31.6% vs. 24.1%, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: Gastroparesis is uncommon or under-documented in community care settings. Gastroparesis in general is associated with cardiovascular morbidities, lower BMI, and elevated utilization of healthcare services.

11.
Nord J Psychiatry ; : 1-8, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662161

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of anxiety disorders in a general population and the association to socioeconomic position (SEP), which has not been described in a Danish context before. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present data on anxiety symptoms from respondents in the rural-provincial Lolland-Falster population Health Study (LOFUS). Analyses of the questionnaire responses to the Anxiety Symptom Scale were done by descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses adjusted for sex and age. RESULTS: 14,834 LOFUS respondents who completed the Anxiety Symptom Scale were included; According to the original algorithm 371 (2.5%) had an anxiety disorder. The adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for anxiety disorder were strongly associated to SEP. We found aOR for anxiety to be: 3.8 (confidence interval (CI 95%) 2.54 - 5.92) for respondents with no postsecondary education compared to those with 3+ years of postsecondary education; 11.9 (CI 8.89 - 16.01) for respondents temporarily out of a job compared to those working; 9.4 (CI 6.06 - 14.51) for those experiencing constant financial strain compared to those not experiencing financial strain. Relaxing the criteria for anxiety to item 10 > 1, the prevalence raised to 3.9%. The association was unchanged related to education; however, the aOR dropped to 9 and 8 respectively, for being temporally out of job, or in financial strain every month- when doing same comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: The 14-day prevalence of anxiety disorder seems low but strongly associated to SEP especially for individuals temporarily out of a job or experiencing financial strain.

12.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Celiac disease prevalence approaches 1%; more suffer from non-celiac gluten sensitivity. AIMS: Our goal was to estimate the prevalence of gluten intolerance. METHODS: We invited US adults (18-80 years) via Amazon's mechanical Turk to complete an online survey. Gluten intolerance was defined as self-reported intolerance to wheat, barley, rye, flour, or pasta. Those with celiac disease were not excluded. RESULTS: We collected 2133 responses. Rate of gluten intolerance was 5.1% (95% CI 4.2-6.1%). Each food had different rates: wheat 4.8%, flour 1.2%, pasta 0.9%, barley 0.8%, and rye 0.8%. Among 108 adults reporting any gluten intolerance, 62.0% selected only wheat, 10.2% selected all gluten-containing grains excluding pasta and flour, and 5.6% selected all gluten-containing products. Overall intolerance to any food was 24.8% (95% CI 23.0-26.6%). Wheat was second only to lactose. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported intolerance to wheat, but not all gluten-containing foods, is common. Findings may suggest poor knowledge of gluten-containing foods or that self-perceived non-celiac gluten sensitivity is prevalent.

13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 187: 114521, 2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621299

RESUMO

Human vibriosis, caused by pathogenic Vibrio spp., such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus, has been increasing worldwide, mediated by increasing consumption of seafood. The present study was conducted to examine the global prevalence of V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae in fishes. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and CNKI for peer-reviewed articles and dissertations prior to December 31, 2021. A total of 24,831 articles were retrieved, and 82 articles contained 61 fish families were included. The global pooled prevalence of V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in fishes was 9.56 % (95 % CI: 2.12-20.92), 24.77 % (95 % CI: 17.40-32.93) and 5.29 % (95 % CI: 0.38-13.61), respectively. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses showed that study-level covariates, including temperature, country, continent, origin and detection methods partly explained the between-study heterogeneity. These heterogeneities were underpinned by differences of the three Vibrio spp. in fishes at geographical and climatic scales. These results reveal a high global prevalence of pathogenic Vibrio spp. in fishes and highlight the need for implementation of more effective prevention and control measures to reduce food-borne infection in humans.

14.
Liver Int ; 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A high prevalence of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection, the most severe form of viral hepatitis, has been reported among persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Europe. We analysed data from a large HIV cohort collaboration to characterize HDV epidemiological trends across Europe, as well as its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: All PLWH with a positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and EuroSIDA between 1988 and 2019 were tested for anti-HDV antibodies and, if positive, for HDV RNA. Demographic and clinical characteristics at initiation of antiretroviral therapy were compared between HDV-positive and HDV-negative individuals using descriptive statistics. The associations between HDV infection and overall mortality, liver-related mortality as well as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were assessed using cumulative incidence plots and cause-specific multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS: Of 2793 HBsAg-positive participants, 1556 (56%) had stored serum available and were included. The prevalence of HDV coinfection was 15.2% (237/1556, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.5%-17.1%) and 66% (132/200) of HDV-positive individuals had active HDV replication. Among persons who inject drugs (PWID), the prevalence of HDV coinfection was 50.5% (182/360, 95% CI: 45.3%-55.7%), with similar estimates across Europe, compared to 4.7% (52/1109, 95% CI: 3.5%-5.9%) among other participants. During a median follow-up of 10.8 years (interquartile range 5.6-17.8), 82 (34.6%) HDV-positive and 265 (20.1%) HDV-negative individuals died. 41.5% (34/82) of deaths were liver-related in HDV-positive individuals compared to 17.7% (47/265) in HDV-negative individuals. HDV infection was associated with overall mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1), liver-related death (2.9, 1.6-5.0) and HCC (6.3, 2.5-16.0). CONCLUSION: We found a very high prevalence of hepatitis delta among PWID across Europe. Among PLWH who do not inject drugs, the prevalence was similar to that reported from populations without HIV. HDV coinfection was associated with liver-related mortality and HCC incidence.

15.
J Clin Periodontol ; 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631982

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of periodontitis in dentate people between 2011 and 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PUBMED, Web of Science, and LILACS were searched up to and including December 2021. Epidemiological studies reporting the prevalence of periodontitis conducted between 2011 and 2020 were eligible for inclusion in this review. Studies were grouped according to the case definition of confidence as confident (Centers for Disease Control [CDC] AAP 2012; CDC/AAP 2007; and Armitage 1999) and non-confident (community periodontal index of 3 or 4, periodontal pocket depth >4 mm, and clinical attachment level ≥1 mm). Random effects meta-analyses with double arcsine transformation were conducted. Sensitivity subgroup and meta-regression analyses explored the effect of confounding variables on the overall estimates. RESULTS: A total 55 studies were included. The results showed a significant difference, with confident case definitions (61.6%) reporting nearly twice the prevalence as non-confident classifications (38.5%). Estimates using confident periodontal case definitions showed a pooled prevalence of periodontitis of 61.6%, comprising 17 different countries. Estimates reporting using the CDC/AAP 2012 case definition presented the highest estimate (68.1%) and the CDC/AAP 2007 presented the lowest (48.8%). Age was a relevant confounding variable, as older participants (≥65 years) had the highest pooled estimate (79.3%). CONCLUSION: Between 2011 and 2020, periodontitis in dentate adults was estimated to be around 62% and severe periodontitis 23.6%. These results show an unusually high prevalence of periodontitis compared to the previous estimates from 1990 to 2010.

16.
J Clin Neurosci ; 109: 32-38, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36669428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathies (PN) are a group of neurological conditions related to damage to the peripheral nervous system. Due to their wide diversity, few studies in sub-Saharan Africa have explored their epidemiology in general population. Our objective was to study the prevalence and associated factors with PN in general population in Adjohoun in Benin. METHODS: A cross-sectional study has been conducted from February to March 2019 and included people aged ≥ 18 years old living in Adjohoun, Benin. Following a screening phase for PN (using World Health Organization questionnaire for major neurological diseases), a neurologist made a diagnosis after in-depth clinical examinations completed in some cases by electroneuromyography. The EFNS (European Federation of Neurological Societies) 2010 criteria was used for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy diagnosis. Data such as age, occupation, consanguinity, alcohol consumption, diabetes, hypertension were collected. Association between independent variables and PN were investigated using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: In total, 1 655 participants were included, mean age 41.4 ± 16.7 years; 64.8 % are female. The overall prevalence of PN was 6.9 % (95 %CI: 5.7 %-8.2 %). The main types of PN were: polyneuropathies 4.8 % (95 %CI: 3.8 %-5.9 %); polyradiculoneuropathies 1.6 % (95 %CI: 1.0 %-2.2 %). Factors independently associated with PN were age ≥ 40 years (adjusted Odds Ratio aOR = 19.6; 95 %CI: 8.2-46.3), diabetes (aOR = 1.8; 95 %CI: 1.08-2.99) and hypertension (aOR = 1.6; 95 %CI: 1.02-2.5). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PN was high in the rural commune of Adjohoun in Benin. Actions on its modifiable associated factors such as diabetes and hypertension could help reduce the proportion of PN and their potential harmful consequences.

17.
BJU Int ; 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We report NHS England data for patients with bladder cancer (BC), upper tract urothelial (UTUC: renal pelvic and ureteric) and urethral cancers from 2013 to 2019. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hospital episode statistics, waiting times and cancer registrations were extracted from NHS Digital. RESULTS: Registrations included 128,823 individuals with BC, 16,018 with UTUC and 2,533 with urethral cancer. In 2019, 150,816 persons were living with a diagnosis of BC, of whom 113,067 (75.0%) were men, 85,117 (56.5%) aged over 75 yrs, and 95,553 (91.7%) Caucasian. Incidence rates were stable (32.7-34.3 for BC, 3.9-4.2 for UTUC and 0.6-0.7 for urethral cancer per 100,000 population). Most patients (52,097 (41.3% (40.7-42.0%)) were referred outside the two week wait pathway and 15,340 (12.2% (11.7-12.6%)) presented as emergencies. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or multimodal treatment use varied with disease stage, patient factors and Cancer Alliance. Between 27-29% (6,616) of muscle-invasive BCs did not receive radical treatment. Survival rates reflected stage, grade, location and tumour histology. Overall survival rates did not improve over time (relative change: 0.97 (95%CI: 0.97-0.97) at 2 years) in contrast to other cancers. CONCLUSION: The diagnostic pathway for BC needs improvement. Increases in survival might be delivered through greater use in radical treatment. NHS Digital data offers a population-wide picture of this disease but does not allow individual outcomes to be matched with disease or patient features and key parameters can be missing or incomplete.

18.
J Viral Hepat ; 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625781

RESUMO

Delta Hepatitis is considered the most severe form of hepatitis, with varied prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors worldwide. Current knowledge of global epidemiology is limited due to variable screening practices for HDV. Here, we summarize what is currently known about the prevalence of testing and prevalence of HDV positivity globally.

19.
Psychol Rep ; : 332941231152393, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate prevalence and incidence of stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in Brazilians during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: We assessed 103 (54 women, 49 men) participants online in three periods of the pandemic: March 2020 (T1), April 2020 (T2), and June 2020 (T3). Estimates of prevalence and incidence were identified when mental health scores were two standard deviations above the mean compared to normative data. Mental health indicators were measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, the Filgueiras Depression Index, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - State Subscale. RESULTS: At T1, 89% of individuals were below cut-off scores for stress, anxiety, and depression, which dropped to 35% by T3. Estimated stress prevalence was 1.9% at T1, 7.8% at T2, and 28.2% at T3. Estimated depression prevalence was 0% at T1, 23.3% at T2, and 25.2% at T3. Estimated state anxiety prevalence was 10.7% at T1, 11.7% at T2, and 45.6% at T3. Stress incidence increased by 7.8% from T1 to T2, and 23.3% from T2 to T3. Depression incidence increased by 23.3% from T1 to T2, and 15.5% from T2 to T3. Anxiety incidence increased by 9.7% from T1 to T2, and 39.8% from T2 to T3. Stress severity scores significantly increased from 16.1 ± 8.7 at T1 to 23.5 ± 8.4 at T2, and 30.3 ± 6.0 at T3. Depression severity scores significantly increased from 48.5 ± 20.5 at T1 to 64.7 ± 30.2 at T2, and 75.9 ± 26.1 at T3. Anxiety increased from 49.0 ± 13.4 at T1 to 53.5 ± 12.5 at T2 and 62.3 ± 13.4 at T3. Females had significantly higher anxiety scores than males by T3 (66.7 ± 11.8 vs. 57.4 ± 13.5). CONCLUSION: Prevalence and incidence of stress, depression, and anxiety significantly increased throughout the pandemic. The largest increase in stress and anxiety occurred between T2 and T3, and between T1 and T2 for depression. Severity of stress, depression, and anxiety increased throughout the study.

20.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613221140275, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We previously reported pandemic year (2020) intraoperative middle ear effusion (MEE) rate at time of bilateral myringotomy tube (BMT) placement was 18% lower compared to pre-pandemic year (2019). After mandatory stay at home orders (MSHO) and pandemic social distancing precautions were relaxed, we aimed to assess the impact of a persistent pandemic with new COVID-19 variants on MEE presence during BMT. METHODS: This study is a retrospective chart summary exempted by Nemours institutional review board at a single tertiary children's hospital. Children < 18 years who underwent BMT during March 1, 2019-June 31, 2019 (pre-COVID), March 1, 2020-June 31, 2020 (PY1), and March 1, 2021-June 31, 2021 (PY2) were included. Statistical analysis included chi-squared and KruskalWallis. RESULTS: A total of 1069 BMTs were reviewed: 551 (52%) during pre-COVID, 227 (21%) during PY1, and 291 (27%) during PY2. There were no significant differences in age, sex, or BMI across comparison groups. Intraoperative MEE was significantly higher pre-COVID (83%) compared to PY1 (65%) and PY2 (69%) (P < .001) despite a small rebound in PY2. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative MEE remains lower in subsequent pandemic years despite relaxed public health measures and may be impacted by persistent public health measures like masking, lower return to daycare, variable social distancing, and/or change to access to health care.

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