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1.
Front Psychol ; 13: 968773, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092092

RESUMO

This paper mainly introduces and studies public objectives and instruments in educational policies that authorities can use to improve and evaluate the quality of postgraduate cultivation in China. Under the political environment in the state, the standard for the quality of postgraduate education first includes graduate students in higher education institutions who support the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), educational authorities formulate, and implement policies and regulations surrounding postgraduate education under the leadership of the Party committees as well. From the political perspective, moral cultivation should become an important indicator in the evaluation of the quality of postgraduate education. Specific policy instruments including examination and admission systems, graduation requirements, and performance evaluations are designed to increase knowledge and academic skills or allow students to better perform work in their future careers. Although these policy instruments have played some roles in improving the quality of postgraduate cultivation in practice, some associated social negative phenomena also appear in the field, such as academic misconduct, excessive academic and psychological pressure of postgraduate students, etc. The moral cultivation and psychological health should be measured and assessed while evaluating the quality of postgraduate education. The public objectives surrounding the higher education in political level could provide some useful and constructive recommendations to improve the evaluation system that guides the development of postgraduate education.

2.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips20220211, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined differences between certified community behavioral health clinics (CCBHCs) and community mental health centers (CMHCs) in the services offered and populations served. METHODS: Data from the 2020 National Mental Health Services Survey were used to quantify the proportion of CCBHCs (N=336) and CMHCs (N=1,953) that offered services and served populations described in the CCBHC certification criteria. RESULTS: A higher proportion of CCBHCs than CMHCs offered crisis services, peer support, substance use disorder treatment, treatment for co-occurring disorders, antipsychotics, assertive community treatment, general medical health screening, tobacco cessation services, psychiatric rehabilitation services, and other outpatient services. A higher proportion of CCBHCs than CMHCs served veterans and transition-age youths. CONCLUSIONS: CCBHCs differed from CMHCs in the services provided and populations served. Differences between CCBHCs and CMHCs in some service categories were more pronounced in demonstration than in nondemonstration states. However, it was unclear whether these differences existed before the introduction of the CCBHC model.

3.
Am J Transplant ; 2022 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088649

RESUMO

The kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and percentile conversion, kidney donor profile index (KDPI), provide a continuous measure of donor quality. Kidneys with a KDPI >85% (KDPI85 ) are referred to as "high KDPI." The KDPI85 cutoff changes every year, impacting which kidneys are labeled as KDPIHIGH . We examine kidney utilization around the KDPI85 cutoff and explore the "high KDPI" labeling effect. KDRI to KDPI Mapping Tables from 2012 to 2020 were used to determine the yearly KDRI85 value. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data was used to calculate discard rates and model organ use. KDRI85 varied between 1.768 and 1.888. In a multivariable analysis, kidney utilization was lower for KDPI 86% compared with KDPI 85% kidneys (p = .046). Kidneys with a KDRI between 1.785-1.849 were classified as KDPIHIGH in the years 2015-2017 and KDPILOW in the years 2018-2020. The discard rate was 44.9% when labeled as KDPIHIGH and 39.1% when labeled as KDPILOW (p < .01). For kidneys with the same KDRI, the high KDPI label is associated with increased discard. We should reconsider the appropriateness of the "high KDPI" label.

4.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips202100676, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: State mental health authorities (SMHAs) in all U.S. states and territories administer the Mental Health Block Grant (MHBG) set-aside funding for first-episode psychosis. Funds support implementation of coordinated specialty care (CSC) programs. The authors investigated the relationship between the level of SMHA involvement with CSC programs and clinical outcomes of clients in these programs. METHODS: As part of a mixed-methods study of 34 CSC programs, SMHAs from 21 states and one U.S. territory associated with the 34 CSC programs participated in a 1-hour interview (between November 2018 and May 2019) focused on SMHA involvement in administration of MHBG set-aside funds and the SMHA's ongoing relationship with funded CSC programs. SMHA involvement was rated on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 indicating the highest involvement. Client outcome data were collected at the 34 study sites over an 18-month period. Multilevel random-effect modeling was used, controlling for response propensity (propensity score), client demographic variables, and program-level covariates (i.e., fidelity score, staff turnover rates, service area urbanicity, and number of clients enrolled). RESULTS: Clients in CSC programs with SMHAs that were the most involved (level 5) had significantly improved symptoms, social functioning, and role functioning, compared with clients in programs with which SMHAs were least involved (level 1). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that increased SMHA involvement in CSC programs is relevant for positive client outcomes. Levels of first-episode psychosis funding doubled in 2021 and 2022, and it is important to identify how SMHAs affect the success of CSC programs and the individuals served.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(37): e2205877119, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067291

RESUMO

Millions of eligible families did not claim their 2021 expanded child tax credit (CTC), collectively forgoing billions of dollars. To address this problem, many policymakers focused on increasing awareness of the CTC by highlighting that families could receive up to $3,600 a year per child. However, people rarely budget on a yearly basis. We propose that communicating the CTC benefit amount in terms of commonly used budgeting periods (e.g., $300 a month) instead of uncommonly used budgeting periods (e.g., $3,600 a year) could increase interest in claiming the CTC. Two large-scale field experiments ([Formula: see text]) among low-income individuals support this account. Using common (vs. uncommon) budgeting periods to describe CTC benefit amounts increased CTC claiming intentions by 16 to 26%. A third large-scale field experiment ([Formula: see text]) demonstrated that encouraging people to consider different budgeting periods moderated these effects. These results suggest that communicating amounts in terms of common budgeting periods is a simple, cost-effective way to stimulate interest in claiming government benefits.

7.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 31(9): 1222-1231, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112423

RESUMO

There has been increasing national attention to the issue of racial disparities in pregnancy-related deaths. Federal legislation can support approaches at multiple levels of intervention to improve maternal health. As part of the CDC Policy Academy, a team of CDC staff completed a policy analysis to determine the approaches addressed in federal legislation to reduce racial disparities in pregnancy-related deaths. We analyzed federal maternal mortality legislation introduced January 2017 through December 2021. Common approaches addressed by the legislation were categorized into themes and reviewed for their alignment with approaches identified in clinical and public health literature to reduce pregnancy-related deaths, with an emphasis on social determinants of health (SDOH) approaches and reducing racial disparities. Thirty-seven unduplicated bills addressed pregnancy-related deaths, including 27 House or Senate bills that were introduced but not passed, 6 resolutions highlighting the maternal health crisis, 2 bills that passed the House only, and 2 bills enacted into law (Preventing Maternal Deaths Act of 2018 and Protecting Moms Who Served Act). The most common themes mentioned in federal legislation were improving maternal health care, addressing health inequities and SDOH, enhancing data, and promoting women's health. Legislation focused on health inequities and SDOH emphasized implicit bias training and improving SDOH, including racism and other social factors. The reviewed federal legislation reflected common clinical and public health approaches to prevent pregnancy-related deaths, including a significant focus on reducing bias and improving SDOH to address racial disparities.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Mortalidade Materna , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Materna , Gravidez , Saúde Pública , Grupos Raciais
8.
Rev Bras Med Trab ; 20(1): 86-93, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118055

RESUMO

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the entire society, as well as different work processes. The food industry remained operational since the first cases were reported in Brazil, and activities were only interrupted by municipal health surveillance agencies when COVID-19 cases were identified among workers. This has raised the debate about worker's health and sanitary measures in the work environment. Objectives: To analyze the number of COVID-19 cases between March and September of 2020 among slaughterhouse workers in the state of Paraná and its correlation with food security policies. Methods: This was a quantitative, exploratory, and descriptive study that analyzed secondary data from the Health Department of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Results: A significant number of COVID-19 cases were reported among slaughterhouse workers in Paraná. The importance of workers' health and food security should be discussed, including aspects such as food production, quality, and access. The workers included in this study represent an important workforce that influences food supply to different regions and countries. Considering that the virus is highly contagious and has impacted the lives of local workers and entire communities, the role of the government and collective actions should be emphasized. Conclusions: The monitoring of health surveillance agencies and new cases should be conducted as a strategy to promote prevention and care during the pandemic.

9.
Rev Bras Med Trab ; 20(1): 11-18, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118068

RESUMO

Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru, economic activities were restricted to limit the risk of contagion, and companies were required to prepare and register the plan for COVID-19 surveillance, prevention and control in the workplace prior to resuming activities. Objective: To describe the status of plan registration in the hydrocarbon sector during the first half of 2020, as well as the characteristics of health professionals and occupational health and safety supervisors or committees. Methods: Cross-sectional study with secondary analysis of databases obtained from the Integrated System for COVID-19 of Companies (Sistema Integrado para COVID-19 de Empresas, SISCOVID Empresas) and government public data on the mining sector. Results: We reviewed 2,566 plans and identified 54 198 hydrocarbon companies in the 2020 period. Regarding the plans registered, 5.9% of companies did not have an occupational safety and health supervisor or committee, and 63% do not have a health professional. Conclusions: There is evidence of non-compliance with plan registration requirements among hydrocarbon companies. There is also non-compliance with the requirement of having a health professional, occupational safety and health committee or supervisor. The findings show serious deficiencies in plan registration, which could lead to inadequate management of the activities to monitor, prevent and control COVID-19 in the workplace. Companies are advised to develop, register, and implement their plans to protect the health of their employees.

10.
J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc ; : 10783903211007900, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Minority Stress Theory suggests that repeated exposure to enacted stigma adversely affects mental health. States have wide authority to enact policies affecting the level of inclusivity experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) residents. The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between states' level of LGBTQ inclusivity and indicators of mental health/risk behaviors among an LGBTQ sample. METHODS: The 2018 Human Rights Campaign State Equality Index (SEI) and the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) were used to examine relationships between states' levels of LGBTQ inclusivity (predictor variable) and indicators of mental health/risk behaviors (outcome variables). Relationships were explored using descriptive statistics and survey-weighted logistic regression. RESULTS: Lower state inclusivity increased odds of fair/poor general health (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.48), increased odds of poor mental health days (AOR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.11-1.62), increased odds of smoking (AOR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.27-2.07), and increased odds of heavy drinking (AOR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.26-1.86) and binge drinking (AOR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.01-1.49). State inclusivity did not influence odds of a depressive disorder diagnosis or driving under the influence of alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: LGBTQ persons in restrictive states had increased odds of experiencing several indicators of mental health and risk behaviors. More research is needed to determine whether state policies affect other domains of LGBTQ persons' health. Health care providers should be mindful of LGBTQ persons' mental health/risk behaviors and the state policy environment, and should seek to implement mitigating health care strategies such as the use of validated assessment.

11.
Palliat Med ; : 2692163221122289, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For informal carers of people with life-limiting illness, social welfare policy related to income support and housing has been associated with varied psychosocial issues, yet remains relatively under-explored. An intersectional approach offers potential to illuminate diverse experiences and implications. AIM: To explore the way in which caring in the context of life-limiting illness is framed within welfare policy, to articulate inequities encountered by carers, and to identify policy and practice recommendations. DESIGN: The Intersectionality-Based Policy Analysis (IBPA) Framework was used to situate findings of a broader qualitative study. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with participants who were bereaved carers (n = 12), welfare workers (n = 14) and palliative care workers (n = 7), between November 2018 and April 2020, in an Australian region associated with socioeconomic disadvantage. Five elements of IBPA were applied to the products of analysis of this data. RESULTS: Use of the IBPA Framework revealed that representations of carers and causes of their welfare needs in policy were underpinned by several assumptions; including that caring and grieving periods are temporary or brief, and that carers have adequate capacity to navigate complex systems. Policy and processes had differentiated consequences for carers, with those occupying certain social locations prone to accumulating disadvantage. CONCLUSIONS: This intersectional analysis establishes critical exploration of the framing and consequences of welfare policy for carers of people with life-limiting illness, presented in a novel conceptual model. Implications relate to intersectoral development of structural competency, responsiveness to structurally vulnerable carers in clinical practice, and needed policy changes.

12.
Tob Control ; 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify the long-term impact of implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) compliant tobacco control measures, MPOWER, on smoking prevalence and mortality in men and women aged ≥20 years in Japan. DESIGN: A Stock-and-Flow simulation model was used to project smoking prevalence and mortality from 2018 to 2050 under eight different scenarios: (1) maintaining the 2018 status quo, (2) implementation of smoke-free policies, (3) tobacco use cessation programmes, (4-5) health warning about the dangers of tobacco (labels, mass media), (6) enforcement of tobacco advertising bans or (7) tobacco taxation at the highest recommended level and (8) all these interventions combined. RESULTS: Under the status quo, the smoking prevalence in Japan will decrease from 29.6% to 15.5% in men and 8.3% to 4.7% in women by 2050. Full implementation of MPOWER will accelerate this trend, dropping the prevalence to 10.6% in men and 3.2% in women, and save nearly a quarter million deaths by 2050. This reduction implies that Japan will only attain the current national target of 12% overall smoking prevalence in 2033, 8 years earlier than it would with the status quo (in 2041), a significant delay from the national government's 2022 deadline. CONCLUSIONS: To bring forward the elimination of tobacco smoking and substantially reduce smoking-related deaths, the government of Japan should fulfil its commitment to the FCTC and adopt stringent tobacco control measures delineated by MPOWER and beyond.

13.
Tob Control ; 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite calls for greater emphasis on tobacco supply reduction strategies, limited evidence of interventions (regulatory and non-regulatory) to reduce tobacco retailer numbers exists. This study investigated the feasibility of a real-world, non-regulatory intervention to encourage low volume tobacco retailers to stop selling, in a jurisdiction with a tobacco retailer licensing system. INTERVENTION: Between December 2018 and 2019, low volume tobacco retailers (n=164) were exposed to multiple intervention elements (eg, postcard and letter mail-out, onsite visit) focused on the business benefits of stopping selling, in the lead up to their tobacco licence expiry date. The intervention was delivered in Tasmania, Australia in a region characterised by socioeconomic disadvantage, high smoking rates and density of tobacco retailers. METHODS: For this mixed-methods study we collected data through implementation records on 164 retailers and postintervention interviews with 21 retailers to explore intervention implementation, awareness, acceptability, usefulness and actions taken. RESULTS: Retailers were able to recall the intervention, specifically messages focused on the business-related reasons to stop selling tobacco. Of the 107 retailers that the project officer spoke with onsite or via telephone, the majority (72%) accepted phase I components. The intervention introduced some retailers to the concept of ending tobacco sales, which made them stop and consider this option. Of the 164 retailers exposed to the intervention, 18 (11%) retailers ended tobacco sales. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that a non-regulatory intervention targeting low volume retailers to end tobacco sales may help to reduce the retail availability of tobacco.

14.
Disasters ; 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052656

RESUMO

Latin America and the Caribbean is one of the most threatened regions by natural events owing to the highly vulnerable situations of its urban centres. For that reason, every so often its cities are affected by one or more disasters, thereby exposing their problems of governance and public policy in relation to risk management. The aim of this research is to investigate the factors that influence the design of post-disaster policies. We hypothesize that in those countries with modes of governance that demonstrate a greater articulation between state and non-state actors, the design of public policies tends to be more coherent among the government instruments or resources and the objectives of the policy. Methodologically we propose a comparative analysis of post-disaster policies in three countries of the region affected by earthquakes: Haiti (2010), Chile (2010) and Ecuador (2016). The results show that in the Chilean case, through co-governance, there are optimal post-disaster policies, while in the cases of Haiti and Ecuador, with hierarchical governance, there are unsuccessful and misdirected post-disaster policies respectively.

15.
Behav Brain Sci ; : 1-60, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36059098

RESUMO

An influential line of thinking in behavioral science, to which the two authors have long subscribed, is that many of society's most pressing problems can be addressed cheaply and effectively at the level of the individual, without modifying the system in which the individual operates. We now believe this was a mistake, along with, we suspect, many colleagues in both the academic and policy communities. Results from such interventions have been disappointingly modest. But more importantly, they have guided many (though by no means all) behavioral scientists to frame policy problems in individual, not systemic, terms: to adopt what we call the "i-frame," rather than the "s-frame." The difference may be more consequential than i-frame advocates have realized, by deflecting attention and support away from s-frame policies. Indeed, highlighting the i-frame is a long-established objective of corporate opponents of concerted systemic action such as regulation and taxation. We illustrate our argument briefly for six policy problems, and in depth with the examples of climate change, obesity, retirement savings, and pollution from plastic waste. We argue that the most important way in which behavioral scientists can contributed to public policy is by employing their skills to develop and implement value-creating system-level change.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078221

RESUMO

Despite an increasing trend of working life prolongation, little is known about the risk factors for financial reasons for working beyond the statutory retirement age (SRA), and how these reasons relate to health. The present study examined (1) the determinants of working beyond the SRA, (2) the workers' self-reported reasons for working beyond the SRA, and (3) the association between these reasons and health in late life. Cross-sectional data of 1241 individuals from the Swiss survey "Vivre/Leben/Vivere" were analyzed. The results showed that people with a low level of education and with a low income have an 80% higher risk of working beyond the SRA for financial reasons than for other reasons (p < 0.001). Moreover, self-rated health was not significantly associated with working beyond the SRA for financial reasons but was significantly associated with education and income (p < 0.01). In conclusion, while previous studies have already identified financial difficulties as one important reason for working beyond the SRA, the present study indicated the socioeconomic factors that are crucial for increasing the risk for working beyond the SRA. Thus, our results help to guide the adaptation of social policies for better maintaining and promoting the health of particularly vulnerable older workers.


Assuntos
Emprego , Aposentadoria , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078703

RESUMO

This study explores the institutional reasons for and logical mechanism of the Chinese government's rapid positive results and major strategic achievements in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic prevention and control. Based on the ROST Content Mining System version 6.0 (ROST) and VOSviewer V1.6.1 (VOSviewer), we conduct an econometric visualization analysis of COVID-19 pandemic prevention and control policies to explore which strengths of Chinese political institutions have been brought into play by the Chinese government and how to systematically analyze the approaches by which these strengths support effective public governance. The findings show that: (1) "institutional strength", "medical terminology", "policy content", "policy implementation object", "policy implementation requirement", and "policy-making and implementation actor" are the six groups of high-frequency keywords in prevention and control policies. (2) The occurrences, links, and total link strength of the seven Chinese institutional strength keywords are very high. These results mean that the Chinese government has made full use of its institutional strengths to prevent and control COVID-19. These findings indicate that institutional strengths are critical to public health crisis prevention and control. They also illustrate that institutional strength is the prerequisite and key factor for achieving effective governance in the policy process. Scientific policymaking, efficient policy implementation, and strict oversight are undeniably necessary for effective governance during public health crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Políticas , Formulação de Políticas
18.
Vaccine ; 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068108

RESUMO

In Italy, like in other countries, issues still exist regarding how to reach high vaccine coverage and several countries have considered policies to increase vaccine uptake. In the present study, we focused on people who have a favorable attitude towards vaccination. In March-April 2021, we asked a representative sample of Italian participants (N = 1,530) to assess to what extent they would support the adoption of a COVID-19 vaccination certificate, excluding unvaccinated people from participating in public and cultural events. Furthermore, as the vaccination coverage increases, severe forms of COVID-19 requiring hospitalization more likely involve unvaccinated individuals, who might be perceived as those who don't contribute to ending the pandemic and who constitute a significant health cost for society. We then asked participants to assess to what extent they would favor the idea of requiring people who refuse the vaccine to pay for their own medical expenses in case of hospitalization. We hypothesized that support for the adoption of the vaccination certificate would be predicted by the COVID-19 vaccination status (received, booked, high-, medium-, low-willingness to be vaccinated, or refused) and by the same factors that are known to affect the willingness to get vaccinated. These factors were also tested in a model aimed at investigating if a vaccinated person would favor a measure requiring the unvaccinated individuals to pay for medical expenses. Results confirmed that the support towards the vaccination certificate policy was strongly predicted by the vaccination status and by factors known to affect the willingness to get vaccinated. Interestingly (and surprisingly), a similar pattern was observed for the support of the policy about medical expenses. In conclusion, support for a COVID-19 vaccination certificate was high among the Italian population in the early phases of the vaccination rollout. The findings are discussed considering potential policies to tackle the pandemic.

19.
Milbank Q ; 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068729

RESUMO

Policy Points Both public policy and structural racism are dynamic systems that reinforce each other. Efforts to address the health effects of structural racism must account for the nature of these systems. Politics and policy are critical for understanding the persistence of racial health inequities and creating policies and interventions that can mitigate the effects of structural racism on health.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141961

RESUMO

A growing interest among governments in policies to promote wellbeing has the potential to revive a social view of health promotion. However, success may depend on the way governments define wellbeing and conceptualize ways to promote it. We analyze theories of wellbeing to discern twelve types of wellbeing theory and assess the suitability of each type of theory as a basis for effective wellbeing policies. We used Durie's methodology of working at the interface between knowledge systems and Indigenous dialogic methods of yarning and deep listening. We analyzed selected literature on non-Indigenous theories and Indigenous theories from Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States to develop a typology of wellbeing theories. We applied political science perspectives on theories of change in public policy to assess the suitability of each type of theory to inform wellbeing policies. We found that some theory types define wellbeing purely as a property of individuals, whilst others define it in terms of social or environmental conditions. Each approach has weaknesses regarding the theory of change in wellbeing policy. Indigenous relational theories transcend an 'individual or environment' dichotomy, providing for pluralistic approaches to health promotion. A broad theoretic approach to wellbeing policy, encompassing individual, social, equity-based and environmental perspectives, is recommended.

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